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abscess is formed, more particularly when there is an inclination towards mange. Blows of all description on the head, however obtained, will bring on Pole Evil ; but none so soon as those administered by a set of brutal unfeeling carters, who, instead of assisting a horse, and endeavouring to make him understand what is required, take the butt-end of their stick or whip, and, to the injury of the animal, strike it most severely over the head. Some assert that this disease sometimes proceeds from a peculiar habit of body; but the generality of practitioners are against this assertion. As soon as discovered, the attempt to cure should not be delayed, since the disease spreads with great rapidity. The occipital and parietal bones have not unfrequently been affected with it; and it has been known to penetrate the parotid gland. Its worst symptoms are present when it attacks the articular ligaments, and pours the malignant discharge into the spinal canal, which then brings on paralysis.

1 pint,

Treatment.—When the inflammation is first perceived, and is found to be but slight, it has sometimes yielded to the following application : Sal Ammoniac

4 ounces, Sugar of Lead

1 ounces, Vinegar mixed.

This lotion should be applied by means of a cloth large enough to draw over the ears, two holes having been cut in it for that purpose. By these means, the rag will adhere closely to the pole, and it should be kept constantly wet with the lotion.

When the inflammation is great, it will be necessary to try the effects of a blister, and then apply the above

lotion. Meanwhile let a gentle purge be administered every third or fourth day.

If the inflammation approaches the ligamewtarv connexions underneath, astringent and tonic applications must be resorted to: Cantharides

2 ounces, Spirits of Wine

- 2 ounces, Vinegar

6 ounces, mixed, and put into a bottle, with a few shakings in the mean time will be ready for use in ten days. This may then be rubbed twice a day on the parts affected ; terebinthinated tincture of cantharides will answer the same purpose.

These failing, and an abscess being inevitable, the first care must be to encourage and hasten the maturation, which may be effected by means of poultices, and when the swelling has ripened a speedy evacuation of the contents is necessary; this may be procured by the introduction of a seton, running the needle into the uppermost end of the tumour and bringing it out at the lowest extremity, that the humour may flow with ease. By these means, Pole Evil, in its earliest stage, may be often effectually cured.

When the abscess has been neglected, and the case proves obstinate, it then assumes a more formidable aspect; the ulcer deepens and spreads, and eroding the ligaments of the joints of the neck. We must resort tu painful operations to produce a healthy action, and an eventual filling up of the diseased parts ; for when the thin ichorous discharge follows the healthy secretion, sinuses begin to form in all directions, which terminate in caries of the bones of the neck.

If reglected when in this state, or badly treated, the horse is apt to acquire a stiffness in the neck, and a

thrusting out of his head and nose in a very awkward and ugly position.

The scalpel is now called into action; and having cast the horse, as the safest method of proceeding to work, examine most carefully every part ; to effect which the lateral opening must be enlarged, and if caries of the bones have taken place, they must be scraped or taken out, as found necessary. All hard edges must be taken away, and the small sinuses opened, to prevent new tumours forming. These operations should, however, be performed by skilful surgeons, for common farriers may do considerable mischief. Active escharotics must be used in most cases of obstinate Pole Evil ; the following are recommended :Lunar Caustic

2 drachms. Water

3 ounces. Or, Corrosive Sublimate

2 drachms. Water

2 ounces. Inject either of these into the sinuses.

In mild cases the terebinthinated tincture of cantharides has answered well in procuring a healthy action.

In extreme cases, however humanity may recoil from the practice of cruelty and rail at the operations of those of the old school, yet there are many cases which even at this day require us to resort eventually to their systems. The method of scalding is the last resort as a cure to the ravages of the Pole Evil; and perhaps, indeed, painful as this may be at the time, it is often preferable to the frequent use of active escharotics, or the eventual use of the pole axe. Take

Arsenic, (powdered finely) 2 drachms.

4 ounces.


Corrosive Sublimate

2 drachms. Basilicon

5 ounces. Or, Buttyr of Antimony

4 drachms. Oil of Turpentine

21 ounces. Melt any of these in a ladle of iron, and when hot pour the liquid into the cavity, and after a few days dress the wound with mild ointment; if the first application does not answer, scald again.

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The action of coughing arises from a sudden and violent effort of the abdominal muscles, together with those of the ribs and the diaphragm, uniting for the intent of forcibly ejecting any substance or fluid which may have gathered in the air-passages, and which, passing from the larynx down the trachea, would irritate the lungs and obstruct the respiration.

There are many diseases, such as glanders, brokenwind, consumption, &c., to which a cough is generally allied, but in any of the cases the removal of the original complaint is the best means of subduing any affection of the air-passages. A chronic cough, however, will sometimes exist apart from all other disease, when the horse will eat well, and even look in good condition, showing its symptoms more frequently in the morning and evening, and generally after drinking; and thus it has been known harmlessly to exist during the whole term of the animal's life; while, sometimes, it has proved exceedingly hurtful.

Causes.When not dependant on any particular dis

ease, it can, most generally, be traced to sudden changes in the weather and temperature, or great exposure to cold or rain.

Treatment.-In many slight cases of cough, unattended with any symptoms of fever, a warm stable and clothing sufficient to make the animal perspire freely will give relief. If there be any discharge of mucus, let it be encouraged, in order to ease the lungs. For this purpose the following ball will be essential :Liquorice Powder

3 drachms, Sulphur

1 drachm, Assafatida

2 drachms, Venice Turpentine

2 drachms, mixed.

This may be administered every other night for a week, at the same time feeding on bran-mashes or carrots; the exercise during this period should be very gentle, and the animal kept tolerably warm. Cordial balls will be occasionally efficacious, and can be given on the intervening nights :Liquorice Powder

4 ounces, Spanish Liquorice

4 ounces, Anniseed, Bruised

4 ounces, Anisated Balsam of Sulphur 3 ounces, Carraway Seeds

2 ounces, Ginger

5 drachms, Oil of Anniseed

5 drachms, mixed with honey, and divided into a dozen balls.

To those who prefer giving draughts, the following will answer the same purpose :

Carraway Seeds, (powdered) 1 ounce.
Anniseed, (powdered)

1 ounce.
Grains of Paradise

- 6 drachms.

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