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cures: the work is interesting, and well worthy of serious attention; especially as very slight causes will bring on an attack of this often very fatal complaint.
As horses are generally very costive, the following purgative drench is recommended : Barbadoes Aloes
8 drachms, Soap
4 drachms, Ginger
• 3 drachms, Oil of Anniseed
30 drops, Treacle
• 2 ounces, mixed after this manner-having beat together the aloes, soap, and ginger, and formed them into an electuary with the treacle and oil of anniseed, add to the whole a pint of warm water. This he considers sufficient for any moderate-sized horse.
A clyster is to be thrown up at the same time, composed of Olive Oil
8 ounces. Water Gruel (warm)
2 quarts. The diet during this period is to consist of branmashes ; oatmeal-gruel mixed with milk, or some sweet green clover, may be allowed, if the jaws will admit of it.
The muscles of the head, jaws, neck, and back, must be rubbed with this liniment :Oil of Turpentine
4 drachms, Liquid Ammonia
4 drachms. Mustard
2 ounces. Olive Oil
2 quarts. Two or three sheep-skins just stripped from the animals while it is yet warm, must then be thrown over the body of the horse ; this, by increasing perspiration, quickly relaxes the muscles.
If nicking be the cause, cut the sections still deeper, and stimulate the wounded parts actively. When docking produces the disease, let the operation be , performed again a degree higher; and if the foot be wounded apply the hot iron or caustic. In treating the constitutional disease, the greatest relief has often accrued from exposure to severe cold, as leaving the animal in cold water for half an hour, and repeating the same every two hours. The application of ice has greatly mitigated the severity of the symptoms ; add to this the letting of blood, is much approved of. Sometimes as much as eight and ten quarts have been taken from a full, plethoric horse ; and among the medicines used to purge the bowels, the croton next ranks first as being very active, and contained in the smallest compass : one drachm for the first dose, and eight or ten grains repeated every five or six hours till it produces effect. Blistering the spine bone is also deemed expedient. Clysters are also used to make the purgation more speedy. If drinks are administered, great patience should be exercised, as raising the animal's head puts it to excessive pain. Should the horse recover, nourishing food, not too freely administered, ought to be given; and doubtless, he has experienced excessive hunger during the continuance of the Locked Jaw. All remedies should be very speedy, and in some cases, violent; as to trifle with the disease must end in the death of the animal. Opium is usually given to allay the irritation attendant on bleeding and blistering. If the disease is far advanced, administer it in gruel as an injection; the howels must be kept relaxed through all its stages.
Is known among farriers as “ the Yellows,” and is generally caused by the stoppage of the passage which conveys the bile from the liver to the intestines. The symptoms are usually irregular appetite, a languid appearance, with yellowness around the eyes and mouth. The urine is highly coloured, and the dung comes away in hard balls.
Treatment.-— The first thing is to gently open the bowels; to which end give Aloes
2 drachms, Calomel
1 drachm, Gentian
2 drachms, made into a ball, and administered twice a day till they produce effect. In some cases bleeding is necessary : a change of food is required in all cases of Jaundice; carrots in winter, and grass in summer, will be found beneficial. If the disease commences with diarrhea, it should be stopped, as it may generate inflammation. Gibson asserts that this disease is sometimes epidemic. Some practitioners object to bleeding in Jaundice, generally, as it increases the debility which is consequent on the disease. It is seldom dangerous, and in young horses is sometimes brought on by good feeding and too little exercise, when it is very easily cured. In old horses the cure is often effected,
DIABETES, OR PROFUSE STALING,
GENERALLY arises from some pernicious quality of the food; but
be traced to other causes, as irritation
of the kidnies, disorganisation of the digestive powers, &c. However, it is not of very frequent occurrence, and when it does appear, is sometimes very dangerous. The food is the first thing to be looked to, and then bleed and purge according to the symptoms; then have recourse to astringents, as catechu, uva ursi, opium, &c. If the digestive organs be much deranged, and the appetite bad, give Sulphuretted Potash
2 drachms. Uva Ursi, (powdered)
4 drachms. Catechu
2 drachms. Opium
2 scruples. This may be mixed in an infusion of camomile, and used once a day.
OTHERWISE distinguished by farriers as pissing of blood," is sometimes brought on by violent exertion and severe riding. Occasionally it proceeds from inflammation of the kidnies, and must be treated accordingly.
: Treatment.--Rest is essentially necessary.
Mild astringents, as alum, catechu, logwood, &c., may be used—but diuretics must be avoided. Sometimes it has been requisite to resort to a strengthening plaister across the loins.
Are very general among horses, but seldom do hurt, except where they are found in great numbers. There are several descriptions of these animals found in the intestines of the horse, but the most common is the bot, on which Mr. Bracy Clark has taken some pains to treat and illustrate; some assert they are perfectly harmless, and do not interfere with the general health of the animal : others differ in opinion; and Gibson says, “ The bots that many horses are troubled with are found sticking to the rectum, and are often thrust out with the dung, along with a yellowish coloured matter like melted sulphur.
They are apt to make a horse restless and uneasy, and to rub his breech against a post. The season of their appearing is usually in the months of May or June ; after which they are seldom to be seen, or rarely continue in any one horse above a fortnight or three weeks. Those that take possession of the membraneous part of the stomach are more irritating and dan. gerous in causing convulsions, and are seldom discovered by any previous signs before they bring a horse into violent agony.” There are beside these the lubricus teres, not unlike the common earth-worm. The tenia, or tape-worm, is seldom found among horses; the whip-worm likewise rare ; and the ascarides, or thread-worm, which sometimes exist in large numbers, and are very hurtful.
Symptoms.--An irregularity of appetite as well as of the bowels, and sometimes a dry yellow matter is found under the tail. When the teres abound, the skin generally sympathises with the bowels, the coat stares