« PreviousContinue »
tion, like that of every preparation of antimony, whose reguline part is not joined with the acid, must be liable to variations, according to the quantity and condition of the acid of the stomach. Farriers frequently give to horses an ounce or two in the day, divided into different doses, as an alterative. In the horse, and other quadrupeds of the herbiverous tribe, it acts chiefly as a diaphoretic. The chemists have been accustomed to make the crocus with a less proportion of nitre than what is directed above, and without any farther melting than what ensues from the heat which the matter acquires by deflagration, which, when the quantity is large, is very considerable ; a little common salt is added to promote the fusion. The mixture is put, by degrees, into an iron pot or mortar, somewhat heated, and placed under a chimney ; when the first ladleful is in, a piece of lighted charcoal is thrown to it, which sets the matter on fire; the rest of the mixture is then added by little and little, the deflagration is soon over, and the whole appears in perfect fusion; when cold, a considerable quantity of scoriac is found on the surface, which scoriac is easily knocked off with a hammer. The crocus prepared in this manner is of a redder colour than that of the former edition of the London Pharmacopoeia. And, indeed, the method now directed by the London College may be considered as founded on this. It differs principally from that of the Edinburgh College in the employment of the sea-salt, by which the process is much facilitated.
Is prepared by taking of the crocus of antimony, powdered, and vitriolic acid, of each one pound; dry sea-salt, two pounds. Pour the vitriolic acid into a retort, adding, by degrees, the sea-salt and the crocus of antimony, previously mixed; then distil in a sandbath. Let the distilled matter be exposed to the air for several days, and then let the fluid part be poured off from the dregs.
BUTTER OF ANTIMONY.
Take crude, one part; corrosive sublimate, two parts. Grind them first separately, then thoroughly mix them together, taking the utmost care to avoid the vapours. Put the mixture into a coated glass retort, (having a short wide neck), so as to fill one half of it; the retort being placed in a sand-furnace, and a receiver adapted to it; give first, a gentle heat, that only dewy vapours may arise ; the fire being then increased, an oily liquor will ascend and condense in the neck of the retort, appearing like ice, which is to be melted down by a live goal cautiously applied. This oily matter is to be rectified in a glass retort into a pellucid liquor.
The process here directed by the College of Edinburgh is extremely dangerous, insomuch, that even the life of the operator, though tolerably versed in common pharmacy, may be endangered for want of due
Boerhave relates a case of a man who was suffocated for want of due care to prevent the bursting of the retort. The fumes which arise, even on mixing the antimony with the sublimate, are highly noxious, and sometimes issue so copiously and suddenly as to be avoided with great difficulty. The utmost circumspection, therefore, is necessary. The butter of antimony, as it is called, appears to be a solution of the metallic part of the antimony in the marine acid of the sublimate; the sulphur of the antimony, and the mercury of the sublimate, remain at the bottom of the retort, united into an æthiops. The solution does not succeed with spirit of salt in its liquid state, and cannot be effected, unless, (as in the case of making sublimate,) either the acid be highly concentrated, and both the ingredients strongly heated, or, when the antimony is exposed to the vapours of the acid distilled from the black calx of manganese. By this last process, a perfect solution of the regulus of the antimony in the muriatic acid is effected. Of this more simple, more safe, and less expensive method, of preparing muriatic antimony, an account is given by Mr. Russel, in the Transactions of the Edinburgh Royal Society.
Take of antimony, coarsely powdered, hartshorn shavings, each two pounds; mix and put them into a wide red-hot iron pot, stirring constantly till the mass acquires a grey colour.
Powder the matter when cold, and put it into a coated crucible. Lute to it another crucible inverted, which has a small hole in its bottom ; increase the fire by degrees to a red heat, and keep it so for two hours. Lastly, reduce the matter, when cold, to a very fine powder.
In this preparation, which is the celebrated James's powder, the metallic part of the antimony, in a state of calx, will be united with that part of the hartshorn which is indestructible by fire; viz., an absorbent earth. If this powder be properly prepared, it is of a white colour. It is a mild antimonial preparation, and is given as an alterative.
PRECIPITATED SULPHUR OF ANTIMONY.
Take of antimony, powdered, two pounds; water of pure kali, four pints; distilled water, three pints; mix, and boil them with a slow fire for three hours, constantly stirring, and adding the distilled water as it may be wanted ; strain the hot ley through a double linen cloth, and drop into the hot liquor, by degrees, as much diluted vitriolic acid as is sufficient to precipitate the sulphur. Wash off, with warm water, the vitriolated kali
GOLDEN SULPHUR OF ANTIMONY.
Boil, in an iron pot, four pounds of caustic ley, diluted with three pints of water, and throw in, by degrees, two pounds of powdered antimony, keeping them continually stirring with an iron spatula for three hours, over a gentle fire, and occasionally supplying more water.
The liquor, loaded with the sulphur of antimony, being then strained through a woollen cloth, drops into it gradually, while it continues hot, so much spirit of nitre, diluted with an equal quantity of water, as shall be sufficient to precipitate the sulphur, which is afterwards to be carefully washed with hot water.
The foregoing preparations are not strictly sulphurs; they contain a considerable quantity of the metallic part of the antimony, which is reducible from them by
These preparations must of course be liable to great variations in point of strength, and in this respect they are perhaps the most precarious, though some have affirmed that they are the most certain of the antimonial medicines. They prove emetic when taken in the human stomach, in a dose of from four to six grains; but they are scarcely prescribed with this intention, being chiefly used as alterative deobstruents, particularly in cutaneous disorders.
Take of crocus of antimony, powdered, one pound and a half; crystals of tartar, two pounds, distilled water, two gallons ; boil in a glass vessel, about a quarter of an hour, filter through paper, and set aside the strained liquor to chrystalise.
Take of the butter of antimony what quantity you choose, pour it into warm water, in which as much of the purified vegetable fixed alkali has been previously dissolved, that the antimo jial powder may be precipitated, which after being well washed, is to be dried. Then, to five pounds of water, add, of this powder, nine drachms; of chrystals of tartar, beat into a very fine powder, two ounces and a half; boil until the powders are dissolved. Let the strained