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Ver. 2. Εν υποκρισει Ψευδολογων, κεκαυτηριασμενων την ιδιαν συνειδησιν. Through the hypocrisy (or feigning) of liars, of those who have

their conscience seared. Ver. 3. Κωλυοντων γαμειν, απεχεσθαι βρωματων αο Θεος εκτεισεν εις μεταληψιν μετα ευχαρισιας τοις πιςοις και επεγνωκοσι την αληθειαν. Of those who forbid to marry, and command tv abstain from meats,

which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.




WISE CAUSAM OR MODUM ACTIONIS. Of the first part of this prophecy, being a description of the condition of that solemn defection which was to come, I have spoken hitherto. I come now to the second part of my division—the quality of the persons, and the means whereby it was to enter and be advanced, which is set forth in the verses now read; which, though you may find by others otherwise translated, yet I hope the translation which I have propounded, if the judicious reader please to examine it, will approve itself not only not to be an enforced one, but such as salves that incongruity of construction which the other could not avoid. For it is usually translated intransitively, with reference to the persons expressed in the former verse—viz. “ that they should speak lies in hypocrisy, having their conscience seared with an hot iron, and forbidding marriage, and commanding to abstain from meats.” So as that which in the former verse is named “doctrines of devils,” should only mean that in general terms, which in these verses is particularly instanced to be "doctrines of prohibiting marriage, and abstaining from meats,”as two branches of that devilish doctrine; for so Calvin, Melancthon, and some others seem to expound it.

But why this interpretation should not be the most likely, my first reason is

1. Because it makes St. Paul, who speaks of that GREAT APOSTASY of Christians which was to be in the latter

times, to instance only in the smaller and (if I may so say almost circumstantial errors; and to omnit the inain and principal, which the Scripture elsewhere tells us should be idolatry or spiritual fornication. Who can believe that he would so balk the substance, and name only that which in comparison is but an appendix thereto?

2. He prophesies here in express words of such things as were to come in* the latter times. But errors ahout marriage and meats were no novelty in the Apostles' own times, as the diligent reader may easily collect out of their epistles; which makes it improbable he would specify the Apostasy of the latter times in these alone.

3. But my last reason, whereunto I think I may trust, is, that the syntax of the words in the Greek is incapable of such an intransitive construction, and consequently of the sense depending thereon. For the persons intimated in the former verse, are expressed in the nominative case,t but the persons intended here we find in the genitive, # which I cannot see how they can agree with the former, s after the manner of intransitive construction, withont breach of grammatical congruity, not elsewhere sampled in our Apostles' epistles. Indeed they would agree with demons||, but that would be a harsh sense every way; for either we must say (as some do) that by devils are meant devilish men, or men led by the devil, which is an hard signification; or else it would be a stranger sense, and I think not over pliable to the usual exposition, to say, that devils should lie, have seared consciences, and forbid marriage or meats.

So that Beza, with others, had rather confess a breach of syntax, than incur the inconvenience of such a forced sense. I “ The Apostle (saith he) heeded more the matter than he did the grammar."

έν υγερούς καιρούς.

* τινες προσεχοντες.
Η ψευδολογων, κεκαυτηριασμένων κωλυοντων.

και τινες and προσεχοντες.

|| Δαιμονιων. Majorest habita sententiæ quain constructionis ratio."


But what needs this, so long as there is a better way to salve it ?-namely, to construe the words transitively, making all these genitive cases to be governed of* hypocrisy; as through the hypocrisy of liars ; 1 through the hypocrisyof those who had their consciences seared ; and so forward, Which construction is observed and followed by Andreas Hyperius, one of our reformed writers † ; and I believe that many others have taken it so; for our late latin translations are indifferent to be taken either way. Howsoever it be, I see no way but this to keep the syntax true and even, and wholly to avoid the forementioned inconveniences; which, as it is easy and obvious, and not strained, so I hope to let you see the event to have been most answerable thereunto; that this was the manner, and this the means, this the quality of the persons whereby the doctrine of demons was first brought in, advanced and maintained in the Church-viz. through the hypocrisy, feigning, craft, or counterfeiting of those who told lies, of those who had their consciences seared, &c.

As for the use of the preposition ing, to signify the cause, the instrument, the manner of action,|| he that is not a stranger in the Scripture knows it to be most frequent, the Greek text borrowing it from the Hebrew. But two or three examples will not do amiss. Matthew, c. 5, v. 13.

“ If the salt hath lost its sarour, wherewith ** shall it be salted ?" Acts xvii. 31, “Because God hath appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness,ft by the man whom he hath ordained.” 2 Pet. iii. 1, “I stir up your pure minds, II by way of remembrance.” Tit. i. 9, That he may be ables § by sound doctrine to exhort and

* Εν υποκρισει" as εν υποκρισει ψευδολογων.

* εν υποκρισει κεκαυτηριασμενων. Who translates, “ Per simulationem falsiloquorum.” &c. and expounds it, “ de modo quo fallent Spiritus Impostores; fallant per simulationem seu hypocrisio falsiloquorum,” &c.

§ ('Ev) || Causam, instrumentum, or modum actionis.
εν τινι αλισθησεται. Η εν ανδρι ω ωρισε. Η εν υπομνησει,

και και εν διδασκαλια υγιαινεση.



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