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one of these animals without incommoding the creature. Although naturally inoffensive, he possesses powers which, when called into action, render him a very formidable enemy. He is, however, stupid, inactive, and drowsy; and nothing but the calls of appetite interrupt his repose, to which he always returns as soon as these are satisfied.

The female goes four months with young, and has numerous litters, from eight to fifteen at a time, and sometimes even twenty. These animals live to the age of twenty-five or thirty years.

Swine, as well as other animals, are subject to various diseases, although not so frequently; nor are their maladies attended with such fatal consequences. Swine are frequently troubled with lice or ticks, hence their desire to wallow and roll in miry places and bogs; as soon as the dirt is dry it will easily rub off, and thus they are freed of the vermin ; at the same time lying down in such places cools their bodies, for no animals have such a hot constitution as swine. Dirt, however, is by no means good or wholesome for them, nor do they fatten so freely when pent up closely in a stye, and allowed to wallow constantly in their own dung: hence the chief cause of disease.

One instance of the heat of their bodies is, that they have been known to fatten much quicker and better in cool, moist, and shady woods, and where much food was not visible than in hot inclosures ; although a quantity of food has been given them with the trouble of seeking it. Consequently no food of a heating nature should be given them in any abundance, and at all times they should have free access to water.

The general symptoms of illness with swine, is a dull, heavy look, their ears hang listlessly down, and all appetite leaves them, nor does it return till they are perfectly well again; unhealthiness in these animals may be discovered by drawing the hand over the bristles in an opposite direction to their growth; if the roots be white and clean the pig is sound, but if the skin is speckled with a reddish cast, he is unhealthy


Is discovered by looking under the tongue, where a quantity of small black blisters are found; considerable weakness in the hind-legs exist, and the flesh is spotted with red. Give the following dose :Crude Antimony, (powdered)

I ounce, mixed in a little water or wash, then keep him in the stye from three to four hours. If this does not effect a cure repeat the dose.

Brimstone in the pig's wash is esteemed very excellent.

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The udder of a sow is subject at times to glandular swellings. Camphorated saturnine washes or ointments may be used in such cases. Half a drachm of calomel may be administered occasionally till the swelling has subsided. Cracked ears, and other sores of the same description, may be rubbed with saturnine ointment. Cracked ears, however, only occur in very hot weather. Swellings on the throat from eating acorns must be lanced and anointed with lard.


Sows that have been kept at the teat for a considerable time, and also occasionally well fed, will be fit for the boar at eight or nine months old ; and if they are kept clean, and in tolerable condition, they will produce three litters of pigs in a year. The usual time, however, of putting a sow to the boar, is in the twelfth month, and then she has acquired that strength and vigour which is necessary in every animal for the procreation of a healthy stock.

The boar, although he is capable of serving a sow at six months old, should not be allowed to couple till he has attained his ordinary growth, which will not be earlier than a year.

Sows which have been put to the boar very early, do not continue to breed long; whereas, on the other hand, they have had litters for seven years, when the number at each time of farrowing has not been very great. The smaller breed of sows generally produce the earliest litters, as well as the most numerous.

Most farmers are of opinion that the best bearing time is from November till the close of March or the beginning of April.

It is not always proper to put the sow to the boar at every breaming; for three litters every year would take away too much nourishment, and each succeeding litter would be weaker, and probably more unhealthy than the first. Many farmers, however, kill their sows after a few litters, which should not be the case if she continue to rear them with safety. Every sow should be placed in a separate stye as pregnancy advances ; by these means the belly is less liable to be hurt, and at the time of falling they are not so likely to be devoured. Eight weeks is the usual time of weaning


Young pigs should be fed much better than store pigs. Vegetables are very good for them, and wash should be administered at the least twice a day; this last is best made with meal and the liquor or water in which meat, vegetables, &c., have been boiled; where there is an extensive dairy great benefit will be derived from mixing milk with their food. Oats have been strongly recommended. Pea-soup is a very excellent consistency for young hogs; this is made by boiling six pecks of peas in about fifty or sixty gallons of water, until the peas have become a thick fluid. After harvest, pigs may be very advantageously turned into the fields; and if a wood is at hand, in the fall of the year acorns will be found very nourishing. Carrots and boiled potatoes mixed in hay-tea will be found not only conducive to health, but promote the growth

of pigs.

The principal time for fattening pigs is in October; February or March is also a period for this business, but not held in such estimation as the former, The food recommended in this process is of a farinaceous

nature which is best mixed with milk. Nothing will fatten pigs quicker than malt-barley given whole. Potatoes and acorns are nearly as beneficial. But no pigs can be so well fed or fattened as on premises where the dairy is extensive. Butter-milk, skimmed milk, and barley-meal, with a moderate allowance of peas or beans, are more useful than any other food : such diet does not disturb digestion, and produces very healthy meat. Distilleries are also excellent places for fattening hogs.

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