Gender and Law: Women's Rights in Agriculture
Women constitute a large portion of the economically active population engaged in agriculture. International instruments on human rights, the environment and sustainable development reaffirm the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of sex or gender. Yet women often face gendered obstacles in realizing their rights and feeding their families. The right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food, may thus not be fulfilled. These obstacles may stem from directly or indirectly discriminatory norms or from entrenched socio-cultural practices, or both. This study analyses the gender dimension of agriculture-related legislation in a selection of different countries around the world, examining the legal status of women in three key areas: rights to land and other natural resources; rights of women agricultural workers; and rights concerning women's agricultural self-employment activities, ranging from women's status in rural cooperatives to their access to credit, training and extension services.
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access to credit access to land activities administration adopted agrarian reform allocation amended applied basis of sex beneficiaries Brazil Burkina Faso CEACR CEDAW Civil Code Constitution contracts Convention cooperatives countries Court cultural customary law Decree Development discriminate against women discriminatory ejidatarios ejido employer envisaged equal remuneration established explicidy explicitly factors family law family property female Fiji gender equality gender neutral household head human rights husband implementation India inheritance rights instance institutions Kenya Labour Code labour rights land ownership land reform land tenure legislation limited mainly marital marriage married maternity benefits maternity leave Ministry Moreover National natural resource occupations patrilineal percent Philippines practice pregnancy principle of non-discrimination promote protection Regional overview registration requiring rural areas rural women sect sector Shari'a social security socio-cultural South Africa spouses statutory law succession law Tanzania Tunisia usually wage women's access women's land rights women's participation women's rights