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tinchel was as great as that of the dolorous hunt which caused the fight of Chevy Chase. Did we say north of the Tay? The time has been when a fairer forest than any in the rugged highlands grew on the banks of Ettrick and Yarrow, and down by Tiviotdale.' That forest has been sung by many a bard, and though now destroyed (all save a few old trees on the banks and scaurs of St. Mary's Lake, melancholy memorials of the rest !) will flourish in memory as long as the Scottish minstrelsy is sung, and the deeds which it celebrates remembered with affection and pride. Yes, the days bave indeed altered since

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and the echoes of Loch Skene will never more be awakened by the baying of the hound and the merry blast of the horn !” Sport. Mag.

The dogs of Constantinople may be divided into two classes—the Frank and the Turkish dog. The first class is small, and only to be found in the streets of Pera, or harbouring about the doors of Frank houses and cafes. They appear to be nearly all akin, if not in the direct line, from the English pointer dog; and it has been supposed that some English travellers, who have visited Pera, have either lost their dogs or had them stole from them, and from these the present race has sprung; as certainly they have not been trained to the field, as I ascertained from several persons who had made trial of them. Some of these dogs appear to have a local habitation and a name, as they may frequently be seen sitting in the door-ways of Frank houses, to which they have—what is always denied to the Turkish dog—the privilege of entree. The greater part, however, like their Turkish brethren, are name

less and houseless wanderers, living and sleeping entirely on the street, or among the ruins of some adjacent building. They are harmless, and do not bark or snap at the Frank as he passes ; neither do the Franks beat or molest them in the smallest degree, but seem rather to regard them as unfortunate strangers in a foreign land; and if one of them should get assailed by a Turkish dog, woe to the assailant if a Frankish stick is near at hand !

The first thing that attracts a stranger on arriving at the Capital of the Turkish empire, is the immense number of dogs he meets lying in his way, some in the centre of the street, others right across the footpath, sound asleep, and perfectly unconscious that they have chosen the situation of all others that will subject them to most danger. In walking along a stick is absolutely necessary in order to make them get out of the way; and in many cases three or four good blows have to be administered in order to get the lazy cur to move. An Irishman, whose patience had been severely tried during the winter of 1838–9, used to remark, that “ they were four-stroke-proof gentlemen: one blow on the head to awaken them; another on the legs to let them feel they were awake; a third on the face to make them get up; and a fourth behind to help them to run away."

If a stranger appears in the street in the Frank dress, (and the dogs know a stranger as well as the prefet de la police de Paris,) and the dog be not asleep, he instantly sets up a howl, which soon draws all the other dogs in the vicinity forth to join the chorus. Woe to the poor stranger who is annoyed in walking along the streets of a strange town with six or eight dogs at his heels, and as many standing on each side of him! his temper will be sadly put to the test. The only remedy is to walk on, apparently unmindful of their attentions, but at the same time keeping a sharp eye upon their movements, until one of them, presuming upon his apparent negligence, more bold than the others, approaches within length of his stick; then let a blow be struck, quick and heavy, over his enterprising head : if well struck, a howl, such as must be heard to be understood, will follow from the sufferer; this will be caught up in chorus by all the others, and turning tail, the whole pack will each consult his own personal safety in a speedy retreat. If the blow is missed, or not dealt with stunning force, it had as well been left alone, as it will only increase their wrath and boldness.

Nothing will drive them away but the howl of pain of some of their companions, or some native, taking pity on the unfortunate Frank, calling out, “ Huist ! huist ! huist !” These exclamations bave some magical sound attached to them that I could not understand, as I never yet heard a Turk or Rajah use them but the dogs ran away.

As the stranger begins to know the town a little better, the dogs know him also ; and if he is liberal in dealing out heavy blows when they are called for, and careful to let the dogs alone when they do not annoy him, he will soon be left in comparative tranquillity; but it is not an uncommon thing for him to have his temper so much ruffled, that he begins to beat every dog that comes within reach of his stick.

There was an Englishman, who, during the summers of 1838, adopted the resolution that whenever a dog barked at him to strike the next one he came to; and to this plan he stuck so close during his stay, that latterly the dogs gave him no annoyance, and the Turks called him “ the dog bastinading Giaour.”

To what particular race these street-dogs belong it would be difficult to say. They appear to be a mixture of a great many mongrel breeds, but comparatively few of them are what is called the pure Turkish dog. Among the street-dogs there are, no doubt, many of what is called the Turkish dog; an animal, though undescribed by naturalists, yet undoubtedly deserving of some attention. But the Turkish dog must be looked for in all its purity in the burial-grounds, where they bear a proportion of nine to one of the mixed breeds; while in the streets their proportion is not more than one in ten.

The street-dogs, or mixed breed, are of all shapes, sizes, and colours; some of them can only bark, others only howl, while there are again some who can both bark and howl. The pure Turkish dogs, on the contrary, are of one uniform shape, and generally at maturity of nearly one size. In form they are all like the strong thick-set Scottish sheep-dogs, remarkably strong in the legs, and very broad from ear to ear; in size they are rather larger than the shepherd's dog, and generally of a black, or brown and black colour; they cannot bark, but howl like a wolf; and, like the street-dogs, can only be put to flight by a smart hard blow—a slight rap is of no use; the blow must be struck with such force as to make the receiver eloquent; when he and his companions will take the hint, and make themselves scarce as soon as possible.

It would be a matter of great difficulty to arrive at any thing like an accurate calculation of the number of these street and burial-ground dogs in Constantinople. I have sometimes counted them in one street, and sometimes in quarters or divisions, at several different parts of the city and suburbs, and from these data

endeavoured to come to an accurate calculation ; but the sum total has always been such as to make me stagger; and I am almost certain that I shall not be credited in stating their number to be about 200,000; though I think this account more likely to be under than above the fact. It


be wondered how so many of these animals obtain food; and I must admit myself perfectly unable to solve the problem, but imagine that the great source of their sustenance is derived from being the scavengers of the city and suburbs, devouring all sorts of filth and dirt thrown out from the houses; they also feed upon such strange dogs or cats, or stray rats, that may fall in their way, for they have all their particular locality, in which they are whelped, suckled, and fed, and in which they live and die. Woe betide the unfortunate dog that strays out of his district into that of another clan! If he escapes being torn to pieces, he will return to his own quarter well covered with wounds. The extent of these canine divisions of the city vary from sixty to two hundred yards in range; in any part of which, a dog appertaining to it is perfectly safe from all attack of his own species ; but if once beyond its precincts into that of a strange clan, the chances are ten to one that he never returns. I have seen many strange dogs get into the neighbourhood where I lived, but very rarely saw any of them effect their escape. The whole dogs of the district, in such cases, are drawn together by a particular kind of howl or bark, and the intruder being pulled down, is speedily devoured.

The cats of the district live on terms of great amity with the dogs, and often may be found sleeping together in the street; but the cat that is imprudent enough to stray along the ground from his own quarter, is soon food for the resident dogs of the dis

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