The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural and its Many By-Products

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Elsevier, Feb 9, 2000 - Science - 376 pages
This book is a "world first", since the furfural industry has been traditionally secretive to the point of appearing shrouded in clouds of mystery. Even renowned encyclopedic works have published but scant and often erroneous information on the subject.
Striking a healthy balance between theory and practice, the book leads the reader from reaction mechanisms and kinetics to the technology of making furfural by various old and new processes, using conventional raw materials or sulfite waste liquor. Detailed discussions of means of increasing the yield are of great chemical and technological interest as well as of immense economic importance.
From furfural proper, the treatise shifts to the fascinating field of wanted and unwanted by-products ranging from largely unutilized carboxylic acids to troublesome impurities such as 5-methyl furfural and 2-furyl methyl ketone, and then to extremely valuable serendipitous flavor compounds such as diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. A wide variety of derivatives are discussed; considerable space is devoted to polytetrahydrofuran, an important building block of stretchable synthetic fibers, while furan resins from both furfural and furfuryl alcohol are given the attention commensurate with their industrial importance.
Notable supplementary chapters cover the in-line measurement of furfural, the treatment of furfural waste water, and various aspects of corrosion. A chapter on the applications of furfural elaborates not only traditional uses in extracting petroleum and vegetable oils but also the sensational discovery that furfural is a highly effective "indirect nematocide". Without becoming toxic, it changes the microflora of the soil by stimulating bacteria antagonistic to nematodes, thereby reducing the nematode population to zero, at an unprecedented low price. It is believed that this application will be the principal outlet for furfural in the future.
A comprehensive list of physical properties, some never published before, make the book an indispensable companion for producers, users and researchers alike.
 

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Contents

Chapter 20 Difurfural 55Diformyl22Difuran
164
Chapter 21 2Hydroxyfuranone5
170
Chapter 22 Acetoin
172
Chapter 23 Pyrazines
181
Chapter 24 Tetrahydrofuran
184
Chapter 25 Polytetrahydrofuran
186
Chapter 26 Xylose
205
Chapter 27 Furan Dialdehyde
210

Chapter 9 Raw Materials
34
Chapter 10 Furfural Processes
36
Chapter 11 Distillation of Furfural
75
Chapter 12 InLine Measurement of Furfural
86
Chapter 13 Treatment of Furfural Waste Water
92
Chapter 14 Applications of Furfural
98
Chapter 15 Carboxylic Acids
104
Chapter 16 Diacetyl and 23Pentanedione
120
Chapter 17 Furfuryl Alcohol
150
Chapter 18 Furan
156
Chapter 19 Furoic Acid
159
Chapter 28 Furan Resins
214
Chapter 29 Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol
223
Chapter 30 Dihydropyran
224
Chapter 31 Maleic Acid
225
Chapter 32 Methylfuran
229
Chapter 33 Pyrolysis of Furfural
231
APPENDICES
233
Epilogue
334
Subject Index
335
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