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fully treated, by syringing their noses with sharp stimulating liquids, which, by irritating the membranes already too much inflamed, brought on ulcerations and a continued discharge of purulent matter that could not be stopped, with swellings of the glands, which ended in caries of the bones.

About ten years afterwards, in 1734, another epidemical disease happened. This proved more fatal than the former, though from its short continuance it was much less noticed, for many horses recovered so far as to be out of danger in two or three days. In this the horse coughed violently, and many of the hackney-coach horses and cart-horses that were obliged to work were observed to run greatly at the nose.

“ Some were seized suddenly with a high degree of fever, and their flesh apparently seemed so sore and tender, that they could scarcely bear to be touched. They were generally costive, staled but little, and that with pain and straining, and the urine was of a very high colour. They refused all manner of sustenance, and were so extremely sick that they could not drink, neither would many of them lie down, till the disease came to a crisis ; yet with treating them with cooling and opening medicines, and with plentiful bleeding, they generally recovered. Some of the horses affected with it had very hot and inflamed eruptions, which broke out in several parts with blisters resembling erysipelas. Those that came to maturity appeared generally on the inside of the arm or fore-legs, near the elbow or towards the neck; and some of them had large bags of water collected on their sides or bellies, or towards their flanks near the inguinal glands, constituting what the farriers called the Water-farcy. Some had been costive before they were seized, for their dung was extremely hard and black. Under these circumstances, soft and oily clysters were injected to relax the bowels, and in some cases the bleeding was repeated ; cooling infusions were given, with nitre, cream of tartar, &c., with a view to promote both dung and urine, and by that means to abate the febrile heat. This, in fact, not only took off the fever, but caused critical discharges from the boils, which at first had but a very indifferent aspect, to digest into good matter; so that none of the horses that were thus treated did amiss; and where some died in the hands of unskilful persons, it was generally owing to their giving them cordials before the fever abated, and their stomachs were in a condition to receive food."

Causes.—This disorder appears from general observation to arise from the liability of the constitution to be affected at particular times of the year, as the spring and fall, &c.

Treatment.—This must depend entirely on the violence of the attack and the symptoms exhibited; generally there is a slight fever, and if the animal has a cough which does not materially distress or weaken him, after taking a little blood, and attending to the state of his bowels and keeping them open, hopes may be entertained of a speedy recovery to his former state of good health. Should the soreness of the throat cause a difficulty in swallowing, and show symptoms of great inflammation, when the glands under the eurs become swelled, likewise a blister may be applied, and bleed according to the condition of the horse. The bowels must be opened, but not purged. A clyster may be given, and if the bowels appear obstinate to give the following aperient

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Barbadoes Aloes

1 ounce, Castile Soap

1 ounce, Ginger

1 drachm, made into a ball with treacle or honey. Should the purging come on spontaneously, and the disorder not relieved by it, use opium or catechu to stop it. After which give Tartar Emetic

- 2 drachms, Nitre

• 3 drachms, Cream of Tartar

2 drachms, made into a ball with treacle or honey, and administered twice a day. But should the throat be too sore to allow of the use of the ball, give the following draught :Emetic Tartar

2 drachms, Nitre

3 drachms, dissolved in six or seven ounces of water; to which add of Simple Oxymel

4 ounces, given twice or three times a day, as the judgment directs.

Cordials must be abstained from in this disease, as they only serve to increase the inflammation. Keep the horse well clothed, and procure green food if possible. Bran mashes may be likewise given. When the breathing indicates any inflammatory symptoms on the lungs, a blister to the chest will afford relief.

Malignant and putrid epidemics of this kind have occasionally visited different countries; particularly one in Italy, in 1712, and circumstantially narrated by Lancisi. Osmer speaks of a distemper which he says was prevalent during no less a space than fifty years, and that very frequently the symptoms were very malignant in their natures.

MANGE.

This is a cutaneous disease, the skin being covered with a pimpled eruption, and accompanied with great tenderness and an incessant itching. When once assured that a horse is afflicted with it, too great carc cannot be taken that its contagious qualities may not extend to others. Not unfrequently has the disease been contracted by transferring the hand from a mangy horse to the healthy one ; and it should not be forgotten that it may be propagated by means of the harness and trappings. Before the efficacy of chloride of lime, in dispelling the danger of contagion, became known, some careful farmers have thrown down their stables to prevent the possibility of infection. The mangy horse should have a brush and curry-comb distinct from the others, which ought to be burnt when the animal is cured: the clothing ought likewise to be well soaked in water, mixed with a fortieth part of the saturated solution of chloride of lime, and undergo a thorough washing with soap.

Causes.—Poverty, and want of cleanliness, are frequently the sources whence this disease springs. Horses allowed to range the road-sides, where grass is very scarce, and those which are allowed to eat much straw instead of good and wholesome nourishing food, become lean and thin ; the digestive organs are weakened, and the constitution begins to fail, and the Mange is the consequence: not unfrequently, a defective perspiration produces it.

Symptoms.-It generally shows itself first at the root of the hair of the mane and tail, by a vast quantity of scurf being gathered about those parts, and even before any eruption has commenced. When the horse is scratched or examined, on which occasion the short hair at the root frequently comes out, it may be looked upon as suspicious, which a few days will develope, by the appearance of spots of a watery nature on the body, and these shortly turn into scabby patches, devoid of hair.

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Treatment.-When the condition of the horse is good, it will hasten the cure to bleed; but if the animal be poor and ill-conditioned, nutritive food ought to be immediately administered ; which, as debility is overcome, will materially advance the cure. The following alterative may be used :Corrosive Sublimate

10 grains. Nitre

4 drachms Cream of Tartar

4 drachms. This is best administered in a mash nightly. Ointments and washes of various kinds are used by different persons. With the above medicine, it will be found efficacions to use the following ointment :Flowers of Sulphur

• 8 ounces, White Hellebore

3 ounces, Hog's Lard

1 pound, to which you may

add a little oil. This may be rubbed over the parts affected every second or third day; and if the horse be well groomed and taken care of, at the same time exercised moderately, the cure will be speedy.

The following is given by Blaine as a most efficacious ointment : Finely powdered Arsenic

1 drachm, Flowers of Sulphur

- 6 ounces, Barbadoes Tar

half a pound, Train Oil

- 6 ounces,

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