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of these ; some shall apostatize from the sound doctrine, giving heed to fables and doctrines of demons: for, (saith he) they shall be worshippers of DEAD MEN, as they were worshipped in Israel.” Are not these last words for an exposition of the doctrines of demons? But what you will say, doth he mean by the dead worshipped in Israel ? I suppose he means their Baalim, who (as is already showed) were nothing else but demons or deified ghosts of men deceased ; yet he brings in two examples besides; one of the Sichemites in his time, who had a Goddess or Demoness under the name of Jephtha's daughter; another of the Egyptians, who worshipped Thermutis, that daughter of Pharaoh, which brought up Moses. Some, as Beza, would have these words of Epiphanius, to be a part of the text itself, in some copy which he used. But how is that likely, when no other Father once mentions any such reading ? Nay, it appears moreover, that Epiphanius intended to explain the words as he quoted them, as he doth *“ the faith,” by + " the sound doctrine,” and * erroneous spirits,” by Ś“ fables," and so || “ giving heed to doctrines of demons” by **" worshipping dead men.” Otherwise we must say he used either a very cor. rupt copy, or quoted very carelessly. But grant that Epiphanius read so : either this reading was true, and so I have enough : because then the Apostle with his "they shall be worshippers, &c." should expound himself by Demons to mean the deifying of the dead; or it was not the original reading, but added by some or other for explication sake; and so it will follow, that those who did it made no question but that the words there contained some such thing as worshipping of the dead. Therefore, take it which way you will, it will follow, that some such matter as we speak of, was in times past supposed to be in this text and prophecy.
πνευματα πλανης. . και μυθοι. Η προσεχοντες διδασκαλιαις Δαιμονιων.
** λατρυοντες τους νεκρούς.
WHY THOSE WORDS IN THE DESCRIPTION OF THE MYSTERY OF
GODLINESS (RECEIVED INTO GLORY) ARE SET LAST.--THAT PRAYING TO SAINTS GLORIFIED, AS MEDIATORS AND AGENTS FOR US WITH GOD, IS IDOLATRY.-FOR THE PROOF OF THIS SEVERAL GROUNDS ARE LAID DOWN-TO BE PRAYED TO IN HEAVEN,” TO PRESENT OUR DEVOTIONS TO GOD, AND TO DEAL AS AN AGENT AND MEDIATOR BETWEEN US AND HIM, IS A PREROGATIVE” APPROPRIATE TO CHRIST, A FLOWER OF HIS GLORY, AND EXALTATION TO SIT AT God's Right HAND, A ROYALTY INCOMMUNICABLE TO ANY OTHER. —THAT NONE BUT CHRIST OUR HIGH PRIEST IS TO BE AN AGENT FOR US WITH GOD IN THE HEAVENS, WAS FIGURED UNDER THE LAW, IN THAT THE HIGH PRIEST ALONE HAD TO DO IN THE MOST HOLY PLACE, AND THERE WAS TO BE AGENT FOR THE PEOPLE.-THAT THOUGH CHRIST IN REGARD OF HIS PERSON WAS CAPABLE OF THIS GOD-LIKE GLORY AND ROYALTY, YET IT WAS THE WILL OF GOD THAT HE SHOULD PURCHASE IT BY SUFFERING AN UNIMITABLE DEATH-THIS PROVED FROM SEVERAL TESTIMONIES OF SCRIPTURE.-SAINT WORSHIP IS A DENIAL OF CHRIST'S PREROGATIVE.-BREAD WORSHIP IN THE EUCHARIST, TO WHAT KIND OF IDOLATRY IT MAY BE REDUCED-HOW SAINT WORSHIP CREPT INTO THE CHURCH.
Now I come to the second point, to maintain and prove that praying to saints glorified, as mediators and agents for us with God, is justly charged with Idolatry.
For this is that which I told you in the beginning, that my text depended upon the last words of the former chapter and verse, “received into glory;" which were, therefore, out of their due order, put in the last place, because my text was immediately to be inferred upon them.* Agreeably, therefore to this dependance of my text, I am to shew, that the invocation of saints glorified implies AN APOSTASY from Christ, and a denial of his glory and majesty, whereunto he is installed by his assumption into heaven, to sit at the right hand of God. Which before I do, I must premise some general grounds which are as followeth.
* The like misplacing, and for the like reason, see Heb. xii. 23, where in a catalogue or recension of the parts of the Church “ Christ the head,” and “the sprinkling of his blood" is mentioned in the last place, and after“ the spirits of just men,” because the next verses are continued upon this sprinkling of Christ's blood : "ye my face."*
First, that as God is most one, and without all multiplicity, so must the honour and service which is given unto him have no communicability. Isa. xlii. 8. “I am the Lord, that is my name, and my glory will I not give unto another, nor my praise to graven images ;" for the one-most God must have an one-most service. Therefore in that action whereof God is the object, nothing must be an object but God. Or, in the scripture phrase, thus, -in those actions which look towards the “ face of God," nothing may come between whose “face" such actions may look upon besides him ; whether by way of subordination to him, or representation of him ; for “ I am the Lord thy God (saith he) thou shalt have no other Gods before I say not, that a man may not turn his face upon the face of any other thing when he turns his face towards the face of God; for how then should we worship him at all, seeing which way soever we turn us, something will always be before us ? But it is not the face of our bodies, or their posture, but the face and posture of the act we do, which must not have the face turned upon any thing else, when it is directed at the face of God: namely, that action in which God is faced, must face nothing else but God; that is, where God is the object, whether in regard of his person, when we pray unto him, or of his throne of presence, when we would approach it, or direct our supplications towards it: there nothing is to have any respect of an object but God alone.
Secondly, this face of God is not only the object of his person,” but also the “place of his presence," where his glory is revealed in the heavens, where weshall see him face to face, 1 Cor. xiii. 12, Rev. xxii. 4, and where the angels in heaven behold the face of the father which is in heaven -Matt. xviii. 10. No action, therefore, directed thitherward, that is, to this face of his revealed “presence and glory,” may so much as look asquint upon any other object, or behold any other face but the face of God alone; for we must have no other Gods before his face. are come to the general assembly and church of the first-born, which are written in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, and to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, which speaketh better things than that of Abel;" whereas the right order should have been, first,“God the judge of all;" secondly,“ Christ the me. diator of the new covenant;" and thirdly, in the last place, “the spirits of just men made perfect.” See also Rev. i. 5, where Christ is named after the seven spirits for the like reason.
* Exodus xx. 3.
So although when we pray unto God, we turn the face of our bodies towards heaven, the sun, the moon, and stars ; yet do we not, therefore, worship the host of heaven, because our action hath no relation to them as to an object, but to God alone ; and howsoever they are between God and us in place, yet as an object of our devotion neither they, nor any thing in them, come any way between us and him.
Now for the reason (if you ask ity of this incommunicableness of all actions and services directed to God-ward, you shall have it, (Exod. xxxiv. 14.) Because the Lord, whose name is jealous, is a jealous God; jealous not only lest he should not be honoured and served as God; butjealous lest he should not be honoured as one God; for as by honouring him we acknowledge him God, so by the incommunicableness of honour we acknowledge him one God.
For this cause, God being to give us a Mediator, by whom we should have access unto his presence, and whom, without his jealousy, we might interpose in our devotions and supplications unto himself, or offered at the throne of his majesty and glory in the heavens, provided that admirable mystery of communicating to the nature of a man born of a woman, the hypostatical union of the second person of the Deity; and him, after he had
vanquished death, to exalt to sit at his right hand of glory and power in the heavens, there in his own presence and throne to receive our requests, and to deal as an agent between us and him.
Thus, at length, I am arrived at that port which all this while I made for, viz., to show, that this glory of Christ, which is styled his sitting at the right hand of God, is that incommunicable royalty to which of right belongeth in the presence of God to receive and present our devotions to the Divine Majesty; as in that which now followeth shall appear.
Sessio ad dextram Dei,- To sit at the right hand of God, is to be installed in God's throne, or to have a godlike royalty, which is defined in Scripture,—the majesty of Christ in heaven.*
* Whence it is said, Heb. 1. 3, εκαθισεν εν δεξία της μεγαλωσυνης εν υψηλους, he sat down on the right hand of Majesty on high; and Heb. viii. 1, it is called Aižic T8 θρονα της μεγαλωourns EY TOLS 8gavons, the right hand of the Throne of the Majesty in the Heavens: it is also called by Christ himself, Mark xiv. 62, Δεξια της δυναμεως, Luke xxii. 69, Δεξια της δυναμεως το Θεου, the right hand of Power, and the right hand of the Power of God: for as to the right hand belongs both dignity and strength; 80 doth this glory of Christ include both a God-like sublimity and a God-like power; the first, the right hand of the throne, dežsa tou Igoou, the second, the right hand of power, dežia ons d'uvajews. The proper place where the majestical glory is revealed, is the heavens, as may appear almost wheresoever this sitting at the right hand of God is mentioned. Eph. i. 20. EV TOLS ETTB pavions, Coloss. iii. Ι. εν τοις ανω, Ηeb. 1. 3. εν υψηλοις, Heb. vii. 26, υψηλοτερος Twy ovpaywy, 1 Pet. iii. 22,865 oupavoy,&c. Heaven, heavenly places, high places, and the like, being always thereto annexed : and everywhere appeareth to be a consequent of his ascension into heaven, as we say in our Creed, he ascended into Heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God; and, therefore, in the words whereon my text depends, is expressed by, assumed or taken up into glory, aveano In ev do&n. For as God himself is styled the Father in heaven, Pater in cælis; not because not elsewhere, but because his glory is there revealed: so Christ sits at the right hand in heaven, ad dextram in cælis, because there the beams of the