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tives, is not good. These repeated small doses lodging in some of the folds of the intestines, and at length uniting, often produce more effect than desired; and it is never safe to ride a horse far or fast, with even a small dose of aloes in him.

Most of all objectionable is the custom of giving small doses of aloes as a nauseat in inflammation of the lungs. There is so much sympathy between the contents of the chest and belly of the horse, and inflammation of one part is so likely to be transferred to another, that it is treading on very dangerous ground, when, with much inflammation of the lungs, that is given which will stimulate and may inflame the intestines

Aloes are most commonly, because most easily, administered in the form of a ball, but in a state of solution their effect is more speedy, effectual, and safe. Two ounces of aloes, and one ounce of gum, (to suspend the imperfect solution of the aloes,) are put into a pint of boiling water, and the mixture freely stirred.

When it is cold, two ounces of tincture are added, as an aromatic, to prevent the griping of the aloes, and also to keep the mixture from fermenting. The aloes must not be boiled in the water; even five minutes' boiling would take away much of the purgative effect of the drug. The dose of the solution should vary from six to eight ounces.

Aloes are useful in the form of a tincture. Eight ounces of powdered aloes, and one ounce of powdered myrrh, should be put into two quarts of rectified spirit, diluted with an equal quantity of water. The mixture should be daily well shaken for a fortnight, and then suffered to stand, that the undissolved portior may fall to the bottom. This will constitute a very excellent application for wounds, whether recent or

of long standing, and indisposed to heal. It is not only a gentle stimulant, but it forms a thin crust over the wound and shields it from the action of the air.

The principal adulteration of aloes is by means of resin, and the alteration of colour is concealed by the addition of charcoal or lamp black

This adulteration is easily enough detected by dissolving the aloes in hot water. All aloes contain some resinous matter, which the water will not dissolve, and which has very slight purgative effect. The excess of this resin at the bottom of the solution will mark the degree of adulteration.

ALUM.

This compounded body of sulphuric acid and pure argil, is in very general use in veterinary practice both externally and internally. In doses of one or two drachms, it is a useful astringent in diarrhoea, diabetes, and other fluxes; it also possesses some virtue as a stomachic. Externally, it is used as a styptic to stop hæmorrhage, by sprinkling it on the bleeding orifice, when its coagulating properties plug up the mouth of the vessel.

It is a useful escharotic to destroy fungus, and a valuable detergent for foul ulcers.

It is also a useful stimulant in inflammation of the eye ; and a whey made of it forms a good astringent clyster.

When it is burnt, it is rather milder, but its properties are not otherwise materially altered.

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It is called crude to distinguish it from the volatile or prepared ammonia, which follows. It is one of the best discutients, and when in mixture with acetic acid or vinegar, it forms the saline embrocation of which much mention has been made elsewhere · from it is prepared

AMMONIA VOLATILE.

The gaseous ammonia, fixed into a solid form by combination with carbonic acid, forms the volatile ammoniacal salt of the druggists. It has been said to be a good stimulant in the latter stages of fever: united with vinegar, it forms the spirit of mindererus, a most excellent human febrifuge.

AMMONIA ACETATIS

Is made by pouring a quart of vinegar on an ounce of volatile salt of ammonia; it may be also made by taking any quantity of the carbonated water of am. monia or spirit of hartshorn, and adding vinegar till it tastes neither salt or sour.

It is considered as a very important medicine in horse practice; it gently invigorates, is diaphoretic, and sometimes proves a mild diuretic.

It principally shows its salutary effects on the commencement of the debile stage, or at the close of lingering febrile diseases, particularly of the epidemic catarrh; in which case it may be combined with cam

phor, but more particularly with powdered camomile. In the more early stages of the epidemic catarrh, it may be united with nitre and oxymel. The dose is from four to six ounces.

In strains and ligamentary lameness, it forms a very useful external application also.

AMMONIA, CARBONATE OF,

This is called salt of hartshorn; carbonated water of ammonia is the spirit of hartshorn of the shops. It is convenient in veterinary practice, from its peculiar properties of uniting oil and water. Internally, it is an anti-spasmodic, in doses of eight to ten drachms.

DIGESTIVE OINTMENT.

Of these there are several: they are principally used as stimulants to wounds just healing, and produce a healthy state and action in them, especially after the application of caustics.

No. 1.
Turner's Cerate

6 ounces,
Turpentine

2 ounces,
mixed.
Or, take of-

No. 2.
Common Turpentine

3 ounces, and beat it up with the yolk of two or three eggs, and add

Myrrh

4 drachms. Mastic

2 drachms. This must be made into a consistency with tincture of myrrh. Gibson recommends

No. 3.
.Yellow Wax

3 pounds.
Yellow Rosin

3 pounds. Burgundy Pitch

3 pounds. Common Turpentine

12 ounces. Linseed Oil

3 lbs. 6 ozs. These are to be melted over a slow fire, and they gradually assume the appearance of an ointment. To make Black Basilicon Take

No. 4.
Yellow Wax

1 pound.
Yellow Rosin

1 pound. Pitch

1 pound. Olive Oil

1) pints. These must be put on a fire till melted, and then strained through a piece of rag.

In cases where proud flesh is attached to the wound, a small quantity of red precipitate must be mixed with No. 4.

The ointment No. 1, is especially useful, and ought always to be kept at hand.

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