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civil disabilities of the Catholics, which excited says a writer in the Edinburgh Review, “as a against him a powerful and violent opposition. critical inquirer into history, an enlightened Inclined to quiet and retirement, and disgusted collector of materials, and a sagacious judge of with the conduct of his opponents, Mr Roscoe with evidence, has never been surpassed. In spite of drew from parliament at the next dissolution, and his ardent love of liberty, no man has yet presumed resolutely declined offering himself as a candidate. to charge him with the slightest sacrifice of He still, however, took a warm interest in passing historical integrity to his zeal. That he never events, and published several pamphlets on the perfectly attained the art of full, clear, and easy topics of the day. He projected a History of Art narrative, was owing to the peculiar style of those and Literature, a task well suited to his talents and writers who were popular in his youth, and may attainments, but did not proceed with the work. be mentioned as a remarkable instance of the Pecuniary embarrassments also came to cloud his disproportion of particular talents to a general latter days.

The banking establishment of which vigour of mind.' he was a partner was forced in 1816 to suspend JOHN PINKERTON (1758–1826) distinguished payment, and Mr Roscoe had to sell his library, himself by the fierce controversial tone of his pictures, and other works of art. His love of historical writings, and by the violence of his literature continued undiminished. He gave valu- prejudices, yet was a learned and industrious able assistance in the establishment of the Royal Collector of forgotten fragments of ancient history Institution of Liverpool, and on its opening, de- and of national antiquities. He was a native of livered an inaugural address on the Origin and Edinburgh, and bred to the law. The latter, howVicissitudes of Literature, Science, and Art, and ever, he soon forsook for literary pursuits. He their Influence on the present State of Society: commenced by writing imperfect verses, which, in In 1827 Mr Roscoe received the great gold medal his peculiar antique orthography, he styled Rimes, of the Royal Society of Literature for his merits from which he diverged to collecting Select Scoias an historian. He had previously edited an tish Ballads, 1783, and inditing an Essay on edition of Pope, in which he evinced but little Medals, 1784. Under the name of Heron, he research or discrimination.

published some Letters on Literature, and was MALCOLM LAING, a zealous Scottish historian, recommended by Gibbon to the booksellers as was born in the year 1762 at Strynzia, his paternal a fit person to translate the monkish historians, estate, in Orkney. He was educated for the He afterwards (1786) published Ancient Scottish Scottish bar, and passed advocate in 1785. He Poems, being the writings of Sir Richard Maitland appeared as an author in 1793, having completed and others, extracted from a manuscript in the Dr Henry's History of Great Britain after that Pepys Library at Cambridge. But Pinkerton was author's death. The sturdy Whig opinions of an unfaithful editor. His first historical work was Laing formed a contrast to the tame moderatism A Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of the of Henry; but his attainments and research were Scythians, or Goths, in which he laid down that far superior to those of his predecessor. In 1800 theory which he maintained through life, that the he published The History of Scotland from the Celts of Ireland, Wales, and Scotland are savages, Union of the Crowns on the Accession of King and have been savages since the world began ! James VI. to the Throne of England, to the Union His next important work was an Inquiry into of the Kingdoms in the Reign of Queen Anne; the History of Scotland preceding the Reign of with two Dissertations, Historical and Critical, Malcolm 11., or 1056, in which he debates at on the Gowrie Conspiracy, and on the supposed great length, and, as Sir Walter Scott remarks, Authenticity of Ossian's Poems. This is an able with much display of learning, on the history of work, marked by strong prejudices and predilec- the Goths, and the conquests which he states them tions, but valuable to the historical student for to have obtained over the Celts in their progress its acute reasoning and analysis. Laing attacked through all Europe. În 1796, he published a the translator of Ossian with unmerciful and History of Scotland during the Reign of the almost ludicrous severity ; in revenge for which, Stuarts, the most laborious and valuable of his the Highland admirers of the Celtic Muse attrib- works. He also compiled a Modern Geography, uted his sentiments to the prejudice natural to edited a Collection of Voyages and Travels, was an Orkney man, caused by the severe checks some time editor of the Critical Review, wrote a given by the ancient Caledonians to their pred Treatise on Rocks, and was engaged on various atory Scandinavian predecessors ! Laing replied other literary tasks. Pinkerton died in want and by another publication, The Poems of Ossian, &c., obscurity in Paris. containing the Poetical Works of James Macpherson, Esq., in Prose and Rhyme, with Notes and Illustrations. In 1804, he published another

SIR JOHN FENN, MR GAIRDNER, AND THE

PASTON LETTERS. edition of his History of Scotland, to which he prefixed a Preliminary Dissertation on the Par- JOHN FENN (1739-1794), a country gentleman ticipation of Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Murder of residing at East Dereham in Norfolk, described Darnley. The latter is a very ingenious historical by Horace Walpole as 'a smatterer in antiquity, argument, the ablest of Mr Laing's productions, and a very good sort of man,' conferred an inuniting the practised skill and acumen of the valuable boon on all historical readers, and on all Scottish lawyer with the knowledge of the anti- students of the English language and English quary and historian. The latter portion of Mr social life in former times, by editing and publishLaing's life was spent on his paternal estate in ing the series of family archives known as The Orkney, where he entered upon a course of local Paston Letters. The first publication of the Letters and agricultural improvement with the same took place in 1787, when two quarto volumes were ardour that he devoted to his literary pursuits. issued from the press, containing original letters He died in the year 1818. 'Mr Laing's merit,' | written by various persons of rank and conse

HISTORIANS, ETC.
ENGLISH LITERATURE.

quence during the reigns of Henry VI., Edward duty) in learning. And if he hath not done well, nor
IV., and Richard III. In 1789 a third and fourth will not amend, pray him that he will truly be-lash him
volume were published; and in 1823 a fifth and till he will amend ; and so did the last master, and the
concluding volume appeared, bringing down the best he ever had, at Cambridge. And say (to) Greenfield
correspondence to the end of Henry VII.'s reign.

that if he will take upon him to bring him into good A very complete edition of these Letters was duty, I will give 'him ten marks for his labour ; for

I

rule and learning, that I may verily know he doth his published in 1872-75, containing upwards of five had liefer he were fair buried than lost for default hundred letters previously unpublished, and edited by MR JAMES GAIRDNER of the Public Record they that be bare, let them be raised. He hath a short

Item, to see how many gowns Clement hath ; and Office : vol. i. comprising the reign of Henry VI.; green gown, and a short musterdevelus” gown, were vols. ii. and iii. Edward IV., Edward V., Richard never raised; and a short blue gown that was raised, III., and Henry VII.* Mr Gairdner prefixed a and made of a syde gown, when I was last at London valuable Introduction to this new edition, and and a syde russet gown, furred with beaver, was made added illustrative notes. The genuineness of the this time two-year; and a syde murry' gown was made letters is undoubted. It appears that, in the this time twelvemonth. village of Paston, about twenty miles north of

Item, to do make me (get me made) six spoons, of Norwich, lived for several centuries a family eight ounce of Troy weight, well fashioned, and double which took its surname from the place, the head

gilt. of which, in the reign of Henry VI., was William self to work readily, as other gentlewomen (hath) done,

And say (to) Elizabeth Paston that she must use herPaston, a justice of the Common Pleas, celebrated and somewhat to help

herself therewith. as 'the good judge. The last representative of

Item, to pay the Lady Pole 26s. 8d. for her board. the family was William, Baron Paston and Earl And if Greenfield have done well his duty to Clement, of Yarmouth (second baron and earl), who died in or will do his duty, give him the noble." 1732. The correspondence of this family supplies

AGNES PASTON. a blank in English history during the Wars of the Roses, but is chiefly interesting and curious The following affecting farewell letter (the spellfor the light it throws on the social life of England ing modernised) possesses historical interest : at that period—the round of domestic duties and employments, dress, food, entertainments, &c. pertaining to a good county family.

The Duke of Suffolk to his Son, April 30, 1450. As a specimen, we quote a paper of instructions

MY DEAR AND ONLY WELL-BELOVED SON-I beseech addressed by Mrs Agnes Paston to some member our Lord in heaven, the Maker of all the world, to bless of her household in London :

you, and to send you ever grace to love Him and to

dread Him ; to the which as far as a father may charge Erands to London of Augnes Paston the xxviii day of his child, I both charge you and pray you to set all Fenure, the yer of Kiyng Henry the Sext, xxxvi (1458). spirits and wits to do, and to know His holy laws and

commandments, by the which ye shall with His great To prey Grenefeld to send me feythfully word, by mercy pass all the great tempests and troubles of this wrytyn, who Clement Paston hath do his dever wretched world. And that also, wittingly, ye do nothing in lernyng. And if he hathe nought do well, nor for love nor dread of any earthly creature that should wyll nought amend, prey hym that he wyll trewly displease Him. And thus as any frailty maketh you to belassch hym, tyl he wyll amend ; and so ded the last fall, beseecheth His mercy soon to call you to Him maystr, and the best that ever he had, att Caumbrage. again with repentance, satisfaction, and contrition of And sey Grenefeld that if he wyll take up on hym to your heart never more in will to offend Him. brynge hym in to good rewyll and lernyng, that may Secondly, next Him, above all earthly thing, to be verily know he doth hys dever, I wyll geve hym x marcs true liegeman in heart, in will, in thought, in deed, unto for hys labor ; for I had lever he wer fayr beryed than the king our aldermost high and dread sovereign lord, lost for defaute.

to whom both ye and I be so much bound to; charging Item, to se who many gownys Clement hathe; and you as father can and may, rather to die than to be the the that be bar, late hem be reysyd. He hath achort contrary, or to know anything that were against the welgrene gowne, and achort musterdevelers gowne, wer fare or prosperity of his most royal person, but that, as never reysyd ; and achort blew gowne that was reysyd, far as your body and life may stretch, ye live and die and mad of a syde gowne, whan I was last in London; to defend it, and to let his Highness have knowledge and a syde russet gowne, furryd with bevyr, was mad thereof in all the haste ye can. this tyme ii yer; and a syde murry gowne was mad Thirdly, in the same wise, I charge you, my dear son, this tyme twelmonth.

alway, as ye be bounden by the commandment of God, Item, to do make me vi sponys, of viii ounce of troy to do, to love, to worship your lady and mother, and wyght, well facyond, and dubbyl gylt.

also that ye obey alway her commandments, and to And say Elyzabet Paston that she must use hyr selse believe her counsels and advices in all your works, the to werke redyly, as other jentylwomen done, and sum- which dreaded not, but shall be best and truest to you. what to help hyr selse ther with.

And if any other body would stir you to the contrary, Item, to pay the Lady Pole xxvis. viiid. for hyr bord. to flee the counsel in any wise, for ye shall find it naught

And if Grenefeld have do wel hys dever to Clement, and evil. or wyll do hys dever, geffe hym the nobyll.

Furthermore, as far as father may and can, I charge AGNES PASTON.

you in any wise to flee the company and counsel of [To pray Greenfield to send me faithfully word, by proud men, of covetous men, and of flattering men, the writing, how Clement Paston hath done his devoir (or

1 A new nap or pile raised on the bare cloth. Thus in Shak

speare: Jack Cade the clothier means to dress the common* The publisher of this work, Mr Edward Arber, Queen Square, wealth, and turn it, and set a new nap upon it.'--Hen. VI. Part II. Bloomsbury, London, deserves the thanks of all lovers of our ? A kind of mixed gray woollen cloth, which continued in use to early literature, for his series of cheap and correct reprints of Elizabeth's reign.-HALLIWELL. works previously scarce or only attainable at high prices. By his 3 Syde gown--a low-hanging gown. See Sir David Lindsay, enterprise and literary taste, many of the choice and rare Éliza- ante, vol. 1. page 49. bethan poems and tracts are now within the reach of all classes of • Murry or Murray colour was a dark red.

8 The noble, a gold coin, value 6s. 8d.

329

readers.

more especially and mightily to withstand them, and not adopted by the Whig party, but are stated with to draw nor to meddle with them, with all your might calmness and moderation. He was peculiarly a and power. And to draw to you and to your company supporter of principles, not of men. Mr Hallam, good and virtuous men, and such as be of good conver- like Burke, in his latter years 'lived in an inverted sation, and of truth, and by them shall ye never be order: they who ought to have succeeded him had deceived, nor repent you of. Moreover, never follow your own wit in no wise, but in all your works, of such gone before him ; they who should have been to folks as I write of above, asketh your advice and counsel; His eldest son, Arthur Henry Hallam—the subject

him as posterity were in the place of ancestors.' and doing thus, with the mercy of God, ye shall do right well, and live in right much worship and great heart's of Tennyson's In Memoriam--died in 1833; and rest and ease. And I will be to you as good lord and another son, Henry Fitzmaurice Hallam, was father as my heart can think.

taken from him, shortly after he had been called And last of all, as heartily and as lovingly as ever to the bar, in 1850. The afflicted father collected father blessed his child in earth, I give you the blessing and printed for private circulation the Remains, of our Lord and of me, which of His infinite mercy in- in Verse and Prose, of Arthur Henry Hallam crease you in all virtue and good living. And that your (1834), and some friend added memorials of the blood may, by His grace, from kindred to kindred second son. Both were eminently accomplished, multiply in this earth to His service, in such wise as, amiable, and promising young men.

The hisafter the departing from this wretched world here, yetorian died January 21, 1859, having reached the and they may glorify Him eternally among His angels in heaven.

age of eighty-one.
Written of mine hand the day of my departing from
this land. Your true and loving father,

Effects of the Feudal Systein.
SUFFOLK.*

From the View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages.
HENRY HALLAM.

It is the previous state of society, under the grand

children of Charlemagne, which we must always keep The greatest historical name in this period, and in mind, if we would appreciate the effects of the feudal one of the most learned of our constitutional system upon the welfare of mankind. The institutions writers and critics, was MR HENRY HALLAM, of the eleventh century must be compared with those of son of Dr Hallam, Dean of Wells. He was the ninth, not with the advanced civilisation of modern born in 1778, was educated at Eton and Christ times. The state of anarchy which we usually term Church, Oxford, and was called to the bar by feudal was the natural result of a vast and barbarous the Inner Temple. He was early appointed á empire feebly, administered, and the cause, rather than Commissioner of Audit, an office which at once the effect, of the general establishment of feudal tenures. afforded him leisure and a competency, and en- These, by preserving the mutual relations of the whole, abled him to prosecute those studies on which kept alive the feeling of a common country and common his fame rests. Mr Hallam was one of the early free constitution of England, the firm monarchy of

and settled, after the lapse of ages, into the contributors to the Edinburgh Review. Scott's

France, and the federal union of Germany. edition of Dryden was criticised by Mr Hallam

The utility of any form of policy may be estimated by in the Review for October 1808, with great ability its effects upon national greatness and security, upon and candour. His first important work was a View civil liberty and private rights, upon the tranquillity and of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, order of society, upon the increase and diffusion of two volumes quarto, 1818, being an account of the wealth, or upon the general tone of moral sentiment and progress of Europe from the middle of the fifth energy. The feudal constitution was little adapted for to the end of the fifteenth century. To this work the defence of a mighty kingdom, far less for schemes he afterwards added a volume of Supplemental of conquest. But as it prevailed alike in several adjaNotes. In 1827 he published The Constitutional cent countries, none had anything to fear from the miliHistory of England, from the Accession of Henry tary superiority of its neighbours. It was this ineffiVII. to the Death of George 11., also in two ciency of the feudal militia, perhaps, that saved Europe, volumes; and in 1837-38 an Introduction to the during the middle ages, from the danger of universal

monarchy. In times when princes had little notions of Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, confederacies for mutual protection, it is hard to say and Seventeenth Centuries, in four volumes. With what might not have been the successes of an Otho, a vast stores of knowledge, and indefatigable appli- Frederic, or a Philip Augustus, if they could have cation, Mr Hallam possessed a clear and inde-wielded the whole force of their subjects whenever their pendent judgment, and a style grave and im- ambition required. If an empire equally extensive pressive, yet enriched with occasional imagery with that of Charlemagne, and supported by military and rhetorical graces. His Introduction to the despotism, had been formed about the twelfth or thirLiterature of Europe is a great monument of teenth centuries, the seeds of commerce and liberty, just his erudition. His knowledge of the language then beginning to shoot, would have perished; and and literature of each nation was critical, if not Europe, reduced to a barbarous servitude, might have

fallen before the free barbarians of Tartary. profound, and his opinions were conveyed in a style remarkable for its succinctness and per- freedom, it bears a noble countenance. To the feudal

If we look at the feudal polity as a scheme of civil spicuity. In his first two works, the historian's law it is owing that the very names of right and privilege views of political questions are those generally were not swept away, as in Asia, by the desolating

hand of power. The tyranny which, on every favour* The duke embarked on Thursday the 30th April 1450, having able moment, was breaking through all barriers, would been sentenced to five years' banishment from England. He was have rioted without control, if, when the people were accused of having, in his communications with the French, been invariably opposed to the interests of England, and in particular poor and disunited, the nobility had not been brave and that he had been bribed to deliver up Anjou and Maine to free. So far as the sphere of feudality extended, it France. The pinnace in which he sailed was boarded off diffused the spirit of liberty and the notions of private Dover by a ship called Nicholas of the Tower, the master of right. Every one will acknowledge this who considers was barbarously murdered, his body brought to land, and thrown the limitations of the services of vassalage, so cautiously upon the sands at Dover,

marked in those law-books which are the records of customs; the reciprocity of obligation between the lord The two most essential improvements in architecture and his tenant; the consent required in every measure during this period, one of which had been missed by the of a legislative or general nature; the security, above sagacity of Greece and Rome, were chimneys and glass all, which every vassal found in the administration of windows. Nothing apparently can be more simple than justice by his peers, and even-we may in this sense the former; yet the wisdom of ancient times had been say—in the trial by combat. The bulk of the people, it content to let the smoke escape by an aperture in the is true, were degraded by servitude ; but this had no centre of the roof; and a discovery, of which Vitruvius connection with the feudal tenures.

had not a glimpse, was made, perhaps, by some forgotten The peace and good order of society were not pro- semi-barbarian! About the middle of the fourteenth moted by this system. Though private wars did not century the use of chimneys is distinctly mentioned in originate in the feudal customs, it is impossible to doubt England and in Italy; but they are found in several of that they were perpetuated by so convenient an institu- our castles which bear a much older date. This country tion, which indeed owed its universal establishment to seems to have lost very early the art of making glass, no other cause. And as predominant habits of warfare which was preserved in France, whence artificers were are totally irreconcilable with those of industry, not brought into England to furnish the windows in some merely by the immediate works of destruction which new churches in the seventh century. It is said that, render its efforts unavailing, but through that contempt in the reign of Henry III., a few ecclesiastical buildings of peaceful occupations which they produce, the feudal had glazed windows. Suger, however, a century before, system must have been intrinsically adverse to the had adorned his great work, the Abbey of St Denis, accumulation of wealth, and the improvement of those with windows, not only glazed but painted ; and I prearts which mitigate the evils or abridge the labours of sume that other churches of the same class, both in mankind.

France and England, especially after the lancet-shaped But, as the school of moral discipline, the feudal insti- window had yielded to one of ampler dimensions, were tutions were perhaps most to be valued. Society had generally decorated in a similar manner. Yet glass is sunk, for several centuries after the dissolution of the said not to have been employed in the domestic architecRoman empire, into a condition of utter depravity ; ture of France before the fourteenth century; and its where, if any vices could be selected as more eminently introduction into England was probably by no means characteristic than others, they were falsehood, treachery, earlier. Nor, indeed, did it come into general use and ingratitude. In slowly purging off the lees of this during the period of the middle ages. Glazed windows extreme corruption, the feudal spirit exerted its ameli- were considered as movable furniture, and probably orating influence. Violation of faith stood first in the bore a high price. When the Earls of Northumberland, catalogue of crimes, most repugnant to the very essence as late as the reign of Elizabeth, left Alnwick Castle, of a feudal tenure, most severely and promptly avenged, the windows were taken out of their frames and carefully most branded by general infamy. The feudal law- laid by. books breathe throughout a spirit of honourable obliga- But if the domestic buildings of the fifteenth century tion. The feudal course of jurisdiction promoted, what would not seem very spacious or convenient at present, trial by peers is peculiarly calculated to promote, a far less would this luxurious generation be content with keener feeling, as well as readier perception, of moral their internal accommodations. A gentleman's house as well as of legal distinctions. In the reciprocal containing three or four beds was extraordinarily well services of lord and vassal, there was ample scope for provided ; few probably had more than two. The walls every magnanimous and disinterested energy. The were commonly bare, without wainscot, or even plaster, heart of man, when placed in circumstances that have a except that some great houses were furnished with tendency to excite them, will seldom be deficient in such hangings, and that, perhaps, hardly so soon as the reign sentiments. No occasions could be more favourable of Edward IV. It is unnecessary to add, that neither than the tection of a faithful supporter, or the defence libraries of books nor pictures could have found a place of a beneficent sovereign, against such powerful aggres- among furniture. Silver-plate was very rare, and sion as left little prospect except of sharing in his ruin. hardly used for the table. A few inventories of furni

ture that still remain exhibit a miserable deficiency.

And this was incomparably greater in private gentleThe Houses and Furniture of the Nobles in the Middle

men's houses than among citizens, and especially foreign Ages.-From the same.

merchants. We have an inventory of the goods belonging It is an error to suppose that the English gentry were to Contarini, a rich Venetian trader, at his house in St lodged in stately, or even in well-sized houses. Gener. Botolph's Lane, A.D. 1481. There appear to have been no ally speaking, their dwellings were almost as inferior to less than ten beds, and glass windows are especially noted those of their descendants in capacity as they were in as movable furniture. No mention, however, is made convenience. The usual arrangement consisted of an of chairs or looking-glasses. If we compare his account, entrance-passage running through the house, with a hall however trifling in our estimation, with a similar invenon one side, a parlour beyond, and one or two chambers tory of furniture in Skipton Castle, the great honour of above ; and on the opposite side, a kitchen, pantry, and the Earls of Cumberland, and among the most splendid other offices. Such was the ordinary manor-house of the mansions of the north, not at the same period—for I fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as appears not only have not found any inventory of a nobleman's furniture from the documents and engravings, but, as to the latter so ancient-but in 1572, after almost a century of conperiod, from the buildings themselves -- sometimes, tinual improvement, we shall be astonished at the though not very frequently, occupied by families of con- inferior provision of the baronial residence. There were sideration, more often converted into farm-houses, or not more than seven or eight beds in this great castle, distinct tenements. Larger structures were erected by nor had any of the chambers either chairs, glasses, or men of great estates during the reigns of Henry IV. and carpets. It is in this sense, probably, that we must Edward IV. ; but very few can be traced higher; and understand Æneas Sylvius, if he meant anything more such has been the effect of time, still more through than to express a traveller's discontent, when he declares the advance or decline of families, and the progress of that the kings of Scotland would rejoice to be as well architectural improvement, than the natural decay of lodged as the second class of citizens at Nuremberg. these buildings, that I should conceive it difficult to Few burghers of that town had mansions, I presume, name a house in England, still inhabited by a gentle cqual to the palaces of Dunfermline or Stirling ; but it man, and not belonging to the order of castles, the is not unlikely that they were better furnished. principal apartments of which are older than the reign of Henry VII. The instances at least must be It has been justly remarked, that in Mr Hallam's extremely few.

Literature of Europe there is more of sentiment than could have been anticipated from the calm, that it lays the foundation of intellectual pleasures at the unimpassioned tenor of his historic style. Wé other extreme of life. may illustrate this by two short extracts.

P. F. TYTLER-SIR W. NAPIER-LIEUT.-COL. Shakspeare's Self-retrospection.

GURWOOD-JAMES MILL. There seems to have been a period of Shakspeare's life when his heart was ill at ease, and ill content with TYTLER, is an attempt to build the history of

The History of Scotland, by PATRICK FRASER the world and his own conscience; the memory of hours that country upon unquestionable muniments.' misspent, the pang of affection misplaced or unrequited. The author professed to have anxiously endeathe experience of man's worser nature, which intercourse with unworthy associates, by choice or circumstances, voured to examine the most authentic sources of peculiarly teaches : these, as they sank into the depths information, and to convey a true picture of the of his great mind, seem 'not only to have inspired into times, without prepossession or partiality.

He it the conception of Lear and Timon, but that of one commences with the accession of Alexander III., primary character, the censurer of mankind. This type because it is at that period that our national is first seen in the philosophic melancholy of Jaques, annals become particularly interesting to the gazing with an undiminished serenity, and with a gaiety general reader. The first volume of Mr Tytler's of fancy, though not of manners, on the follies of the History was published in 1828, and a continuation world. "'It assumes a graver cast in the exiled Duke of appeared at intervals, conducting the narrative to the same play, and next one rather more severe in the the year 1603, when James VI. ascended the Duke of Measure for Measure. In all these, however, throne of England. The style of the History is it is merely contemplative philosophy. In Hamlet this is mingled with the impulses of a perturbed heart under plain and perspicuous, with just sufficient animathe pressure of extraordinary circumstances; it shines tion to keep alive the attention of the reader. Mr no longer, as in the former characters, with a steady Tytler added considerably to the amount and light, but plays in fitful coruscations amidst feigned correctness of our knowledge of Scottish history. gaiety and extravagance. In Lear, it is the flash of He took up a few doubtful or erroneous opinions sudden inspiration across the incongruous imagery of on questions of fact (such as that John Knox was madness; in Timon, it is obscured by the exaggerations accessory to the murder of Rizzió, of which he of misanthropy. These plays all belong to nearly the failed to give any satisfactory proof); but the same period : As You Like It being usually referred industry and talent he evinced entitle him to the to 1600, Timon to the same year, Measure for Measure gratitude of his countrymen. A second edition to 1603, and Lear to 1604. In the later plays of of this work, up to the period already mentioned, Shakspeare, especially in Macbeth and the Tempest, extends to nine volumes. Mr Tytler was author much of moral speculation will be found, but he has of the lives of Scottish Worthies and a Life of never returned to this type of character in the per- Sir Walter Raleigh, and he edited two volumes sonages.

of Letters illustrative of the history of England Milton's Blindness and Remembrance of his Early

under Edward VI. and Mary. This gentleman Reading

was grandson of Mr William Tytler, whom Burns

has characterised as In the numerous imitations, and still more numerous

Revered defender of beauteous Stuart; traces of older poetry which we perceive in Paradise Lost, it is always to be kept in mind that he had only and his father, Lord Woodhouselee, a Scottish his recollection to rely upon. His blindness seems to judge, wrote a popular Universal History. Latterly, have been complete before 1654 ;* and I scarcely think Mr Patrick F. Tytler enjoyed a pension of £200 he had begun his poem before the anxiety and trouble into which the public strife of the Commonwealth and per annum. He died at Malvern, December 24, Restoration had thrown him, gave leisure for immortal 1849. A Life of Mr Tytler was published (1859) occupations. Then the remembrance of early reading by the Rev. John Burgon, M.A., of Oriel College, came over his dark and lonely path, like the moon Oxford. It represents the historian in a very emerging from the clouds. Then it was that the Muse prepossessing light, as affectionate, pious, and was truly his; not only as she poured her creative cheerful, beloved by all who knew him. inspiration into his mind, but as the daughter of The History of the War in the Peninsula, and Memory, coming with fragments of ancient melodies, in the South of France, from the year 1807 to the the voice of Euripides, and Homer, and Tasso ; sounds year 1814, in six volumes, 1828-40, by COLONEL that he had loved in youth, and treasured up for the Sir W. F. P. NAPIER, is acknowledged to be the solace of his age. They who, though not enduring the most valuable record of that war which England calamity of Milton, have known what it is, when afar from books, in solitude or in travelling, or in the inter: waged against the power of Napoleon. Southey vals of worldly care, to feed on poetical recollections, had previously written a History of this period, to murmur over the beautiful lines whose cadence has but it was heavy and uninteresting, and is now long delighted their ear, to recall the sentiments and rarely met with. Sir W. Napier was an actor images which retain by association the charm that early in the great struggle he records, and peculiarly years once gave them they will feel the inestimable conversant with the art of war. The most ample value of committing to the memory, in the prime of its testimony has been borne to the accuracy of the power, what it will easily receive and indelibly retain. historian's statements, and to the diligence and I know not, indeed, whether an education that deals acuteness with which he has collected his matemuch with poetry, such as is still usual in England, has rials. Sir William Napier was a son of Colonel any more solid argument among many in its favour, than the Hon. George Napier, by Lady Sarah Lennox,

Todd publishes a letter addressed by Milton to Andrew daughter of the second Duke of Richmond. He Marvell, dated February 21, 1652-3, and assumes that the

was born at Castletown, in Ireland, in 1785. had still the use of one eye, which could direct his hand. The Besides his important History, he was author of Paper Office, and ascertained that it is not in Milton's handwriting and opinions of Sir Charles Napier, the cele

an account of The Conquest of Scinde, of The Life It is in a fine current, clerk-like hand.

poet

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