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ointment. Cracked ears, however, only occur in very hot weather. Swellings on the throat from eating acorns must be lanced and anointed with lard.


Sows that have been kept at the teat for a considerable time, and also occasionally well fed, will be fit for the boar at eight or nine months old ; and if they are kept clean, and in tolerable condition, they will produce three litters of pigs in a year. The usual time, however, of putting a sow to the boar, is in the twelfth month, and then she has acquired that strength and vigour which is necessary in every animal for the procreation of a healthy stock.

The boar, although he is capable of serving a sow at six months old, should not be allowed to couple till he has attained his ordinary growth, which will not be earlier than a year.

Sows which have been put to the boar very early, do not continue to breed long; whereas, on the other hand, they have had litters for seven years, when the number at each time of farrowing has not been very great. The smaller breed of sows generally produce the earliest litters, as well as the most numerous.

Most farmers are of opinion that the best bearing time is from November till the close of March or the beginning of April.

It is not always proper to put the sow to the boar at every breaming; for three litters every year would take away too much nourishment, and each succeeding litter would be weaker, and probably more unhealthy than the first. Many farmers, however, kill their sows after a few litters, which should not be the case if she continue to rear them with safety. Every sow should be placed in a separate stye as pregnancy advances ; by these means the belly is less liable to be hurt, and at the time of falling they are not so likely to be devoured. Eight weeks is the usual time of weaning



Young pigs should be fed much better than store pigs. Vegetables are very good for them, and wash should be administered at the least twice a day; this last is best made with meal and the liquor or water in which meat, vegetables, &c., have been boiled; where there is an extensive dairy great benefit will be derived from mixing milk with their food. Oats have been strongly recommended. Pea-soup is a very excellent consistency for young hogs; this is made by boiling six pecks of peas in about fifty or sixty gallops of water, until the peas have become a thick fluid. After harvest, pigs may be very advantageously turned into the fields; and if a wood is at hand, in the fall of the year acorns will be found very nourishing. Carrots and boiled potatoes mixed in hay-tea will be found not only conducive to health, but promote the growth

of pigs.

The principal time for fattening pigs is in October ; February or March is also a period for this business, but not held in such estimation as the former. The food recommended in this process is of a farinaceous

nature which is best mixed with milk. Nothing will fatten pigs quicker than malt-barley given whole. Potatoes and acorns are nearly as beneficial. But no pigs can be so well fed or fattened as on premises where the dairy is extensive. Butter-milk, skimmed milk, and barley-meal, with a moderate allowance of peas or beans, are more useful than any other food : such diet does not disturb digestion, and produces very healthy meat. Distilleries are also excellent places for fattening hogs.

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The next subject to which we must turn our attention, bu and though it has come the last under our consideram tion, is by no means the least important, is the various id diseases of dogs, their different classifications, and inquiry into their nature and utility.

In a wild state, dogs are not very abundant at the present day; these being generally found in America and Africa; but being possessed of considerable courage, and having a natural ferocity of disposition, they are rendered very troublesome and formidable opponents to all inhabitants dwelling in the neighbourhood of their resorts.

In a domesticated state how very materially is this animal's nature altered! the friend and companion of man; like the horse, he becomes universally esteemed and sought after; the most intelligent of all quadrupeds, and yielding to none in docility and speed; in proportion to its size, possessing great strength; in form, both beautiful and noble, and surpassing all

zatials in vivacity, and that invaluable gift of an unarrier pigs quind above all, but little inferior to the human race m its testimony of gratitude and sincerity. He forgets nor friend nor foe, although generally more affected by the gratuitous favours he receives, than mindful of undeserved injuries; the first he ever remembers with affection, and the latter are quickly pelled. Ever zealous in his master's cause, he

*3 not flinch in the hour of danger, but is ready to defend him, and is never found deficient in the trust reposed in him, keeping a vigilant eye over all property it is his duty to guard. Equally useful in every occupation of life; the shepherd is less obeyed by the flocks than his dog; the huntsman and every lover of field sport could derive neither benefit nor enjoyment without this companion : and in many parts the mastiff or bull-dog is the sole guardian against unwarrantable intruders ; and in the cold regions of the north, mankind would be unable to trade, or procure food, without the assistance of dogs.


Dogs sleep but little; and during all times of repose, even after most fatiguing journeys, they are as easily arous d by noise as if they were untired; waking or sleeping, their hearing being equally acute. They never perspire, and when weary, usually hang the tongue out of the mouth. Their dung and urine are very pernicious to vegetable matter ; and as if conscious of this, they never drop either but where no harm can accrue. Dogs have six cutting teeth in both

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