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the leg to ease the ligaments, the injury of which causes the lameness. Blisters applied to the coronet are the best means of cure, which should be speedy, as the use of the joint may soon be lost if the ligaments become ossified. This lameness is often confounded by ignorant persons with affections of the shoulder. When the sprain and heat of the coffin-joint is but slight, fomentation and bleeding has been sufficient. It is the ossification of the ligaments of this joint that degenerates into Ringbone.

BROKEN KNEES

Are always to be regarded with suspicion, and a careful scrutiny of the make and action of the horse is requisite when any blemish appears on the knee; not but that a bad rider or a trifling accident has been known to throw the most perfect horses, and consequently some judgment is required in discerning the qualities and motion of these animals. When a horse has fallen, if the skin only be affected, after washing the knee carefully with warm water, some have applied a blister to promote the growth of the hair around the blemish, and by contracting the wound, make the spot or scar less perceptible when healed. The use of ointments to produce hair on the scar is at once fallacious and absurd, although the use of gunpowder and lard is resorted to, which blackens the part, and thus partially conceals the blemish. If, however, the joint be affected, and the oily fluid flow from the wound, the first care must be to stop it, for which refer to Anchylosis, page 57. If, however, the orifice is very great, and the joint-oil continues to flow, the case is hopeless, and the wisest plan is to destroy the animal. This it

may be remarked is in extreme cases, which do but seldom happen. The old practice of injecting stimulant fluid into the wounds, is now abandoned as useless, and is one of the many cruelties the farriers of by-gone days used frequently to have recourse to.

STRAINS IN THE BACK-Sinews

Are very serious, and require the greatest attention, and are generally a distention of the sheaths of the tendons, and more rarely of the tendons themselves. Violent exercise of all kinds, as galloping, leaping, &c., produces this complaint. As usual with every disease of a similar nature, the usual accompaniments are inflammation, swelling, and tenderness. The first attempt must be to subdue that inflammation by bleeding the thigh or plate-vein, according as the injury is situated before or behind. The use of warm fomentations are useful, and sometimes blood may be aptly drawn from the toe.

Some cases require blistering, but never use any thing of that nature while heat and tenderness exist, as severe sprains when treated badly often require to be fired, which must always be done in straight lines. Rest is perfectly requisite in all cases of strain or sprain. In ordinary cases, after subduing the inflammation, a bandage bound round the part affected, and gradually increasing the pressure on each removal of it, will suffice. After firing for the severer sprains, six or eight months run at grass will conduce to a horse's benefit.

RUPTURE OF THE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS,

Or ". Breaking down,” as the farriers term it, is an

accident of a very serious nature; and since it is but very

seldom cured, we must consider it very fortunate that its occurrence is rare among horses. It has not unfrequently been taken for a rupture of the flexor tendons, but the great strength of these latter organs does not readily admit of such a circumstance, consequently their rupture is even still rarer than the Suspensory Ligaments. If the tendons were thus affected, the animal could not bend its leg; and in the other case the fetlock-joint comes nearly to the ground instead of maintaining its oblique and natural position. After the inflammation is reduced, a heeled shoe is used by some, which elevates the heel and bends the toe downwards. Bandages cannot be well applied from the position of the disease. Firing is resorted to, and thus in time a little strength is obtained, and the ani. mal may be used when great exertion is not required, for as the fetlock never wholly recovers its natural position, much of its mechanical power must consequently be lost.

LAMENESS IN THE SHOULDER,

Is by no means so frequent as some suppose, for it is a very general practice among farriers and others to attribute any lameness, of which there is no visible cause, and of which they cannot give any ostensible reason, to an affection of the shoulder; and from this many serious results often accrue to horses. The adductor muscles are frequently the seat of this disease when it arises from a slip or side wrench. Some assert it exists in the tendons of the flexor brachii ; and sometimes the scapular and humeral ligaments of the articulations are affected. On the appearance of this lameness, (which may be detected from its existence in the foot and other parts of the limb by the peculiar movement of the leg, and the method of resting the foot on the ground), first subdue the inflammation, and that if great, must be done by bleeding the platevein, and foment with camomile flowers three or four times a day. When the ligaments are affected, it has been deemed necessary to insert a rowel in the chest. When the inflammatory symptoms have been removed, a blister has effected much good in some cases. When the muscles appear stiff and affected, the application of a liquid blister, asCantharides

8 or 10 ounces, Oil of Turpentine

2 quarts, Sweet or Olive Oil

l quart, used twice a day; and when it brings on a fresh swelling and inflammation, allow it to subside, and then rub the parts affected a second time, and the probability is a cure will be the result. Farriers of the ok school, sometimes imagining that dislocation had taken place, used to turn the animal into the water to swim to effect a remedy. Great benefit will be derived from . turning a horse to grass after the shoulder has been strained, as great fatigue and exercise will cause a relapse, and all sprains or strains require rest and

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OVERREACH,

Is what some horses cannot avoid, and care should be taken to place the hinder shoes as far back as possible, as when the hind foot strikes the fore leg, thr consequence is the disease just named. If the flexo tendons be struck and inflamed, as is not unlikely

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be the case, refer to “ Strains in the Back Sinews,” and treat accordingly

WARBLES.

When the saddle or harness presses too heavily, tumours are formed, known under the name of Warbles, which may be soon removed by means of saturnine washes, as vinegar, &c. ; but when neglected, they will degenerate into what is termed Sitfasts; and these are so named from a callous skin not unlike leather in its appearance, being seated in the centre of the ulcer, and this cannot be abstracted without great pain; some farriers are rash enough to tear it away with pincers. The best method is to introduce a seton, or apply a blister, and if it is still obstinate, dissect it carefully, and let the wound be dressed with Turner's cerate.

GUN-SHOT WOUNDS.

Though of rare occurrence, except in times of war and commotion, still seem to demand a place in a wor.. of this nature, which is intended for universal pra:titioners.

Gibson says“ Gun-shot wounds can be considered in no other light than as contused wounds. In those made by a musket or a pistol-ball, the most immediate considerations are to extract the ball, or any other extraneous body which may be lodged in the wounded part, and to stop the haemorrhage, if there be any effusion of blood from the rupture of any considerable artery,

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