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tirkin, but which must not, however, be filled quite up, but room left at top to receive a layer of salt half an inch or an inch in thickness. In seven or eight days, the salted butter detaches itself from the sides of the firkin, shrinks, and occasions interstices. These, if allowed to remain, would injure the butter, by admitting the contact of the air. They are, therefore, to be filled up by a saturated solution of salt in water, or brine strong enough to carry an egg. The butter is then to be covered by a new layer of salt, and the head of the vessel put on.

Before the butter is put into the firkin, care must be taken that the latter be well seasoned, and this is to be effected by exposing it for two or three weeks to the air, and frequent washing. The readiest method is, however, by the use of unslacked lime, or a large quantity of salt and water well boiled, with which it should be scrubbed several times, and afterwards thrown into cold water, to remain three or four days till wanted. It should then be scrubbed as before, and well rinsed with cold water; and before receiving the butter, every part of the inside of the firkin must be carefully rubbed with salt. Indeed, the surest of all methods to preserve butter from spoiling, after it has been properly salted, is to keep it constantly immersed in a saturated solution of this substance.

HOW TO TURN BARREN LAND INTO GOOD

PASTURE AND MEADOW.

In one portion of the work I have already spoken of the best mode of grazing cattle, &c.; it may be here

worthy our attention to look into the best method of enriching the earth for meadow and pasture. This is done in two ways, viz., by watering and manuring it, and for this use, the lower the ground lies, so it be not subject to overflowings or too much wet, the better it is, and the sooner made good. Consider in the next place, what kind of grass it naturally produces, whether clear and entire, or mixed with that of worse growth; the first is the best ; but if it be of the worse sort, intermixed with thistles, broom, and offensive weeds, then grub and pluck them up by the roots, clearing the ground of them as well as you can ; then dry them, mix them with straw and burn them with the swarth of the ground, and spread the ashes upon it; then fold your sheep upon the ground for several nights, that their dung may increase its strength, and their feet trample up the grass ; then scatter it over with good hay-seeds, and go over them with a good roller, or beat them with a flat shovel, that they may be the better pressed into the ground to take root; then over these scatter hay or the rotting of hay under stacks, or the sweepings of the barn, or moist bottoms of any hay that has been good and is moist and of no other use; then spread on your manure, or horse-dung, man's ordure, or the dung of any beast, which, being thinned, and the clods well broken, let it lie till the new grass springs through it; but do not graze it the first year, lest the cattle tread it up, not having yet taken very good root; but mow it, that it may have time to come to perfection. And though the first year it may prove short and coarse, yet the second it will be fine and very long, and in great plenty; and dressing it thus but once in fifteen or twenty years, will continue it for good meadow and pasture, especially if in dry seasons you have water to

relieve it, which may be done by bringing springs through it, or gather the violent falling of rain into a ditch on the other side of it, or by any other convenience, according to the situation of the ground on the ascending part, to overflow it so long that it sink deeper than the roots of the grass to continue its moisture for the nourishment of it for a considerable time.

And note here, that the best season for watering of meadows is from the beginning of November to the end of April ; and the more muddy or troubled the water is, the better, for then it brings a soil upon the ground, and this generally happens after hasty showers and great floods of rain. And if

And if you have many fields lying together, especially in a descent, you may make a convenience in the uppermost to stop up the water till it is very well soaked ; and then by a sluice, or breaking down of a dam, let it into the next, and so by a small addition of water, transmit it to many.

THE PROGRESS OR INCREASE IN WEIGHT

AND PROFIT IN PASTURE-FEEDING OR FATTENING NEAT-CATTLE STOCK

This is evidently a matter which must depend upon a variety of different circumstances, such as the nature and state of the feeding pastures or keep; the breed or particular kind of the animals ; their different dispositions to feed or take on flesh and become fat; and the habits they possess of being tame and quiet, or the contrary, as well as some other causes. From various statements, it appears that large stock of the ox kind, increase about three pounds in the day each beast, while in those of the smaller sorts, the increase is not more than about one and a half. It is of course very clear that such large sized stock is the most proper and beneficial for those rich feeding pastures on which they can be fattened, and also for being made fat on the more expensive kinds of dry food, as taking the price at only eightpence the pound, the former will pay two shillings a day for their keep, when the latter will only afford half of that amount ; while the difference in the consumption is often very immaterial, and in few cases more than a fourth part less in the small than the large animals of this sort, which are equally good of their kinds, as many correct trials have fully demonstrated. Large oxen are in many cases known to increase on good feeding grounds in the summer months from four or five to nearly six hundred pounds each in the course of from twenty to twentyfive weeks; but as the last is an uncommon and extraordinary profit, it may be more properly stated that a beast of this sort, of a good kind, in the lean state, the live weight of which is about eighty-five stone, of fourteen pounds, taking the dead or carcase weight at one half, which is more than it is in such cases, and allowing the above price of eightpence the pound for the whole full or living weight, or which is the same thing, fourpence the pound for the dead or carcase weight, the animal will be worth about twenty pounds to buy in ; and to afford a fair average profit, it should increase in weight three hundred pounds, and be sold for about thirty pounds. The expense of fattening which, the first cost of the beast, the rent of the land on which it is fed, taking it at an acre and a half, (and it cannot probably be less), for taxes, and the interest of capital, will be about twenty-five pounds four shillings

and fourpence, leaving a profit, with the under stock, of about five pounds fifteen shillings and sevenpence, supposing the beast to increase in the above manner, and to be sold at the prices stated. The usual profit is, however, somewhat less, as a fifth or more. But in the smaller sorts of neat-cattle stock, even admitting their increase in weight to be in the same proportion, they will not afford the same amount of profit; they have, however, other advantages ; they take up less time in completing their fatness, and are capable of being made fat on poorer sorts of land ; and, by their becoming fat more easily in the summer, they gain better prices in the markets. Their use and advantage, whatever they may be, and their increase in weight, will, however, most probably be the best shown by stating that an ox of this size, weighing about sixty stone, of fourteen pounds, bought in at fourpence the pound for the whole or living weight, or double that price for the dead or carcase weight, which will be about fourteen pounds; the increase in weight in four months keep, being about one hundred and eighty pounds, or about eleven pounds in the week, the animal will be worth twenty pounds, or thereabouts, and pay from seven to eight shillings theweek for its keep. The charge of fattening, in this case, in the first cost of the beast, the rent of the land necessary for the purpose, allowing the same extent as before, the taxes, and the interest of capital, is about seventeen pounds ten shillings and threepence, leaving a profit with the under stock of about three pounds nine or ten shillings each beast

In some districts, in times when the prices are moderate, and the sorts favourable in their dispositions for fattening, lean oxen are bought in at two shillings, or two and threepenee the stone, the weight which they will reach when they are fat, or from threepence to

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