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so easily buried under the snow, but also renders them much easier to be discovered by the owner.
In this situation they sometimes remain so many days that they are compelled by hunger to gnaw each other's wool, which forming into hard balls in their stoniacns, often destroys them.
A good sheep of the Icelandic breed will yield from two to six quarts of milk a day; and of this the inhabitants make butter and cheese. But the most valuable part of these animals is the wool, which, like the argali, is stripped off at once at the end of May. The whole body is by this time covered again with new wool, which is short and extremely fine. It continues to grow during the summer, and becomes towards autumn of a coarser texture, very shaggy and somewhat resembling camel's hair. This covering enables the sheep to support the rigours of winter; but if after losing their fleece the spring prove wet, a piece of coarse cloth is usually sewed round the stomachs of the weakest to defend them from any ill effects.
OF THE DISEASES OF SHEEP.
The great inconvenience which attends sheep, is their being subject to the rot; which it is a hard thing to prevent if the year proves very wet, especially in May and June, except it be salt marshes, or in broomy lands, broom being one of the best preservatives against that distemper of any thing. I have known sheep cured of the rot when they have not been far gone with it only by being put in the broom-lands. Scurvygrass, parsly, mustard, thyme, and all other sorts them;
of pot-herbs, are good for the prevention of it. Some propose to give sheep once a month, or oftener, half a handful of bay salt, which may be some service to
but as the rot, red-water, and most of the distempers that sheep are subject to, proceed from too much moisture of the land they feed on, and the season of the year, so I should think that dry food at such times, and keeping them on dry land in wet seasons, and to give them fine hay, oats, &c. (amongst which some salt might be mixed), might be the best and most proper food for them to prevent these distempers. Sheep are often blind by means of their foulness of blood; to prevent which it is good to cut their tails and so to empty them of their blood.
M. Pictet, a French writer, has given a very detailed account of this disease, as also the memoir of a Piedmontese professional man on the same subject. An English writer says, that this troublesome disease in the feet of sheep, is generally caused by keeping them in the wet marshy ground, or by travelling when the horny part of the hoof has been too much softened by standing in soft ground. It is supposed to be contagious. When a sheep is observed to be lame, and upon examination the foot is found to be affected with this disease, give vent to any matter that may be confined by paring away the horn; or if the horn is found to cover a diseased part, it should be removed with a knife, that the proper remedies may be applied to it. Caustics are found to be the only effectual remedies
for the foot rot. We have given three recipes or fcrmulæ ; the first, or milder preparation, will answer the purpose in slight incipient cases; but in those of long standing, the stronger caustic will be found necessary
1. (MILD.) Sulphate of Copper
2 ounces. Water
12 ounces. Sulphuric Acid
2 drachms. 2. (STRONGER.) Powdered Verdigris
1 ounce. Nitrous Acid
2 ounces. Spirits of Wine
3 ounces. Dissolve the nitrated quicksilver in the acid, and when perfectly dissolved add gradually the spirits of wine.
It may be necessary to dilute this sometimes with a little water; and it should be remarked, that after applying either of these preparations once or twice, the sore part will generally have a more healthy appearance, and then some mild application will be most proper, such as Friar's balsam, or tincture of myrrh. It is likely that a mixture of tar and turpentine would prove a useful application in such cases, as it may
tend in some measure to protect the diseased part from moisture. For some time after the feet have been dressed, the sheep should be kept ina dry place ; turning them in a limed fallow has been strongly recommended.
The following judicious treatment of this disorder is recommended by Sir George Mackenzie :
" Let the animal in the first place get a dose of Glauber's salt. The ulcer having been laid open and cleaned, it is to be washed with weak caustic, ley of potash or soda, and filled with scraped linen dipped in oil, or, what is better, Goulard cerate. The dressing of cerate is to be continued every evening, until granulations of flesh appear to be filling up the space formerly occupied by the matter of the ulcer; and if it should be necessary, the washing with caustic ley may be repeated. Common cerate may then be applied ; and should the flesh grow too luxuriantly, a little red precipitate and burnt alum may be dusted upon it. When a wholesome suppurative discharge has taken place, gentle pressure may be applied to bring the sides of the sore towards each other, taking care always to give free vent to the matter. The limb should be carefully washed with vinegar and water.”
Symptoms. Dr. Coventry says, that Rot is a word which has been employed to express a variety of disorders affecting the sheep with no small confusion and detriment. Yet all the species of rot may be reduced to one; but when the disease has advanced, it becomes very complicated, and has been deemed incurable.
The complication of disorders which are always observed in the advanced stages of the rot, might be expected where bad food is supposed to be the cause of it; for this must vitiate the blood, and different organs may then become diseased. Accordingly we find the liver, the lungs, and the whole system affected, and
water is frequently found in the belly. It is very probable that consumption of the lungs is a common disease among sheep; and that it has in many instances been mistaken for rot. Mr. Stevenson, indeed, has considered the lungs to be its chief seat. Cold is the most frequent cause of consumption, although inflammation may be excited by other means.
Sheep are sometimes born with little tumours, called tubercles, on their lungs; and these appear to be the original seat of the disease in them as in the human subject. These tubercles being inflamed by cold, or other means, swell, and become filled with matter. Sometimes they are coughed up in this state ; but most frequently they degenerate into ulcers, which spread and consume the substance of the lungs. When the lungs are affected in any case of rot, it is a hopeless business to attempt a cure, especially if they are suspected to be ulcerated. But as it may often happen that such tubercles as have filled with matter may be coughed up, mere difficulty of breathing need not deter us from attempting a cure. But the liver must be considered as the principal seat of the disease ; and as it is the organ which prepares the bile, which assists digestion, we ought by all means to endeavour to restore it to a sound state. With respect to the flukeworms formed in the livers of rotten sheep, their production cannot be fully explained; but it is sufficient that we know they do exist in diseased livers to be convinced of the propriety of destroying them if possible.
Causes. This disease never attacks sheep on drý lands, and it has been observed to affect sheep which were before healthy almost immediately on their being sent to feed on soft wet pastures. Mr. James Hogg thinks that it proceeds from a sudden fall in condition;