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terinary College many cases have been successfully treated by means of the seton.


May arise from two causes : First, from the continued violent exercise to which some horses are subjected, when the synovia or liquid which moistens the surface of the joint bones in their action against each other becomes encrusted or ossified ; and, second! from wounds when the synovia escapes outwards; and this more frequently occurs in the knee and hock, either from accident or from the mismanagement of ignorant farriers; sometimes it appears in the coffin and pasteru joints.

Treatment. This in the first place must greatıy depend upon the length of time the disease has been progressing; although in most instances the cure cannot be perfectly effective, yet something may be done to palliate the symptoms. When wounds appear in the joint, the cure must be made by closing them as speedily as possible. Apply a small quantity of butter of antimony to the opening of the wound, and slightly sear it with a hot iron, then bandage it to keep the air away; a fomentation of marshmallows may be used to keep down the swelling or inflammation. The antimony may be used every other day until the wound has healed


Are eniargements on the back part of the hock, and

situated generally about four or five inches below the point of the hock. Any sudden action of the limbs will produce them, as racers have “thrown out curbs" after trials where their speed has been severely tested, as also have hunters in leaping and galloping over very heavy soil. Such horses as are cow-hocked are very subject to Curbs. This disease is especially a mark of unsoundness, for the horse requires a long period of rest to be thoroughly cured, and if too early worked or exercised the lameness is sure to return. Blistering is the usual mode resorted to, and in obstinate cases firing. When the inflammation and lameness is very great, bleeding from the subcutaneous vein, and gently physicing, has been found necessary.


Is a swelling on the two opposite sides of the hockjoint, and is so called from its appearance of running from side to side through the joint. Unless very large, it seldom occasions lameness, although it is a sign that the animal has been subjected to undue work. These swellings being somewhat akin in their nature to Windgalls may be treated as under that head. .


Are allied together. Blood-Spavin presenting “ something like a varicosed enlargement of the superficial vein passing over the inside of the hock; which, however, appears by no means a spontaneous disease in the vessel, but is the consequence of the pressure of a distended bursal capsule underneath, which, it

self becoming sufficiently prominent to attract notice, is called Bog-Spavin.”

This latter is far more dangerous than the former disease, as it is with great difficulty acted upon. Horses affected with either are very unfit for hard work, or such as requires speed, which usually brings a lameness. A bandage so contrived as to leave thə point of the hock free, and having a considerable pressure on the other parts, will cause the absorption of the fluid ; this, however, is not easily contrived, and modern practitioners have recourse to the blister, and if this does not prove efficient, firing may be resorted to, although Bog-Spavin will generally return despite all our efforts to remove it. The old method of

passing a ligature both above and below that portion of the vein which was enlarged, is now discontinued as absurd and useless. Blood-Spavin is of much rarer occurrence than Bog-Spavin, the one being generally mistaken for the other.


Are consequent on violent exercise and hard work; they are situated just above the fetlock-joint, and consist of small swellings which yield to the pressure of the finger and immediately return on its removal. All horses are more or less subject to them, and they are found more frequently on the hind than the forelegs. If they are not large, a run at grass will often remove them ; if, however, lameness should accrue, first apply a bandage or roller to each leg; these must be wound tightly round the enlargements to produce any effect, and wetted with a lotion of four parts of vinegar to one of spirits of wine. After this, if tbey are not lessened, or should they return with exercise, blister, and, as a last resource, firing generally absorps the fluid, reduces the swellings, and prevents any reappearance of the disease.


In cases of this kind, which are of rare occurrence, except from Spavin or a kick from another horse, fomentations, rest, and bleeding, will be found the most efficient remedies.


Is a peculiar and involuntary catching up of the hind ley higher than is necessary for the ordinary motion of the horse, No cure has ever been discovered for it, but this may arise from the precise cause and nature of the infirmity being involved in some obscurity: fortunately, however, no injury accrues to the horse from it, although its appearance is ugly.

Capped Hock,

Is not generally accompanied with lameness, but the appearance is very unsightly. It is usually found in horses given to kicking, hence all afflicted with capped hocks are regarded with a suspicious eye. It is sometimes occasioned by not allowing the animal a sufficient bed or litter. Blisters are the most effectual remedies, although when the swellings have becoine very large and callous they cannot be removed.


Scurfy or scabby eruptions are sometimes found at the bend of the knee, and these are termed Mallenders; when the same appearances are seen inside the hock, they assume the name of Sallenders. They do not occasion lameness, but are very unsightly, and when left to themselves, will degenerate into an ichorous discharge not easily got rid of. They are easily cured by smearing with the following ointment :Tar

2 ounces. Sugar of lead

1 ounce. Lard

6 ounces. And if this fail, a weak mercurial ointment may be used. Eeither of these diseases denote bad stablemanagement.

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Is generally known by the horse dragging the leg after him on the toe. Any injury to this bone, which constitutes the hip-joint, is treated with considerable difficulty from its situation ; luckily, however, it is of rare occurrence. Foment with camphorated spirits of wine, and if the relief is not speedy, blister repeatedly. In some obstinate cases it may be

necessary to fire the part.


Sometimes occurs when the animal stands with the toe forward, keeping the pastern in a straight lice with

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