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Among the quadrupeds with which the earth abounds, none appears to be more extensively diffused than the cow; as it is found either large or small, in proportion to the quantity and quality of its food, in every part of the world, from the polar circles to the equator. The life of this animal extends to about fifteen years; and its age may be ascertained with tolerable facility, as at the age of four years, a ring is formed towards the root of the horns, and each succeeding year adds another. There is no animal so liable to alteration from the quality of the pasture. Thus, Africa is remarkable for the largest and the smallest cattle of this kind, as are also Poland, Switzerland, and several other parts of Europe. Among the Eluth Tartars, where the pastures are remarkably luxuriant, the cow becomes so large that few men can reach the tip of its shoulders; but in France, where the animal is stinted in its food, and driven from its natural pasturage, it greatly degenerates.

The cow has seldom more than one calf at a time, and goes about nine months. There is scarcely a part of this animal that is not useful to mankind : its milk

forms a rich and nutritive aliment for the human species, and gives to our tables the important articles of butter and cheese ; and of late years, benefit has been derived even from one of its diseases, by the introduction of vaccine inoculation, an antidote for that horrible and deadly disorder, the small-pox.

Such are the advantages derived from the cow, that we may almost be induced to admire that superstitious veneration which the Gentoos entertain for an animal to which they are under so great obligations. To such a height, however, do they carry their reverence, that there is scarcely a Gentoo to be found that would not, were he under a compulsatory option, prefer sacrificing his parents or children to the slaughtering of a bull or

or cow.


From this well known and useful animal are derived the numerous varieties of common cattle found in various parts both of the old and new continent. In its wild and native state it is distinguished by the depth and shagginess of its hair, which about the head, neck, and shoulders, is frequently of such a length as almost to touch the ground; and it grows to such an enormous size, as sometimes to weigh sixteen hundred or two thousand pounds.

The horns are rather short, strong, and sharppointed, and stand distant from each other at their basis. The colour is generally either a dark or yellowish-brown. The limbs are very strong and muscular, and the whole aspect gloomy and ferocious.

Wild oxen are principally found in the marshy forests of Poland, among the Carpathian Mountains in Lithuania, and also in several parts of Asia. It is also said that cross or breed of wild cattle, (probably the only remains of that species in England), is yet left in Lord Tankerville's park, at Chillingham, near Berwickupon-Tweed. Their colour is invariably white, with the muzzle black; and the whole inside of the ear, and about one-third of the outside, from the tip downwards, red. Their horns are white, with black tips, remarkably fine, and bent downwards. The weight of the oxen is from thirty-five to fifty-five stone; and of the cows, from twenty-five to thirty-five, fourteen pound to the stone. Their flesh is said to be finely marbled, and of a peculiarly excellent flavour.

When these animals perceive any person approaching, they set off in full gallop, and at the distance of two or three hundred yards wheel round, and come boldly up again, tossing their heads in a menacing manner; they then stop suddenly at the distance of forty or fifty yards, and look wildly at the object of their surprise ; but on the least motion they will turn round and gallop off with equal speed, but to a shorter distance, forming a smaller circle, and again returning with a more threatening aspect than before, they approach much nearer probably within thirty yards, when they make another stand, and again gallop off. This they repeat several times, shortening their distance, and advancing nearer, till they come within a few yards, when it is advisable to leave them, as in a few turns more they would probably make an attack

The ancient mode of killing these animals was very singular. On notice being given that a wild bull would be killed on a certain day, the inhabitants of the

neighbourhood assembled, sometimes to the number of a hundred horsemen, and four or five hundred foot, all armed with guns or other weapons. Those on foot stood upon the walls, or got into the trees, while the horsemen drove off a bull from the rest of the herd, until he stood at bay, when they dismounted and fired. Sometimes on these occasions twenty or thirty shots have been fired before the animal was subdued in which case the bleeding victim grew desperately furious from the smarting of his wounds, and the shouts of savage exultation echoing from every side.

But from the numerous accidents which happened, this dangerous practice has been disused of late years.

It has been remarked, that when an individual of this species happens to be wounded, or is grown weak and feeble through age or sickness, the rest of the herd sit upon it and gore it to death.

The oxen of India are generally small, with short blunt horns, and humps on their shoulders. They are used in drawing chariots and other carriages, and will perform a journey of twelve or fourteen leagues a-day. Their ordinary pace is a brisk, but remarkably easy trot. Instead of a bit, a ring is passed through the cartilage of their nostrils, to which is fastened a cord that serves as a bridle. Those belonging to nabobs, and other great men, have their horns gilded, and are richly decorated with embroidered trappings.

The skin of the ox is made into several kinds of leather ; the hair is valuable in various manufactures; the horns are wrought into boxes, combs, knife-handles, drinking-vessels, &c.; the bones afford a cheap and excellent substitute for ivory; glue is made of the cartilages, gristles, and the finer pieces of cuttings and parings of the hides ; the sinews are converted into a fine kind of thread, used by saddlers and others; the

feet yield an oil of great utility in preparing and softening leather; and the importance of the suet, fat, and tallow, is well known.


This is a Scotch breed of cattle, chiefly of a black colour, with thick hides, much hair, and frequently large horns. They fatten well, and frequently attain a great size. The name of Kyloe is said to be derived from their having crossed the Kyles, or ferries, with which the highlands of Scotland abound.



Most authors confound these distempers together ; but whether they be the same, and only differ in the degrees of the malignity, I cannot determine ; but commonly the same remedies are proposed for both, though the Gorget sometimes appears in the head, and sometimes in the hinder parts. When it is in the head, it is known by the swelling of the eyelids, blisters on the tongue, &c.; when in the mane, by drooping and heaviness, panting of the heart, hanging down of the head, costiveness of the body, &c.; and when behind, he will be very stiff, and his guts rumble.

If blisters be on the tongue, take them off with a sharp knife, and slit the tongue underneath an inch

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