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Point, on which they insist so much at present in their Disputes with us, the Right of Reprefentation, and of not being taxed without their own Consent.

In Process of Time, the Notion, that Dominion was founded in Grace, grew out of Fashion. But the Colonists continued to be Republicans {till, only Republicans of another Complection. They are now Mr. Locke's Disciples; who has laid down such Maxims in his Treatise on Government, that if they were to be executed according to the Letter, and in the Manner the Americans pretend to understand them, they would necessarily unhinge, and destroy every Government upon Earth. I shall at present only mention the four following.

“ That Men are by Nature all free, equal, and independent; and no Man can be * put out of this. Estate, without his own Confent." Book 2, Chap. 8.

2. " THAT Governments have no Power over “ the Son, because of that which they have “ over the Father.” Chap. 8.

3. “ That submitting to the Laws of any “ Country, living quietly, and enjoying Privi

leges and Protection under them, makes nor * a Member of that Society ;--because nothing - can make any Man so, but his a&tually entering "s into it by POSITIVE ENGAGEMENT.” Chap. 8.

" THAT 4.


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4. “ That the Supreme Power cannot take “ from any Man any part of his Property (that 5 is, cannot Tax him] WITHOUT HIS Own ConC SENT." Chap. 11.

Now, Sir, if these crude, undigested Notions are to be understood absolutely, and without Correction or Limitation ;---and if such are the true, original Ideas of English constitutional Liberty,---I will frankly acknowledge, that Great Britain hath not so much as the Shadow of a Right to tax the Colonies :---Nay, I will go farther, and scruple not to declare, that she has no Right to make any Regulation whatever respecting them, without their own express Consent and full Approbation first obtained. But, after having made this Concession, I hope you will be so candid on your Part, as to acknowledge, that no Government upon Earth did ever

subsist on such a Plan of wild, Utopian Liberty. And I do prefume, that I do not ask too much in making this Request; seeing that your celebrated American Fellow Labourer, Dr. PRIESTLY, has already gone a good deal farther. For he has already informed the World, in his Essay on Civil Government, that as all Governments whatever have been in some Measure compulsory, tyrannical, and oppressive in their Origin, THEREFORE they ought to be changed, and new-modelled as soon as ever the People



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(who, N. B. according to him and Mr. Locke, have always an unalienable and indefeasible Right to change and alter, what, and whenever they please] shall feel themselves strong enough to throw off this Usurpation, and can bring about a glorious Revolution. Nay, another great Man, and Disciple of Mr. Locke, no less than the patriotic JEAN JAQUES Rousseau (I think in his Letters from the Mountains) suggests an happy Expedient for accomplishing this desirable Work of perpetual Alterations. He proposes, that once a Year, at least, the People ihould assemble together for the express Purpose of consulting and debating, whether they should permit the same Form of Government, or the fame Officers to continue for one Year longer; or change them all, and begin another Form, or try

another Set. The People, you know, according to this republican Doctrine, are, in all Instances, the supreme Head, and Lord Paramount: And Government, even the best of Governments, ought implicitly to submit to their Authority and Controul. Therefore, whether the fame Form of Government, or the same Ad. ministrators of it, shall be, or not be, ---that's the Question !

The Americans of late have acted very agreeably to this shifting Scene of new Lords and new Laws; for not only their general Congresses, and their Provincial Congresses, but their Town-Meetings, their select Meetings, and their Liberty-Tree Meetings, have a natural Tendency to beget a popular, republican Spirit, and to subject every Degree of Magistracy and Government to the perpetual Controul and Caprice of the Mob. In short, it is already an established Maxim in that Country, that the Voice of the People ---is the Voice of God. And were any one to dare to gainsay it, Tarring and Feathering would be the mildest Punishment, which such a Rebel against this (Mob-cratic Constitution coulil expect.


And you, Sir, when you were enumerating them any fignal Advantages we derive from our Connections with America, ought to have mentióned this among the rest :---You ought to have exulted, that the fierce American Spirit begins to operate fo very rapidly here in England; and and to have expressed your Hopes that it will spread more and more, the longer we are connected with that People. · But perhaps you had your Reasons against being thus explicit.---It is a' tender Point ;, and you have a very difficult Part to act. Certain it is, that both the American, and the English Republicans expect great Things from you They expect, that you would assist them in reducing the Power of the Crown, and of the House of Peers to a mere Cypher ;--- or rather to abolish them totally, Root and Branch: And


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they expect likewise, that


would Co-operate with them in subjecting the House of Commons itself to the Instructions of Town-Meetings, felect Meetings, Liberty-Meetings, &c. &c. &c. : And in short, that every Thing should be subjugated both within Doors, and without, arbitrio popularis aura. On the other Hand, it is equally certain, that you are endeavouring to make Use of these factious Republicans, as the Tools and Instruments of your own Advancement, without gratifying them in their darling Object. This is

This is a curious Farce, in which each Party must act at present under borrowed Characters; (for even the Republicans must, as yet, express their Wishes more by dumb Shew, than by open Declarations) and in which one, or other must be duped at laft But more of this hereafter.

II. The second Scource you mention, from whence the fierce Spirit of the Americans:is derived, is their Forms of Government strongly tending to become Republics. And here, as you had no Interest either to conceal, or to disguise the Fact, you have given

given us a just Reprefestation of it. Their [the American] Go“ vernments (Page 17) are popular in an high

Degree. Some are merely popular; in all the “ popular Representative is the most weighty: " And this Share of the People in their ordinary “ Government never fails to inspire them with

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