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and others in authority sending him hastily back to Drogheda, where he was accompanied by those who supported his pretensions. Edward had always shown him particular favour, and in 1347, had extended to him a formal pardon for the charges that were against him, whether true or false, respecting the inaccuracy of his accompts when treasurer in the reign of his father. Bicknor's life was now drawing fast to a close. He died on the 14th of July, 1249, having governed the see of Dublin for nearly thirty-two years. He was remarkable for learning, wisdom, sound judgment, and exemplary morals; and in that age of civil strife, was entrusted with the management of secular as well as spiritual affairs of great importance, and managed them with a dexterity and discretion which proved that his sovereign's confidence in him was well founded. He built the Bishop's House at Tallagh, and considerably improved the lands belonging to the see. He is said to have been buried in St Patrick's cathedral, but no monument remains to mark the spot.
John de St Paul.
DIED A. D. 1362.
JOHN DE ST PAUL, a canon of Dublin, was promoted to the archbishopric of Dublin in 1349, and was quickly engaged in the controversy which had been carried on with so much bitterness between his predecessors and Richard Fitz-Ralph, archbishop of Armagh, respecting the primacy. The king in vain issued his commands that FitzRalph should not raise his cross in the province of Dublin, and also again urged cardinal Audomar to use his influence with the pope to have the question set at rest, and the claims of each prelate adjusted. This was however not decided for many years after, when at length under pope Innocent VI., it was determined by the approbation of the college of cardinals, “that each of them should be primate; but for distinction of style the primate of Armagh should entitle himself primate of all Ireland; and the metropolitan of Dublin should inscribe himself primate of Ireland, like Canterbury and York in England, the first of which writes himself primate of all England, the other primate of England. This, John Allen (who many years after succeeded him) affirms he read in the pope's own private library, whilst he was agent at Rome for William Warham archbishop of Canterbury."* Shortly after this prelate's elevation, he was directed by Clement VI. to seek out all those who had been accused of heresy by Ledred bishop of Ossory twenty years before, and who had been rescued and protected by the late archbishop, and to inflict on them whatever degree of punishment the canons of the church authorized. He was also made chancellor by Edward III., with a salary of £40 per annum. In 1358, be was appointed a privy councillor; the lord-deputy receiving an order at the same time from the king to follow his advice and suggestions in all cases of difficulty. In one of the great councils to
which he was summoned, he laboured with indefatigable zeal to reconcile the opposing parties in the state, and blended with firm and judicious regulations, and restraints, the greatest lenity to offenders. He took their causes of complaint into account, and endeavoured to procure a general amnesty both for the English and Irish who had fallen under the displeasure of the court. He also strongly urged the necessity of noblemen residing on their estates, when situated near the marches of the pale, by which means they might be both improved and fortified, in place of their being left as they were in so many instances exposed to the depredations of the neighbouring chiefs, and thus exciting fresh causes of enmity and revenge. He made many improvements in his diocese, and greatly enlarged and improved Christ's Church, having built the entire chancel at his own expense. He died on the 9th of September, 1362, having governed the see for * about thirteen years, and was buried in Christ's Church according to
his will, under the marble, laid with brass plates, at the second step before the high altar, on which were inscribed these words :-“Ego Johannes de S. Paulo, quondam archiepiscopus Dubliniæ, credo quod Redemptor meus vivit, et in novissimo die de terrâ surrecturus suin, et iterum circumdabor pelle mea videbo Deum salvatorem meum."
Robert de amikeford.
DIED A. D. 1390.
SHORTLY after the death of Thomas de Minot, archbishop of Dublin, Robert de Wikeford was appointed to the vacant see. He was born at Wikeford Hall in Essex, was a man of learning and ability, archdeacon of Winchester, doctor both of the civil and canon law in the University of Oxford, and was held in high estimation by Edward III., who, on frequent occasions, both employed and rewarded his services. Previous to his elevation he was for some time constable of Bourdeaux, and assisted in the management of the affairs at Acquitaine, on the Black Prince surrendering that province to his father. He removed to Ireland immediately after his appointment to the archbishopric, and the following year was made chancellor of that kingdom. In 1377, on the death of Edward III., he received the writ to alter the great seal, and substitute the name of Richard for that of Edward, and he was allowed £20 from the treasury for his own expenses. He was active and judicious in his management of the see, and was permitted to make many valuable additions to it. In 1381, he was employed in promoting the collection of a clerical subsidy for Richard, and in 1385 he was again appointed chancellor. At a meeting of the prelates and nobles in Naas, he received orders not to leave Ireland, where his presence was of much importance, without a special license; but this he obtained early in 1390, when he removed to England, where he intended to remain for a year; but while there, was seized with his last illness, and died August 29th, 1390.
DIED A. D. 1397.
ROBERT WALDBY, a man of great learning and natural endowments, accompanied Edward the Black Prince to France, and was appointed professor of divinity at Toulouse, “ where," says Bale, “he arrived to such a pitch of excellence, as to be esteemed the first among the learned for eloquence and skill in the languages." He was promoted to the bishopric of Ayre in Gascony, through the influence of his patron Edward, and was some years after translated to the see of Dublin. Richard II. continued to him the same consideration and regard shown by his father, and about 1392, appointed him chancellor of Ireland. He at the same time appointed Richard Metford the bishop of Chichester, treasurer of Ireland; and on his promotion to Sarum, in 1395, Waldby successfully used his interest at court to be removed to Chichester, from which he was the following year translated to the archbishopric of York. He did not long enjoy this new dignity being attacked with a severe illness early in 1397, and dying on the 29th of May in that year. He is buried in the middle of St Edmond's chapel in Westminster Abbey under a marble tomb which bore the following inscription, though from some of the brass plates being torn off it is now defaced :
Hic, fuit expertus in quovis jure Robertus ;
Vos precor Orate ut sint sibi dona beatæ,
Cum sanctis vitæ requiescat et sic sine lite. He was brother to the learned John Waldby.
DIED A. D. 1397.
RICHARD NORTHALL, or Northalis, seventeenth archbishop of Dublin, was first promoted to the see of Ossory by Richard II., in consequence of his great eloquence as a preacher, his learning, and general talents. This king also had a high opinion of his probity and discretion, and in 1390, committed to him the responsible task of inquiring into the abuses of the government in Ireland, empowering him to summon both peers and prelates to assist in this arduous investigation, and to give him the benefit of any local knowledge they might possess. In consequence of the great dissatisfaction felt at the heavy expenditure
of Sir John Stanley, lord-deputy to the earl of Oxford, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, he was directed to investigate the extent and nature of his disbursements, the number of his attendants, and also to ascertain the actual value of the revenues he received while in Ireland. This deputy having also received the humble submission in writing of Nigel O'Neale and his sons, whom he set at liberty, Northall was directed to ascertain whether the security they gave for renouncing the bonnogh of Ulster, could be depended on, and whether the hostages for their promised allegiance were of sufficient value to ensure its continuance. The manner in which the bishop managed this difficult commission seems to have given satisfaction to the court of England, for he was afterwards not only employed by Richard as ambassador to Boniface IX., and made chancellor of Ireland, * but he was in 1396 nominated archbishop of Dublin, on the promotion of Waldby to the see of York; but he did not long enjoy this advancement, for he died the 20th of July, 1397, in Dublin, where he was buried in his own cathedral.
DIED A. D. 1382.
ROGER CRADOCK was consecrated bishop of Waterford in 1350. A few years after his appointment, two Irishmen of Clankellans were accused of heresy, and tried before the bishop at the castle of Bunratty, in the diocese of Killaloe, when on his own authority, and without the sanction of Ralph Kelly, archbishop of Cashell, he had them burnt. This justly drew upon him the heavy displeasure of his metropolitan, who, however, took the unjustifiable course of resisting this outrage upon his authority, by an outrage upon the person of the bishop, whose house he attacked at midnight with an armed troop, wounded him and some of his attendants, and by the advice of William Sendal, mayor of Waterford and Walter Reve the dean, he also took possession of the property he found in it. In 1362, Cradock was translated to Landaff, which he governed for twenty years.
DIED A. D. 1400.
ALEXANDER PETIT, or Balscot, was translated from the bishopric of Ossory to that of Meath in 1386. He had been treasurer of Ireland both to Edward III. and Richard II.: while treasurer to Edward, he was allowed a guard of six men-at-arms, and twelve archers at the king's charge. Richard also made him chancellor of Ireland and lordjustice twice: first, while he was bishop of Ossory, which see he governed for fifteen years; and afterwards in 1387, when he was
* Dalton's Archbishops.
† Wadding's Annals.
bishop of Meath. He died at Ardbraccan, the general residence of the bishops, in 1400, and is buried in St Mary's Abbey at Trim.
DIED A, D. 1482.
WILLIAM SHERWOOD was consecrated bishop of Meath in 1460. He was for some time deputy to George duke of Clarence, and “held a parliament,” says Cox, “at Dublin, after the feast of St Margaret, which makes it treason to bring bulls or apostiles from Rome, and orders the lords of parliament to wear robes on pain of one hundred shillings, and enjoins the barons of the exchequer to wear their habits in term-time ; and enacts, that if any Englishman be damnified by an Irishman, not amesnable to law, he may reprize himself upon the whole sept or nation ; and that it shall be a felony to take a distress contrary to common law, which was a very necessary act in those times, and is the only act of this parliament which is printed.” William Sherwood died in Dublin, the 3d of December, 1482, and was buried at Newtown near Trim, in the church of St Peter and St Paul, having held the bishopric for twenty-two years.
DIED A. D. 1417.
On the death of Northall, archbishop of Dublin, Thomas Cranely was appointed as his successor, but he did not arrive in Dublin until late in the following year, when he accompanied the lord-lieutenant, Thomas Holland, duke of Surrey, at which time he was also appointed chancellor of the kingdom In 1399, (the year of Richard's deposition,) he was empowered to treat with the Irish rebels ; and in 1401, he was again appointed chancellor. Henry V. nominated him to the same office in 1413, and subsequently made him lord-justice of Ireland; while he held this situation he addressed a long and spirited epistle in verse to Henry, of which Leland the antiquary speaks in terms of high admiration. He was so impartial in the administration of justice, both in his official, legal, and spiritual character, that he not only obtained the testimony of Irish writers of his day, but he gave the utmost satisfaction to the king and council in England. Cox speaks of him as “a man of singular piety and learning," and Marlborough who enlarges more upon his character, calls him “a very bountiful man, and full of alms-deeds, a profound clerk and doctor of divinity, an extraordinary fine preacher, a great builder and improver of places under his care: he was fair, sumptuous, of a sanguine complexion, and a princely stature.” At the time that MacGenis, one of the Irish chieftains obtained a victory over Jenico de Artois, his followers and the surrounding Irish became so daring and insolent, that the lordjustice was forced to go out against them in person, but did not pro