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of a blister upon the belly, as near the seat of the disease as possible. Cantharides will be quick in their action, but mustard made up with turpentine will be better. If the clysters fail, mild laxatives may be used, given as draughts in gruel-castor oil and aloes will be strong enough. Green food is best while the animal is suffering from the effects of this disease; frequent rubbing of the legs, and a judicious quantity of clothing, is necessary. Several day's rest is required before the horse can be used, and the exercise should be gentle at first.
INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNIES.
Is by no means very common among horses, but it is more frequently fatal from improper treatment, and a misunderstanding of the symptoms and causes, than the immediate fatality of the disease itself.
Causes.-Food will often cause it, as musty oats, or mow-burnt hay; exposure to cold; an awkward horseman, especially if heavy, will sometimes bruise the kidnies, and inflammation succeeds; and the same will follow when medicines in the quality of diuretics are used improperly, or in too great doses.
Symptoms.--A difficulty in passing urine, which often comes away bloody ; great pain across the loins when pressed ; and as the disease advances, the pulse becomes small and very quick.
Treatment.--Bleeding should be promptly resorted to, and that liberally. If costiveness exists to any extent, back-rake, and then use a clyster; in some cases an active aloe purge may be administered likewise ; but at all times abstain from diuretics, as very injurious and dangerous. Turpentine and cantharides sh vld also be avoided; but a mustard blister across the loins will be an effective remedy in producing counterinflammation. Nausea will tend greatly to allay the inflammation, for which purpose White Hellebore
1 drachm, Emetic Tartar
1 drachm, may be administered as a draught in camomile tea every five or six hours. This is to be given after the purge has produced its effect. The animal should be warmly clothed. The symptoms of this disease are very similar to inflammation of the body or neck of the bladder, suppression of urine being the effects of both. To ascertain if the bladder be affected, it will be necessary to pass the hand up the rectum, and the bladder will be no hotter than the other parts when the kidnies only are affected, whereas in the other case the bladder is exceedingly hot and tender,
INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER.
When the body of the bladder is affected, the symptoms and cause are very similar to the last disease; and the only difference in the treatment, is, that the horse should be allowed to drink freely, and warm clysters of gruel may be carefully thrown into the bladder, but this requires a person of some knowledge and judgment of the structure of the horse.
In inflammation of the neck of the bladder, which is easily known by feeling that organ directly under the rectum, and will be full of urine, the first object must be to relax the spasm, which contracts the neck and compresses the muscles, thus obstructing the free passage of the urine.
Treatment.—Bleed copiously; sometimes this has been done till the animal was exhausted, and the disease has disappeared. The nauseant given in the disease of the kidnies may then be tried; and if the case is obstinate, apply a blister, and give a drachm of opium in a ball.
When the bladder is affected with stone, diuretics are useful to cause a full flow of urine. Cutting for the stone seldom succeeds in horses
DISTEMPER, OR INFLUENZA.
This is a species of cold which attacks horses at certain seasons, although it rages with different epidemic symptoms in different years, and is occasionally prevalent only in certain districts. In the spring, when the animals are shedding their hair, easterly winds are more common than at any other season of the year, and the change from wet to dry, from cold to heat, is very irregular ; being then more defenceless against cold, this disease often makes its appearance.
Two opinions are held respecting it, some asserting it to be highly contagious, others, again, disputing that point. Gibson, however, tells us of a highly contagious influenza which made its appearance in London in 1732. His account is very precise and excellent. He says
“ That the horses were seized suddenly with a drysounding cough, which shook them so violently that they appeared ready to drop with hard straining and want of breath. Their throats were sore, and the glands were much swelled and inflamed, and painful to the touch. For the first two days most of them refused all manner of food as well as water; and had so many other bad symptoms, that when this distemper first broke out it seemed to threaten a mortality among them. Indeed, the only good sign they had was a running at the nose, which generally began on the third day, and continued in a very profuse degree for five or six days. While this secretion continued they could not feed much, though their appetites were not deficient. Hence they lost their flesh exceedingly, whilst the violence of the complaint lasted; but as soon as the distemper abated, they began to eat voraciously, and soon recovered. This distemper, though seldom fatal, yet was so very catching, that when any horse was seized with it, those horses that stood on each side of him were generally infected as soon as he began to run at the nose. While this sickness lasted, about one hundred troop-horses under my care were seized with it. ` I always caused the sick horses to be separated from those in health, and in one troop of horse-grenadiers we filled a stable of thirty-six stalls in three days, and another of eighteen in three or four days more; nevertheless, all of them recovered in a short time. And many other horses belonging to private gentlemen that were placed under my care did well, without any remaining injury from the distemper; and it was remarkable that some which had been subject to a dry cough before this sickness continued, were free from it for some time afterwards, though I do not remember that any of them were absolutely cured of it.
“ The horses that chiefly escaped the distemper were those that had been kept in constant strong exercise, or full aged horses, many of which remained uninfected though very much exposed to it. The method of treating the malady, as may be supposed, was simple and easy. As soon as the horses were attacked, they were bled plentifully, which evidently gave them relief, many of them being feverish and very shortbreathed.
“ Afterwards mucilaginous drinks, in which linseed, liquorice, and garlic were predominant materials, were exhibited, and with these were given balls made of the aromatic powders mixed with honey, balsam of sulphur, and the oils of aniseed. In some cases it was thought necessary to give about half a pint of white wine with a few ounces of oxymel and squills. After they began to run at the nose, the complaint began to abate ; and as soon as the horse looked somewhat lively, and began to eat, the use of the medicines was suspended, and he was allowed plenty of water, with free air and exercise.
“ This disease it seems began near London about the middle of September. It became general in about six weeks or two months, and made so swift a progress, that in the space of one week there was scarcely a stable without the infection. The time of its continuance in each horse was but short. Some horses were perfectly recovered in a week or ten days, some in a fortnight, and few continued under it longer than three weeks or a month before they recovered their flesh, and their usual strength and vigour. Scarcely any indeed did amiss, except such as had been unsl..