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in the shoeing, and is easier prevented than cured. It belongs, more generally, to the class of heavy draughthorses than to the lighter breed. It consists of a fungous matter, spread by degrees between the horny and sensible parts of the foot, inoculating everything within its reach, and, when far advanced, totally separates the hoof from the frog and sole, a part or the whole which has been found to be diseased.
Treatment.—The knife as well as caustic and cautery are often required in this case. After cutting away every portion of the hoof that is dissevered from the sensible portion beneath, chloride of antimony must then be applied as a dressing daily, but at the same time very slightly ; great care should be taken also to preserve the feet as dry as possible; and exercise is essential, but not such as would expose
him to hurt the diseased foot.
As the cure advances, administer a few gentle purgatives, and feed on bran-mashes.
Is a discharge of matter through the cleft of the frog and heels, arising from acrid moisture, such as dung or urine, penetrating the horny hoof, and thus irritating the sensitive portion of the foot, produces an unhealthy action, whence fissures are formed, and an offensive fluid escapes. Thus it is more frequent in the hinder than in the fore-feet; and horses of every description are liable to be attacked if not properly cared for. It also proceeds from contraction. If not attended to in
time, it is with difficulty removed sometimes it can never be perfectly eradicated; and no error can be so gross as to suppose that such a running is at times beneficial to the health of the horse.
If the animal be young or plethoric, a few doses of physic may be advantageous. With older horses a course of diuretics will suit better.
To stop the running, after washing the parts care fully, apply: Common Ægyptiacum
2 ounces, Oil of Turpentine
1 ounce, mixed.
If this fail, try the following, which must be introduced on a pledget of tow, but as gently as possible Blue Vitriol, (powdered)
2 ounces, White Vitriol, (powdered)
1 ounce, Tar
1 pound, Lard
2 pounds, well mixed into an ointment.
During the progress towards a cure, each day the rough edges should be either removed or softened by bathing in warm water.
INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS
Used to be but little understood by the farriers of the old school, and it has been reserved for modern science and practice to develope such treatment as will tend to work a cure for this disease among horses that would, not very long since, have been inevitably doomed to the dog-kennel
Causes.--Nothing so readily brings on this disease,
as any sudden transition from heat to cold, and even in some cases, though not to so fearful an extent, a sudden removal from a cold to a heated atmosphere ; exposure to a current of air when in a state of perspiration ; applying cold water to the body and legs while the animal is hot; all these will produce inflammation of the lungs.
Mr. Youatt, in his work entitled “ the Horse,” says, “He who would have his stud free from disease, and especially disease of the lungs, must pursue two objects, coolness and cleanliness. In the gentleman's stable, the first of these is studiously avoided, from the prejudice or the idleness of the groom, and from these stables proceed most of the cases of inflamed lungs ; especially when this heat is combined with that temporary but mischievous nuisance, the repeated breathing of the same air during the night, and that air vitiated by the fumes of the dung and urine. In the stables of the post-master, where not only closeness and heat, but the filth that would not be in a gentleman's establishment, are found both inflammation of the lungs and glanders prevail; and in the stables of many agriculturists, cool enough from the poverty or the carelessness of the owner, but choked with filth, inflammation of the lungs is seldom seen ; but mange, glanders, and farcy abound.”
Whatever may be the cause of this disease, it is very certain that its effects are most rapid, and its duration most uncertain ; this arises from the lungs being more vascular than any other parts, and as they are enclosed in a case of very circumscribed dimensions, the swelling which is attendant on inflammation taking place in this confined space, the air-cells become nearly closed, which may also account for the difficulty of breathing which accompanies this complaint.
Symptoms.-Its approach is testified by the most deceitful and treacherous symptoms; and those well versed in the veterinary science, have at first mistaken it for catarrh in some animals and colic in others. The coat stares; the extremities are colder than usual; and as the disease progresses, a great difficulty in breathing exists; there is but little appetite for food; the horse looks very dull and heavy; and shortly the pulse becomes irregular and very indistinct. The disease, thus beginning, mortification soon takes place; the legs and ears become perfectly cold; the breathing becomes more and more difficult ; the flanks heave rapidly; the teeth grind; and after ineffectual efforts to stand, the animal falls to rise no more. If the disease has worked this change in a few hours, the post-mortem appearances exhibit every symptom of suffocation; the lungs are filled with black blood, and many suppose from the colour and apparent rottenness in this case, that the disease has been contracted some considerable time; but we may rest assured that this state has arisen solely from an inflammation most intense in its nature, and rapid in its progress.
Treatment.—The horse, on the first attack, must be bled; five quarts will in most cases be sufficient; but if the animal be plethoric, and exhibit great difficulty in breathing, six or seven quarts may be taken. The bowels must then be attended to: after back-raking, a clyster composed of six ounces of Epsom salts dissolved in thin warm gruel, must be administered; this must be repeated every fourth or fifth hour till it produces the desired effect. Purges are very far from useful in this disease; indeed oftentimes being rather hurtful than otherwise.
If the first bleeding has not been successful in allay
ing, inflammation, the fleam or lancet will be called into action a second, and even a third time; although the second generally suffices. An interval of six hours must be allowed to observe the benefit derived from each operation.
We must now use means to prevent the return of the inflammation. Some prefer rowels, but a blister is far the best. After shaving the hair off the chest and sides, below and behind the elbow, and between the fo.e-legs, apply the following blister ointment :Spanish Flies, (powdered)
2 ounces, Resin
2 ounces, Lard
8 ounces, mixed
This must be well rubbed in.
The clyster having performed its office, this sedative may be used to diminish the irritability of the system. Emetic Tartar
1 drachm, Nitre
3 drachms, mixed.
This is used twice a day, but must not be continued for any length of time.
Forty-eight hours generally decides the fate of the horse. If the blister or rowel does not take effect, ihe worst consequences may be apprehended ; and when the breath stinks, and the discharge from the nose b.comes offensive, dissolution is nigh.
The blister must be repeated; if the state of the animal will allow it, bleed again, and a little tonic medicine may be tried.
Great benefit will accrue by rubbing the horse with the hand and using flannel bandages to the legs.
A cold mash, green food, and hay, may be given