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and says,—“This was long my favourite form of Mange remedy; and next to sulphur there is no individual application so effective as terebinthinated. Mr. Percival speaks in high terms of tar and train oil : therefore, if sulphur be a specific, and tar little less so; and if in the mixture these do not interfere with each other, and they do not); if a stimulant be useful, which tar is, then surely it is prudent to unite these benefits; and if so, the veterinarian cannot find a better remedy than this ointment.”
Lotions have been applied with success, which some prefer as not being so dirty a process. Corrosive Sublimate
2 drachms, Spirit of Wine
3 ounces, to which, when perfectly dissolved by rubbing in the mortar, must be added three pints of a decoction from tobacco.
In the application of ointments, the scurf and scabs ought to be first removed by aid of the comb or brush, which will materially assist the unguent in penetrating the affected parts; and when mercury is resorted to both externally and internally, the mouth must be frequently looked to.
In very obstinate cases, the following may be tried :Mercurial Ointment
8 ounces, Crude Sal-ammoniac
14 ounces, Flowers of Sulphur
5 ounces, Soap
2 ounces, which must be made into a soft ointment, by the addition of turpentine.
It must be borne in mind that the Mange will be more speedily cured, by the ointments being well rubbed in, than by carelessly daubing it on.
A brush may not be inaptly used for the purpose.
WARTS, OR WENS.
These are tumours found occasionally on different parts of the body. They seldom give any pain, and are very slow in growth; but are no more ornamental to the horse, than to the hands of a human being; cases of their producing lameness are very rare, and their birth is generally spontaneous. Many methods are resorted to in order to get rid of them. Occasionally they are cut off, and the root touched with caustic; at other times when cut, they are seared with a red-hot iron; and, indeed, unless some steps are taken, they spring up again. Where the knife cannot be used, the following ointment will serve to kill themSal Ammoniac
1 drachm, Powdered Savin
4 drachms, Hog's Lard
5 drachms, this must be applied every day. Gibson, speaking on the subject, says,
“ I was once concerned in the case of a very fine horse that had a large wen on the lower part of his neck, near the windpipe, which was cut off with a sharp instrument. It grew from a small beginning, not bigger than a walnut, to the bulk of a middle sized melon, without pain or inflammation ; but at last it became troublesome, and affected the motion of the shoulders. This substance was then cut off, and it appeared to be no other than a mass of fungous flesh, a little variegated in its colour, and probably proceeding from a rupture of some very small twigs of the jugular arteries, which being enlarged by a continual afflux of the blood, caused so great an effusion of blood from the several orifices, that it was with difficulty stopped by the application of cautery."
A ligature of waxed thread bound tightly round these tumours, will cause them to drop off after some time.
Swellings, which sometimes rise on the cap of the hock, or on the point of the elbow, may be said to rank under this head.
EPILEPSY, OR FITS.
LUCKILY this disease is not frequent among horses ; but from a difficulty in discovering the precise origin of it, the animal ought, if valuable, to be placed under the care of an able and experienced professor, for if care be not taken, the habit of fits will soon be formed, often returning, at no very distant periods.
Causes.—These are various. Fulness of blood; overfeeding and want of exercise, may produce it. On the other hand, too violent exertion and surfeits tend to bring it on; care should be taken likewise that the collar has not too great a pressure when in draught, which prevents a free circulation of the blood, and obstructs its passage from the head.
Symptoms.-When first attacked, if in exercise, the animal stops suddenly, trembles, looks vacantly and irresolutely around, and presently proceeds; or otherwise staggers round, and falls insensible; where, after lying sometimes stretched out as dead, sometimes violently convulsed, he rises, and generally dungs and urines.
Treatment.—To prevent Epilepsy is no easy matter
when the horse is aged; but the following might be efficaciously used in ordinary cases, as a cure :Camphor
1 drachm, Tartar Emetic
1 drachm, Assafoetida
2 drachms, mixed with as much liquorice-powder and honey as will make a ball of a convenient size. Administer one every night and morning, provided the bowels have been previously opened by a clyster ; not unfrequently the following drink is preferred:Castor Oil
6 ounces. Tincture of Opium
4 drachms. Prepared Kali
4 drachms. Ginger
1 ounce. This is administered once every twelve hours, in a pint of warm gruel. Bleeding a full plethoric horse, followed by mercurial alteratives, with an occasional purgative, and then turned to grass for three months, is recommended by Blaine as a successful method of destroying habitual Epilepsy.
- This is generally confined to the hinder parts of a horse, and is called Paraplegia. Palsy, or Hemiplegia, is very rare ; on this occasion the brain is affeectd, the muscular powers are relaxed, and one side of the animal being paralysed, he falls, and all efforts to raise him are vain.
Causes.—Numerous causes might be assigned. A sudden slip, a heavy blow on the spine, being confined in a narrow stall and turning round too hastily, all
tend to weaken the vertebræ. Too much exercise, and when purging is checked too rapidly, will produce paralysis.
Symptoms.—The part affected becomes powerless, attended sometimes with an unusual shaking motion, most frequently of the hinder limbs. In extreme cases, the animal has been affected inwardly.
Treatment.-Old horses can rarely be cured; especially if over-worked when young. Should the disease appear in the younger animal, more hopes may be entertained of a cure. The treatment must, however, depend greatly upon the cause or the extent of the injury. The following purge may be tried suc. cessfully : Ginger
2 drachms, Castile Soap
2 drachms, Barbadoes Aloes
8 drachms, made into a ball. The spine may be rubbed with warm terebinthinated embrocation. Camphor
1 ounce, Common Soap
1 ounce, Oil of Turpentine
4 ounces, will be found a useful embrocation, from its stimulating nature; this were best applied till the horse feels sensible of the parts affected. Internal remedies are not in general use, although strychnos nux vomica, (vulg., crow-fig), has been used with some success; commencing with about eight grains, and gradually increasing it, taking care not to give the animal so much as will depress the action of the pulse, and create torpor.