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cemetery. Among those who accompanied the sorrowful procession were two Presbyterian ministers. On arriving at the grave, I recited the prayers for the dead over the remains of the Archbishop, and blessed the grave. Mr. Romanoff made, at my suggestion, a large cross to be put over the grave, which will be surrounded by a fence. On the cross will be inscribed in Roman characters his Lordship's name and titles."
Happy Alaska, to possess even in death the body of him who had devoted his life to your evangelization! What a terrible shock awaited Father Tosi and Father Robaut when, according to appointment, they went down the Yukon in June to meet the Archbishop!
The main spring of the mission had snapped !
Father Tosi left on the steamer bound for San Francisco to inform his superiors of all that had happened; Father Robaut remained alone to labor among the Indians of the Yukon near Anvik.
The wretched murderer, after living for eight months in a cabin in a small village on the Yukon, isolated, shunned and detested by all, was arrested on July 8th, 1887, and carried a prisoner to Sitka by Captain Healy, of the revenue cutter, “ Bear." There can be little doubt but that Fuller is at least a monomaniac. He is reported to have said that before being hanged he wanted the consolation of confessing to a Catholic priest-not to accuse himself of the murder of the Archbishop, for which he felt no remorse, but of his past sins. Judgment in his case has since been rendered,-he has been convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment, a sentence whose leniency can hardly be in harmony with the feeling of the people of Sitka, who held Monsignor Seghers in the highest veneration.
The administrator of Vancouver, the Very Rev. J. J. Jonckau, is determined that the mission, founded at so dear a cost, shall not languish. He accordingly begged Very Rev. Father Cataldo, S. J., Superior of the Jesuit missions of the Rocky mountains, to take charge of the mission. Already the intrepid Father Tosi has returned to Alaska with Father Ragaru and Brother Giordano, S. J., as companions. They had good reason to hope to meet Father Robaut before the winter set in and rendered travelling impossible.
1 By an unfortunate mistake Frank Fuller has been spoken of as a Jesuit Brother. This arose from the constant practice of the Archbishop in calling him Brother. Fathers Tosi and Robaut both frequently protested against the name, as they said truly that the man was in no way entitled to it, as he was not then, and never had been, a Brother in the Society of Jesus, and that the misused name might bring trouble, But his Grace persisted, saying in his charity that it would encourage Fuller, and that no harm could come from it, little foreseeing the damaging use that evil-disposed men would so soon make of it.
If the Catholics of America would erect a monument worthy of Charles John Seghers, let them build it of living stones-souls of the poor savages of Alaska, fashioned and verified by the transforming and life-giving word of God. Prayers are needed. Alms are needed. Apostles are needed. The soil has been fertilized by the precious blood of its first chief pastor; shall it lack husbandmen to sow and to reap? We cannot conclude better than by quoting the feeling words of Bishop Brondel, of Helena, M. T., to his flock: “Our great love towards this saintly prelate prevented us from realizing the truth of the report of his death until it was too truly confirmed. We have lost him who visited many missions in Montana, who was successful in obtaining from the Holy See the erection of this territory into a diocese, and who brought us to you. We have lost the Apostle of Alaska, sent by Leo from Rome to bring the Catholic faith to the utmost limits of the earth. We have lost the saint who, imitating St. Livinus, who stepped from the Episcopal See of Dublin to bring the faith to the savages of Flanders, in our own day stepped from the Archiepiscopal See of Oregon to wade as a travelling missionary through the snows of the Yukon and bring the faith to the Esquimaux. We have lost a life-long friend who, in the last act of his life, has taught us to die manfully in the service of God. His memory is held in benediction, and without anticipating the voice of authority, we will cherish the thought that he died a martyr's death."
1 The writer is indebted to the Very Rev. J. J. Jonckau, administrator of the diocese of Vancouver Island, for much valuable information.
DOES THE END JUSTIFY THE MEANS?
Compendium Theologia Moralis, a Joanne Petro Gury, S.J., primo
Exaratum, nunc vero ad Breviorem Formam Redactum. Ab ALOYSIO
SABETTI, S.J. Ed. Tertia. Neo-Eboraci : Pustet. 1887. Compendium Theol. Moralis S. Alphonsi M. de Ligorio. Sive Me
dulla Theol. Moralis HERMANNI BUSENBAUM, S.J., ab ipso Ligorio, Adjectis Nonnullis Animadversionibus. Probata. Ed. Altera Emendatior, Priori omnino Conformis. Iriæ : 1 Typis Cæsaris
Giani. 1840. Two vols. 8vo. Theologiae Moralis in V. Libros Partitæ. Auctore Paulo LAYMANN,
Soc. Jesu Theologo. Venetiis : Typis Antonii Tivani. 1691. Two
vols. Folio. Encyclopædia Britannica (American Reprint). Philadelphia: J. M.
Stoddart & Co. 1881. Vol. xiii., art. JESUITS.
N our last number we spoke of the popularity of F. Sabetti's
abridgment of Gury's “ Moral Theology"as evinced by the demand for a second edition, the first having been soon exhausted. Since then it has gained rather than lost in favor, and we are glad to see how well its merits are appreciated by professors and students. Every copy of the second edition was sold within six weeks from the date of publication, and a third has been prepared by the publishers, Pustet & Co.
Yet, in looking over these repeated editions one thing, and one only, has disturbed our equanimity. Mihi unus scrupulus etiam restat, as the comic poet says, qui me male habet. We have looked, and looked in vain, throughout F. Sabetti's volume for some trace of that "recognized maxim of the Society," as Dr. Littledale calls it: “The end justifies the means." How cruel of the good Father to take away from under Catholic heads that comfortable cushion, by the help of which, from the days of St. Ignatius to the present, his children have taught us to still any unpleasant murmur of conscience, and sin as we list, provided we decently veil it with a pious intention! What a pity that by his silence he has taken away from the Littledales, Coxes, and other Protestant divines, their rivals in zeal and honesty, all chance of quoting and denouncing him in company of the Busenbaums, Laymanns, Wagemanns, and other “leading Jesuit theologians” who “lay down the maxim"!
i Voghera, in Upper Italy.
But, seriously speaking, is such a maxim to be found in the works of Jesuit moralists? And if so, who first wrote it, and when and where? The latest writer to make the assertion on this side of the water is Bishop Coxe of Buffalo, who, though he cannot boast of profound scholarship or extensive reading, is a pleasing, versatile writer, and one who can pride himself on the protean facility which enables him to assume at will every shape and form of religious metamorphosis, Catholic, Protestant, High-Church, LowChurch, as may suit his purpose. The only thing in which he is consistent is his fierce, unscrupulous hatred of Rome, the Catholic Church and the Jesuits. We heard him give vent to it very lately in Washington, where he sat among the members of the Evangelical Alliance-a “Catholic" Bishop and successor of the Apostles (to take his own word for it) consorting with ministers whom he regards as laymen, and some of them religionists of very doubtful orthodoxy. No one would suspect him of such recondite erudition as to discover, what his betters have failed to do, where the impious maxim lies stowed away in the thousand and one folios written on moral theology by Jesuit divines. No doubt he had, in addition to the fables of the nursery and Sunday-school, read something of the sort in the infamous diatribes of the French atheist, Paul Bert, circulated with loving zeal in England and America by pious ministers and their religious newspapers; and further, in the writings of Rev. Dr. Littledale, with which he shows himself very familiar. But neither of these men stands so high in the critical world that his mere assertion will compel assent. Hence, when the “Anglo-Catholic" Bishop, in the course of his petty, dishonest warfare with the Catholic Church, thought fit to accuse the Jesuits of teaching that "the end justifies the means," he merely asserted it, adding nothing to prove his allegation. This was about a year ago. The foul charge was immediately denied by the Jesuit Faculty of Canisius College, Buffalo. To their indignant denial they added an offer of one thousand dollars to Bishop Coxe or any one else who could sustain the slanderous accusation by a single reference to the pages of even one Jesuit writer.
To maintain his credit Bishop Coxe had to make some show of offering proof. The atheistical witness could not decently be summoned. He had not only vanished, but as witness he was doubly dead; or rather, his testimony had expired only to rise again as testimony on the other side. Paul Bert had departed this life, a victim of the deadly fevers of Eastern Asia, whither he had gone to represent the interests of the French Republic in its commerce and conquests. His death was no misfortune, as his friends in France regarded it. It was a stroke of God's grace; a blessing
without stint or measure, and (humanly speaking) as undeserved as it was unexpected. Had he died at home, his last sighs for God's forgiveness would have been stifled by the importunate clamors of his infidel friends; his attempts at reconciliation with the Church would have been baffled by the vigilance of those foul fiends in human shape who, with blasphemous derision, style themselves Angel Guardians, and whose office it is to see that those over whom they watch die in their sins and unbelief. Thus died Voltaire, Victor Hugo, the poet Leopardi, and a host of others; and the loss of their souls was hailed with the plaudits of infidels, re-echoed by pious Protestants throughout the world. But it was in the wilds of Tonquin that God, in His infinite mercy, summoned Paul Bert first to repentance and then to judgment. He renounced his impiety and was reconciled to the Church. So notorious had been Bert's hostility to Revelation and the Catholic Church, which he logically identified with Christianity, that the news of his conversion startled all Europe. Infidels boldly denied it, and good Christians were afraid to believe it on higher ground than the poet's
Periculosum est credere et non credere.
But at last a letter from the French prelate under whose jurisdiction and ministry Paul Bert had died, dispelled all doubts.' Since, as all men know, no sinner can be reconciled to the Church without detesting and retracting all sins of impiety, calumny, and the like, it was plain enough that Paul Bert had ceased to be a witness on the infidel and Protestant side; and common prudence dictated that his testimony should be carefully suppressed, lest it should suggest to incautious Christian-minded Protestants that a man is more likely to tell the truth when he has before his face the solemn hour of death and the terrors of eternity.
Bishop Coxe, therefore, had to discard his recollections of Paul Bert and fall back on his other authority, Rev. Dr. Littledale. Consequently he brings him forward, or rather his article in the “Encyclopædia Britannica,”as a witness, furnishing “textual quotations from three Jesuit writers, fully meeting the challenge.” This much we learn from a recent letter of Bishop Coxe, addressed to the New York Churchman, and republished in the New York Herald of January 9th, 1888. It is said that the bishop's statements were refuted by F. Coleridge in the London Month, and by F.
1 We are aware that, recently, some have revived these doubts, and hence, though seeing no reason to call in question the prelate's assertion, we are content to abstain from pressing the point, or give it up altogether. If Paul Bert died in his sins, making no sign, no effort to repair the wrong he did, so much the worse for him. The Littledales, the Coxes, and the Presbyterian papers that gloried, some months ago, in his abuse of Jesuit and Catholic morality, are welcome to their godless friend and witness.