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the antimony with the sublimate, are highly noxious, and sometimes issue so copiously and suddenly as to be avoided with great difficulty. The utmost circumspection, therefore, is necessary. The butter of antimony, as it is called, appears to be a solution of the metallic part of the antimony in the marine acid of the sublimate; the sulphur of the antimony, and the mercury of the sublimate, remain at the bottom of the retort, united into an æthiops. The solution does not succeed with spirit of salt in its liquid state, and cannot be effected, unless, (as in the case of making sublimate,) either the acid be highly concentrated, and both the ingredients strongly heated, or, when the antimony is exposed to the vapours of the acid distilled from the black calx of manganese. By this last process, a perfect solution of the regulus of the antimony in the muriatic acid is effected. Of this more simple, more safe, and less expensive method, of preparing muriatic antimony, an account is given by Mr. Russel, in the Transactions of the Edinburgh Royal Society.


Take of antimony, coarsely powdered, hartshorn shavings, each two pounds; mix and put them into a wide red-hot iron pot, stirring constantly till the mass acquires a grey colour.

Powder the matter when cold, and put it into a coated crucible. Lute to it another crucible inverted, which has a small hole in its bottom ; increase the fire by degrees to a red heat, and keep it so for two hours. Lastly, reduce the matter, when cold, to a very fine powder.

In this preparation, which is the celebrated James's powder, the metallic part of the antimony, in a state of calx, will be united with that part of the hartshorn which is indestructible by fire ; viz., an absorbent earth. If this powder be properly prepared, it is of a white colour. It is a mild antimonial preparation, and is given as an alterative.


Take of antimony, powdered, two pounds; water of pure kali, four pints; distilled water, three pints; mix, and boil them with a slow fire for three hours, constantly stirring, and adding the distilled water as it may be wanted; strain the hot ley through a double linen cloth, and drop into the hot liquor, by degrees, as much diluted vitriolic acid as is sufficient to precipitate the sulphur. Wash off, with warm water, the

. vitriolated kali


Boil, in an iron pot, four pounds of caustic ley, diluted with three pints of water, and throw in, by degrees, two pounds of powdered antimony, keeping them continually stirring with an iron spatula for three hours, over a gentle fire, and occasionally supplying more water.

The liquor, loaded with the sulphur of antimony, being then strained through a woollen cloth, drops into it gradually, while it continues hot, so much spirit of nitre, diluted with an equal quantity of water, as shall be sufficient to precipitate the sulphur, which is afterwards to be carefully washed with hot water.

The foregoing preparations are not strictly sulphurs; chey contain a considerable quantity of the metallic part of the antimony, which is reducible from them by

proper fluxes.

These preparations must of course be liable to great variations in point of strength, and in this respect they are perhaps the most precarious, though some have affirmed that they are the most certain of the antimonial medicines. They prove emetic when taken in the human stomach, in a dose of from four to six grains ; but they are scarcely prescribed with this intention, being chiefly used as alterative deobstruents, particularly in cutaneous disorders.


Take of crocus of antimony, powdered, one pound and a half; crystals of tartar, two pounds, distilled water, two gallons ; boil in a glass vessel, about a quarter of an hour, filter through paper, and set aside the strained liquor to chrystalise.


Take of the butter of antimony what quantity you choose, pour it into warm water, in which as much of the purified vegetable fixed alkali has been previously dissolved, that the antimonial powder may be precipitated, which after being well washed, is to be dried. Then, to five pounds of water, add, of this powder, nine drachms; of chrystals of tartar, beat into a very fine powder, two ounces and a half; boil until the powders are dissolved. Let the strained solution be slowly evaporated in a glass vessel to a pellicle, so that chrystals may be formed. The above are two modes of making the most common, and perhaps the most useful of all the antimonial preparations, long known in the shops under the name of emetic tartar.

These modes differ considerably from each other, but in both, the reguline part of the antimony is united with the acid of the tartar. It is, perhaps, difficult to say to which mode of preparation the preference is to be given, for on this point the best chymists are still divided in their opinions.

The mode directed by the London College, is nearly the same with that of former editions of their pharma copoeia, while that which is now adopted in Edinburgh is of later date. It is very certain, however, that by either mode, a good emetic tartar may be formed. Bergman advises, that if the calx be precipated by an alkaline ley, it is more certainly freed from the muriatic acid.

In the after part of the process, whether precipitate or crocus have been used, the quality of the antimonial ought always to be some drachms more than is absolutely necessary for saturating the acid of tartar, so that no chrystals may shoot which are not impregnated with the active metallic part of the antimony. And, in order to secure an uniform strength, some attention is necessary in collecting the chrystals as some may contain more metal than others.

After they are all separated from the liquor, they should be rubbed together in a glass mortar, into a fine powder, that the medicine may be of uniform strength. Emetic tartar is, of all the preparation of antimony, the most certain in its operation in the human subject, when given even in a dose of a single grain ; and it is an excellent alterative for horses, in

doses from half a drachm to two drachms so that the ditferent proportion between the horse and the man, varies more in this medicine than in many others; for it appears that the horse can take forty times as much emetic tartar as a man ; but in regard to aloes, twenty times the quantity taken by a man, is quite sufficient for a horse.


Take of powdered antimony four ounces; calcine it in a broad earthen vessel, with a fire gradually raised, stirring with an iron rod, until it no longer emits a sulphurous smoke.

Put this powder into a crucible, so as to fill two thirds of it. A cover being first fitted on, make a fire under it, at first moderate, afterwards stronger, until the matter be melted. Pour out the melted glass.


Strew antimony, beat it into a coarse powder, like sand, upon a shallow unglazed earthen pan, and apply a gentle heat underneath, that the antimony may be heated slowly, keeping it at the same time continually stirring to prevent it from running into lumps. White vapours of a sulphurous smell will arise from it. If they cease to exhale with the degree of heat first applied, increase the fire a little, so that the vapours may again rise; go on in this manner till the powder, when brought to a red heat, exhales no more vapours. Melt the calx in a crucible with an intense heat, till it assumes the appearance of melted glass, then pour it

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