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The column of cane sugar is in hhds. of 1,000 lbs. each. The column of sorghum“ molases” is very indefinite. It does not appear whether it is "juice,” or “syrup,” or “ molasses.” If it means juice, then it will be equal to 7,000,000 lbs. of sugar. If it means syrup, it is equal to 49,000,000 lbs. of sugar, which would be an enormons production. It is probable that it means syrup-giving a very satisfactory result. It would seem that Iowa was by far the largest producer. Nevertheless, it will be observed that considerable amounts of the Chinese sugar cane syrup were made in the Southern States—103,450 gallons in Georgia, 365,861 in Kentucky, 263,475 in North Carolina, 51,041 in South Carolina, 485,828 in Tennessee, and 115,051 in Texas.

The many advantages of the crop here have caused its culture to extend in the Western States, and in the last two years, when circumstances have given such high value to sugar, the production of sorgho syrup in Jowa, Illinois, and Indiana has been sufficient to interfere with the sale of other

syrups. It will be seen that the estimated crop this year in Illinois is from two to 3,000,000 gallons, against only 797,000 in 1859.

Recently, in pursuance of an invitation from the Winnebago County Agricultural Society, a convention of the sorghum growers and manufacturers of the Northwestern States assembled at Rockford. The attendance was quite large, and the samples of syrup and sugar also exceeded in number and quality any previous exhibition ever made. There were a variety of opinions in relation to the seeds used in planting, and some inability to distinguish between imphee and sorghum, many thinking them to be identical. The convention finally adopted the following:

Seeing there are so many names given to the different kinds of cane, according to color and seed, or any other peculiarity, to have a more uniform designation we offer the following :

Resolved, That in the estimation of this Convention there are only three kinda of cane, viz. : Chinese sugar cane, having black seeds, growing a prong from two to seven inches long; the second or tufted variety, to be known as African; and the third variety, lately introduced, known as the Otabeitan, long heads, from seven to twelve inches in length, and from one to two in thickness.

There was much discussion in relation to the deterioration of seed. Some of the members asserted that they had used the seed several years in succession, and that it maintained its virtue; others that in the second year it lost its sugar; some of the members prefered sorghum, and others imphee. In some cases black imphee would not granulate, but yellow and sorghum would. It seemed to be a condition that the seeds must be quite ripe to granulate. The following facts seem to have been established by the debates: First. The fact was certainly established that there is no difficulty in growing the Chinese sugar cane, the imphee cane, and the Otaheitan in this latitude. Second. That the successful manufacture of either or all into syrup is a fixed fact. Third. That the granulation of these kinds has been successfully accomplished, specimens of sugar having been exhibited at the convention proving this. Fourth. Taking the evidence of Mr. Cory, of Indiana, whom we regard as a pioneer in the business, the Otaheitan will granulate and make handsome sugar beyond a peradventure. Fifth. That the seed from the Chinese sugar canewhich has been hitherto regarded as useless except for planting purposes -can be employed in feeding cattle, hogs, horses, &c., and also can be successfully manufactured into a four which makes a very toothsome griddle cake. It was offered in evidence, and not controverted, that an acre of cane would produce forty bushels of seed, and that that product was equal in fattening qualities to the same number of bushels of corn.

Sixth. That the juice of the Chinese cane, and doubtless the other qualities, without cooking, can be fed to hogs, cattle, and horses with admirable fattening results; in fact, that in this respect, an acre of cane is equal to two or three of corn. This last is a very important feature, and should challenge the attention of stock raisers. Seventh. That the stalks, leaves, and heads will make an excellent quality of paper. Eighth. That the bagasse can be made to yield excellent manuring qualities, and can be prepared as a fuel, to the saving of large quantities of wood and coal in the season of syrup boiling

The report of the committee on sugars and syrups was as follows:


Your committee respectfully report that the following described samples are on exbibition, to which we have appended such information as we have been able to obtain :

One specimen of syrup by P. Woolworth, of Rockford, from cane that had been frozen. This was worthless, being spoiled by the frost.

H. Foote, of Winnebago County.--Five specimens of syrup. He has manufactured 1,800 gallons.

Sylvester and Daniel Scott, Winnebago County.--Thirteen specimens syrup. Have made 1,428 gallons. It took from eight to fourteen gallons of juice to make one of syrup. No clarifying done.

C. A. Huntington, Rockford.—Three specimens. Manufactured 1,600 gallons, at a cost of fifteen cents per gallon. Juice averages seven gallons to one

of syrup.

C. Cory & Sons, Lima, Lagrange County, Ind.-Six specimens syrup, and five of sugar made from the Chinese cane, and two from Otbabeitan cane.

L. Meacham, Du Page County.--Specimens of sugar made from sorghum. He cut the joints out of the cane before crushing.

J. M. Frink, McHenry County.-Eight speciinens of syrup, of which two were from Chinese sorghum. He manufactured 1,085 gallons, at an expeuse of 111 cents per gallop. Eight cords of wood were consumed ; men's labor at $1 25 per day, and team at $1. He used Gate's evaporator and made thirty gallons per day. He showed four samples of sugar from the Chinese cane. It has stood in the sbock eight weeks. The syrup was two weeks in granulating.

V. R. Beach, Independence, Iowa.-Two kinds of sorghum syrup. Manufactured 2,600 gallons. Juice averaged seven gallons to one of syrup. Cost of manufacture seven cents per gallon. One of the specimens was from Jube Day, Independence, Iowa, and the other from Harvey B. Hatch, Independence, Iowa.

Danley & Davis, Winnegago County.—Three specimens of sorghum syrup. Made 1,800 gallons at a cost of 124 cents per gallon.

Orlando Clark, Rockford.—Two specimens of syrup, one from early imphee. Obtained iwenty-two gallons from one-tenth of an acre. Manufactured 180 gullops at a cost of ten cents per gallon.

D. S. Pardee, Winnebago County.-Six specimens of sorghum syrup and three of imphee syrup. Made 800 gallons at a cost of fifteen cents per gallon. Nine gallons of juice made one of syrup.

Henry Spaulding, Ogle County.-Five specimens syrup. Made 3 000 gallons, at a cost of ten cents per gallon. Counting wood $3 per cord, labor 75 cents per day, and team $1 per day. Made from 75 to 100 gallons per twenty-four hours. Eight gallons of juice to one of syrup.

E. H. Seward, McHenry County.—Eighteen specimens of syrup, part sorghum and part impbee. Made 2,200 gallons at a cost of 102 cents per gallon. Average of thirteen gallops of juice to one of syrup.

Belcher, of Chicago.-Three samples of refined syrup.

Lewis Nichold, Winnebago County.-One specimen of syrup. Made 400 gallons. Averaged eight gallops of juice to one of syrup.

Almeron Dodge, Winnebago County.—One specimen syrup. Made 900 gallons. Average seven to eight gallons of juice to one of syrup.

Isaac Crisman, Sycamora, DeKalb County.-Six specimens of syrup. Made 3,000 gallons, at a cost of fifteen cents per gallon. His samples of white (or as some called it, yellow) impbee was the best. The cane of this had been frozen twice, and it was made into syrup October 25th. He got thirty-five gallons from twenty-four rods of land, with moderate stand of cane. It was manufactured at the rate of seven gallons per hour. The syrup stood forty-five degrees by the sachremeter. The cane grows thirteen feet high and does not fall down like sorghum. The syrup granulates easily. His white imphee yielded one gallon of syrup to four and-a-half of juice. Grown op rich loam. He showed four specimens of sugar. Made 1.000, or 1,200 pounds, and obtained eleven pounds to the gallon. He has the seed of the white imphee for sale.

P. W. Gates, Chicago.--Six specimens syrup. He could manufacture at a cost of four cents per gallon, when he made 1,000 per twenty-four hours. Juice averaged eight gallons to one of syrup. He showed a sample of sugar.

Charles Fletcher, of Rockford.— Five specimens. Made 1,300 gallons, at a cost of 115 cents per gallon. Juice ranged from five to ten gallons to one of syrup.

B. B. Hovey, Winnebago County.--Two samples of syrup. Made 2,665 gallons, at a cost of pine cents per gallon ; seven gallons juice to one of syrup.

J. M. Moss, Waverly, Iowa.--Seven specimens of syrup, and two of sugar. He made 2,763 gallons of syrup, at a cost of ten cents per gallon. The sugar was made from yellow impbee.

W. G. Cole, Rockford.--Two specimens of syrup. The yield was 105 gallons from one-half acre, made by Hall & Co.

A. T. Moss, Boone County.--One sample yellow imphee syrup. Made 1,200 gallons.

0. N. Brainard, Marion, Iowa.--Two samples sugar; one from sorghum and one from imphee. Made 1,200 pounds sugar, averaging twelve ounds to the gallon. He had three samples of syrup; made 3,600 gallons, at a cost of 5 8-10 cents per gallon. Juice nine or ten to one of syrup.

J. E. Youngman, Rockford.--Seven samples of syrup. Made 1,870 gallons, at a cost of 114 cents per gallon. Juice averaged seven to one of syrup.

C. D. Roberts, Jacksonville.--Eight samples of syrup and four of sugar. Made 2,500 gallons of syrup.

Pope & Buckbee, Winnebago County. --Seven samples sorghum syrup. Made 3,500 gallons, at a cost of fifteen cents per gallon. Juice range from seven to one of syrup.

J. Milner, Rockford.--Three specimens of syrup. Made 150 gallons, at a cost of thirteen cents per gallon. Juice seven to one.

G. Anderson, Rockford.--Two samples syrup. Made 250 gallons. M. Johnston, Rockford.--One sample syrup. Made 1,050 gallons, at a cost of twelve cents.

A. Heart, Winnebago County.--Two samples syrup.
N. Smedley, Boone County. Three specimens syrup. Made 1,400 gallops, at

a cost of twelve cents per gallon. Juice averaged six and-a-half gallons to one of syrup. He had one specimen of sugar.

Your committee would respectfully report that they have spared no pains in examining the different samples of syrups on exhibition. From the good samples they set aside twenty-seven as ranking tirst among those exhibited ; that as a matter of course there are among this lot, some of superior excellence and purity, but they are so numerous that your committee concluded to designate no one as worthy the claim of superior excellence. Certain it is that, judging from the samples, great attainments and advancement bave been made within the last year in the manufacture of syrups; and with the necessary care and attention to the subject of manufacture, as brought before the Convention, will enable almost any one to manufacture a very palatable article of syrup. How far it will be practicable to manufacture for sale and export every one should be his own judge.

Among the sugars on exbibition, your committee would make especial notice of the following:

L. Meacham, of Will County.--Sugar partly refined, made from Chinese cane:

C. D. Roberts, Jacksonville.--Nine different samples, made of different kinds of cane, and from the mush state to the refined grain.

Cory & Sons, Lagrange, Ind.--Several different samples made from Chinese and Otaheitan canes.

J. C. Frink, McHenry County.--Four kinds, made from Chinese cane.

C. N. Brainard, Marion, Iowa.--Two samples in the crude state, made from the African and Chinese canes.

D. S. Pardee, Winnebago County.--Several samples from imphee, in the mush state.

Isaac Crisman, Sycamore County.—Three specimens from the different kinds of cane.

One sample of dark sugar, owner unknown.
J. M. Moss, Waverly, Iowa.–One sample made of the yellow cane.
All of which is respectfully submitted.

I. S. Hyatt,
A. F. Moss,

A committee reported that there were forty manufacturers in Winnebago County, who bad made 50,000 gallons of syrup at an average cost of thirty cents per gallon.

It would appear that the culture bas taken deep root in the North west, and that it is feeling its way towards an important interest. It will probably be found necessary, as in France, in relation to the beet root sugar, that the manufacturers should become entirely distinct. The farmers in confining their attention to the culture, may produce a profitable crop, which might find a ready market with manufactures of sugar in the neighborhood.

The discussions at the convention showed that very much depended upon the character of the soil in relation to the value of the juice. This peculiarity is the case in Mexico, where almost all the grains and vegetables which grow in that dry, clear climate, are remarkable for their extraordinary sweatness. The common corn-stalk abounds in saccharine matter to such an extent as to furnish the native population with molasses, which, although hardly as good as the inferior molasses of Louisiana,

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might doubtless be much improved by a more perfect mode of manufacture than that adopted by the Mexican population. The molasses is purchased there by those who do not supply their own wants at a rate of $1 50 per gallon. The beet of New Mexico contains so unusual a quantity of saccbarine matter, that the manufacture of beet sugar is said to offer strong inducements to gentlemen of enterprise and capital to embark in the business. The only sugar which is brought to Santa Fe now, is transported from the Valley of the Mississippi across a desert of nearly 900 miles in extent, and the cost of transportation increases its price about ten cents a pound, so that the most inferior kinds range from ninet-en to twenty-five cents in value.

The supply of sugar in the United States was obtained mostly from Cuba and Brazil, but of late years the Louisiana crop has so progressed, that it now exerts a marked influence upon prices in the United States. The following table from official sources will show the quantities consumed in the United States, the quantity per head of the consumers, and the average prices in New York:

Pounds Aver. Maplo Imported. Louisians. Total per price. tons. tons.

tons. head. cents. 1831..

44,178 35.000 79,178 137 4 1841 65,601 38,000 103,601 13+

41 16,385 1851

201,493 120,331 321,824 30 54 17,1:26 1852

196,558 118,659 315,217 29 44 15.000 1853

200,610 172,379 379 989 361 5$ 13,000 1854

150,854 234,444 385,298 34 5 12,300 1855 192,607 185,145 377,752 31}

14.500 1856 255,292 123,468 378,760 304

14,500 1857 241,765 39,000 280,765


17.000 1858

244,758 143,734 388,492 25 64 16,000 1859

239,034 192,150 431,184 26 7 17.000 1860 296,950 118,331 415,281

77 19,431 1861

241,420 122,399 363,819 23 64 18.000 1862, 10 months.


292,129 28 10+ 20,000 This table describes the great fluctuation in the sugar market, caused by the failures of the Louisiana sugar crop in 1857. The sugar crop in that State in 1853 was very large, and as a consequence, aided by financial pressure, the price fell very low, encouraging consumption while it discouraged planters. In the following year a great decrease was manifest in the crops. Many of the planters had turned their attention to other crops, particularly cotton, which was more sure. The number of sugar houses was reduced from 1,481 in 1852, to 1,299 in 1855, and the reduction was progressive. As a consequence, there was a larger dependence upon the foreign sugar, and this increased American demand happened at a time when a disease broke out among the French vines, causing a demand for sugar for distilation, and the price rose all over the world, when in 1857 the Louisiana crop failed almost altogether. This was a fruitful cause of the financial revulsion in that year. The alarming state of affairs attracted the attention of Congress, which fitted out a vessel to procure fresh supplies of cuttings from Bahia, British Guiana, and for free distribution among the planters. The high price of sugar drew large quantities hither from countries not before known as sugar exporters, and a new article called melado, which has continued to forin a portion of the sugar supply made its appearance.




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