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be none at all, which is a point of particular importance in favour of this sort of management. It is not improbable, but that by such means the summer produce in manure may be made to equal, if not exceed, that of the winter supply, and at the same time surpass it much in quality, as there is reason for supposing, that the manure supplied by any sort of neat or other cattle when fed in this way, if not in the state of fattening, is much better and more rich in its properties in the summer months than in those of the winter, as abounding more in ammonia, mucilaginous, and rich animalized vegetable matters. The quantities of such excellent manure, as with sufficient care, may be raised in this manner, in some cases, is hardly to be conceived, except by those who have been largely in the practice of it. With a view to the more effectual and ready decomposition and conversion of the littery matters into manure, it is of much consequence to have proper receiving places for the urine and other liquids, which should be frequently thrown over them in the cool of the day. In this way much benefit is often produced, and such liquids prevented from being evaporated and lost. In particular instances four large waggon-loads of dung perfectly rotten, or more, have been made from one cow in the season in such practice.
In order to gain and ensure the greatest possible benefit from this practice, it is, however, necessary to have a very nice and strict regard to several points and circumstances in the management; such as those of having perfectly suitable, proper, and convenient buildings and yards for the purpose, providing necessary and proper crops in due succession, and in suitable extent to the proportion of stock that is kept; the foddering, cleaning, and managing the animals in
a regular and proper manner, and the fully providing of different substances for use, as litter in the houses and yards ; suitable directions for each of which are given below, under their
PROPER BUILDINGS, YARDS, AND OTHER Conve
NIENCES FOR THIS PURPOSE.
As much in what respects the economy of labour in foddering and supplying the cattle with different matters, and in the forming and preparing the manure in the best and most extensive manner in this practice, depends on the buildings and yards which are made use of in the business ; it is necessary that they should be properly and suitably formed, and have all the conveniences and advantages possible in their plans and arrangements. Above all, it is essential to have well and suitably-formed open or close shed buildings, with properly sized divisions in them for tying up and containing the animals while eating their food; proper racks, cribs, and boxes, being fixed in them for the purpose. The yards should be immediately connected with them, and so designed as that a large portion of them may be laid over with littering matters, having proper floors for the purpose ; and the other parts should gently shelve or incline to a watering pond or place. By such means and contrivances, every facility and advantage may be gained in conducting and carrying on such business.
Some persons, however, to save the expense of time and labour in clearing and removing the dirt and filth caused by this method, leave the cattle wholly loose in the yards, so as to eat their food from racks or cribs without any shed, the bottom of such yards being pre
pared and laid with marl or any such matters as are proper for such use, a coat or layer of litter being spread out upon them so that the urine may be taken up and retained in such a way as to promote the forming it into manure; but it is, probably, a far better and more beneficial practice to have them fastened up in the divisions of such sheds as have been described above, especially in the nights and while eating their food; for notwithstanding there may be some saving of labour in the simple yard method, there are in the former the advantages of the manure being better, and that of the animals being kept in more quietness'as well as being less interrupted and inconvenienced in consuming their fodder. In either of these modes the cattle should, however, be so separated and divided as that those of the same ages and sizes may be foddered and kept together in distinct divisions of such sheds or yards, in order that the smaller and weaker may not ever be injured or incommoded by the larger or more powerful, as is always the case when both sorts are kept and fed together loose in the same place.
In regard to the divisions, in the simple shed manner, and that of the shed and yard plan, some have found oxen and cows to do well in those of seven feet in width, each division containing two such animals fastened to the sides by their necks, being thereby prevented from injuring or incommoding each other in the time of eating their food. For smaller stock, six feet may answer very well, and perhaps less in some CULTURE OF Crops PROPER FOR, AND MANNER OF
USING THEM IN THIS PRACTICE.
It is a necessary part of this practice to raise and provide such green and other crops of the grass herbage, root and top, and other such sorts, that can be well and properly employed ; especially those which have been already noticed, and a sufficiently full and ample quantity in proportion to the number of the animals, and to secure a proper succession of them, which is so requisite and material in this method of proceeding. For the most early use and application, there should be a due extent of lucerne crop on the deeper and more rich sorts of land, and of the winter and other tare on the stronger and better sorts of loamy land, in a proper state of preparation and condition for their full growth; the latter being sown so as to come in at different times in such early foddering of the cattle ; and the former sown broadcast, or drilled in rows at six inches distance, in order to be more abundantly productive, and to bear the early cutting more perfectly: the first crop of winter tares should succeed the early cut lucerne, the later put in crops of the same tare kind succeeding that; after which the rye-grass and red clover on the mellow loams will be ready in most cases, to which another crop
of the winter tare and the second cut of lucerne will succeed; when still later, these being finished, the spring tare crop may be in readiness, and be followed by the third cutting of lucerne, cow-grass, and white clover, with sain-foin on the chalky grounds, when the rich natural grass will be in a proper state for being cut if required. At different times in the more early parts of such foddering and keeping, the roots and
tops of the common Swedish turnips may be occasionally used in small quantities with much advantage; and in the later periods those of the carrot, parsnip, beet, and some other such kinds, will produce the utmost benefit from the practice.
There are other plants and crops, as those of the cabbage and cauliflower kind, that might be used in this way with much propriety, and perhaps advantage; but from the number which have been mentioned above, it is probable that they will seldom, and in but certain situations, be wanted ; and with so many others of the cut natural grasses, will rarely, if ever, be much required, though they may be beneficially made use of in this manner wherever it is necessary to employ them,
PROPER MODES OF FODDERING THE ANIMALS IN THIS
Much in this practice depends on properly supplying the stock with their food and other matters. One important regulation is, never to suffer them to have too much food given them at one time of foddering, as whenever this is the case, the heat of the season inducing many grassy matters quickly to ferment and take on in some degree of putrid taint, they become wholly rejected, or only very slightly picked among, and a waste is caused that may be, by properly allowancing them, wholly avoided. Besides, it cannot be doubted but that by having such sorts of fodder given more frequently, and consequently in a more fresh state, the cattle will thrive in a better manner, and more expeditiously, as well as the least possible loss in food sustained.