The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural and its Many By-Products
This book is a "world first", since the furfural industry has been traditionally secretive to the point of appearing shrouded in clouds of mystery. Even renowned encyclopedic works have published but scant and often erroneous information on the subject.
Striking a healthy balance between theory and practice, the book leads the reader from reaction mechanisms and kinetics to the technology of making furfural by various old and new processes, using conventional raw materials or sulfite waste liquor. Detailed discussions of means of increasing the yield are of great chemical and technological interest as well as of immense economic importance.
From furfural proper, the treatise shifts to the fascinating field of wanted and unwanted by-products ranging from largely unutilized carboxylic acids to troublesome impurities such as 5-methyl furfural and 2-furyl methyl ketone, and then to extremely valuable serendipitous flavor compounds such as diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. A wide variety of derivatives are discussed; considerable space is devoted to polytetrahydrofuran, an important building block of stretchable synthetic fibers, while furan resins from both furfural and furfuryl alcohol are given the attention commensurate with their industrial importance.
Notable supplementary chapters cover the in-line measurement of furfural, the treatment of furfural waste water, and various aspects of corrosion. A chapter on the applications of furfural elaborates not only traditional uses in extracting petroleum and vegetable oils but also the sensational discovery that furfural is a highly effective "indirect nematocide". Without becoming toxic, it changes the microflora of the soil by stimulating bacteria antagonistic to nematodes, thereby reducing the nematode population to zero, at an unprecedented low price. It is believed that this application will be the principal outlet for furfural in the future.
A comprehensive list of physical properties, some never published before, make the book an indispensable companion for producers, users and researchers alike.
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Chapter 8 The Discoloration o f Furfural
Chapter 20 Difurfural 55Diformyl22Difuran
Chapter 21 2Hydroxyfuranone5
Chapter 22 Acetoin
Chapter 23 Pyrazines
Chapter 24 Tetrahydrofuran
Chapter 25 Polytetrahydrofuran
Chapter 26 Xylose
Chapter 27 Furan Dialdehyde
Chapter 9 Raw Materials
Chapter 10 Furfural Processes
Chapter 11 Distillation of Furfural
Chapter 12 InLine Measurement of Furfural
Chapter 13 Treatment of Furfural Waste Water
Chapter 14 Applications of Furfural
Chapter 15 Carboxylic Acids
Chapter 16 Diacetyl and 23Pentanedione
Chapter 17 Furfuryl Alcohol
Chapter 18 Furan
Chapter 19 Furoic Acid
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2,3-pentanedione acetaldehyde acetic acid acetic anhydride acetoin acid catalysis aqueous azeotrope bagasse carbon atoms carboxylic acids catalyst Chem chloride corrosion crystals diacetyl difurfural diketone dimer distillation column double bonds equilibrium ethanol ethyl acetate extraction extractive distillation fluosulfonic acid formation formic furan furan dialdehyde furfural furfural concentration furfural plant furfural reactors furfural yield furfuryl alcohol furoic acid head fraction head vapor heat hexane hydrogen ion concentration illustrated in Figure increasing industrial furfural input keto form kJ/mole liquefied in condenser liquid phase liquor loss reactions methyl mixture mole/liter Molecular weight oxide form molecules oxygen pentosan pentose percent polarity polymerization polymers pressure pump quantity radicals raw furfural raw material react reflux residue resinification resins ring ROSENLEW Schematic shown in Figure sodium Solubility solution solvent steam sulfite sulfuric acid sump fraction tank temperature waste water xylose xylose disappearance