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the upper and lower jaws, pointed, and longer at the sides than in the centre of the mouth ; next come four canine teeth, one on each side, above and below; after which come the six grinders. Till a year old they crouch their hinder parts to pass their urine, after which period they raise one leg and emit it sideways; and whenever they pass a place where a dog has lately performed this function, they seldom fail to do the same.

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This animal may be placed at the head of his species, and derives his name from a natural antipathy he bears to the bull, and was formerly in great requisition when that cruel sport of bull-baiting was in vogue. He is, probably, the most courageous animal in the world, and bears a most terrific appearance. He is low in stature, but remarkably strong and muscular; the head is short, the forehead wide, the nostril distended, and the jection of the under jaw beyond the upper gives a peculiar ferocity of aspect; the whole countenance exhibits a suspicious and designing leer ; but in a state of domestication he is usually inoffensive unless provoked and irritated. The race is peculiar to Great Britain, but it is not now neither numerous, nor is such care taken as formerly to propagate the thoroughbred breed; those of the brindled kind are looked upon as the best. This animal never barks until he has bitten, and once excited or urged by his master, no pain or punishment will prevent him obtaining his ends.

The valour of this dog in attacking the bull, the ferocity he displays in the encounter, and the unconquerable and determined obstinacy with which he perseveres in maintaining his hold, are truly astonishing.

Many years ago, when bull-baiting formed a very favourite amusement for Englishmen in holiday-times, in one of the northern counties, a young man, confident of the courage of his dog, laid some trifling wager that he would, at separate times, cut off the animal's feet, and that after each amputation the dog would attack the bull. The barbarous experiment was allowed and tried, and the dog horribly mutilated and pained as he was, continued to attack and seize the bull with unabated ferocity and eagerness.

Of the true and genuine breed, there are not many now to be found. It was supposed that two of these dogs let loose at once were a match for a bull, three for a bear, and four for a lion.


This breed of dogs was early celebrated ; and mention

. is made of them in the time of the Romans, being noted for their ferocity and innate courage.

It is peculiar to Great Britain, and is generally used as a watch-dog, which duty it performs not only with uncommon fidelity, but frequently displays considerable judgment.

Their ferocity is increased or diminished according to the degree of restraint in which they are kept; such as are constantly chained being dangerous to approach, To their masters, however, they are both mild in their

manners, and grateful and solicitous for every attention.

Some of these animals will allow a stranger to come into the premises they are appointed to watch over, and will go peaceably along with him through every portion of them, so long as he touches nothing; but the moment he attempts to lay hold of any of the property, the animal informs him, first, by a gentle growling; and if that prove ineffectual, by harsher means.

At night they are particularly watchful, and it is dangerous to approach them unless well known, and even then not always, as the following will testify :

A very large mastiff was kept by Sir H. Lee of Ditchley, Oxfordshire, the ancestor of the late earls of Litchfield. This dog never received any particular kindness or attention from his master, and was kept solely to guard the house and yard.

One night Sir Harry retired to his chamber attended by his favourite valet, who was an Italian, when the mastiff followed them up the stairs, an unusual circumstance, never having been known to do the like before. To his master's astonishment, the dog presented himself at the bed-room door, and being deemed an intruder, he was instantly ordered to be driven away; this being done, and the door shut, the animal began to paw and scratch violently at the door, and howled loudly for admission. The servant was directed to turn him away again, but the dog was not to be discouraged, and he returned again, and appeared more importunate than before.

The apparent obstinacy of the animal wearied Sir Harry, who was astonished beyond measure that the dog should display so much fondness for the society of a master who had never shown him the slightest kindne-s, and desiring to retire to rest, he ordered the

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servant to open the door, which done, the inastiff, with a significant wag of the tail, and a mingled look of affection and gratification, quietly walked in, and crawling under the bed, laid himself down,. as if desirous of taking up his night's quarters there.

To save further annoyance, not from any partiality for the dog's company, Sir Harry granted the desired indulgence. The valet retired, and all was quiet. After several hours, the chamber-door opened, and a person was heard gently stepping across the room. Sir Harry, waking from his sleep, spoke, and the dog immediately rushing from his covert, sprung upon the intruder, and seizing him, fixed him to the spot. The alarm was given and a light procured, and the person thus rivetted to the floor was discovered to be the favourite valet, who, as soon as the dog was removed, and he had recovered from his fright, began to apologise for the intrusion, and gave some plausible pretext for his unwonted appearance; suspicion, however, being aroused in Sir Harry's mind, he resolved to investigate the business further by referring the subject to a magistrate.

The perfidious Italian, alternately terrified by the dread of punishment, and soothed by the hopes of pardon, at length confessed that it was his intention to murder his master, and then to rob the house. This diabolical design was frustrated solely by the instinctive attachment of the dog to his master, which seems to have been directed on this occasion by an interference of Providence. How else could he have learned to submit to injury and insult for his well-meant services, and finally to seize and detain a person, who, it is probáble, had shown him more kindness than his owner had ever done? A full-length picture of Sir Harry, with the mastiff by his side, and the words,


faithful than favoured," is still preserved among the family pictures.

The mastiff surpasses the bull-dog in size, height, bone, and strength, and always barks before he bites; his ears are pendulous, his countenance commanding, and his eyes fiercely expressive.


This race of dogs were once held in the highest repute on account of their extreme ferocity and the peculiar keenness of their scent. The thorough-bred bloodhound is superior to every other species of hound in size, strength, and courage; he was sometimes, although rarely, employed in the discovering of game that had escaped the mark or vigilance of the hunter ; but he was chiefly esteemed for the certainty with which he would scent the footsteps of man, even to the greatest distances.

The genuine breed possess an extraordinary substantial and muscular form, a wide forehead, gradually narrowing towards the nose, an expressive countenance, expansive nostrils, ears of large dimensions, but soft and pendulous, broad at the base, and tapering towards the tip, the tail long, with an erective curve, particularly when in pursuit, and the voice very loud and deep

This breed is still preserved in great perfection in Spain and Cuba, and other islands of the West Indies, the natives of these last places having been hunted down, and finally exterminated, by means of these animals ; 'the inhumanity, injustice, and cruelty practised

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