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and wonderfully made !” Paley well likewise is the accompanying menobserves, "The ejaculation can never tion as a fact, that the Lord immetoo often be repeated. How many diately “rained great stones out of things must go right for us to be an heaven' upon the flying host. For, hour at ease !-how many more for would it not be the case that, if the us to be vigorous and active! Yet diurnal rotation of earth were sudvigour and activity are, in a vast denly to stop, the impetus of motion plurality of instances, preserved in would avail to raise high into the human bodies, notwithstanding that air by centrifugal force, and fling they depend upon so great a number down again by gravity such unof instruments of motion, and not- anchored things as broken fragments withstanding that the defect or dis- of rock?”+ order sometimes of a very small in- 4. Science teaches the supremacy strument, of a single pair, for instance, of the mind over the body, the suout of the four hundred and forty-six periority of intellectual operations to muscles which are employed, may be physical violence. The great conattended with grievous inconveni- querors, who for a time filled half the ency.”
world with noise and confusion, have The ant was formerly supposed to passed away, leaving little behind be held forth in the Book of Proverbs them but their names, to serve as as a model on account of its parsi- chronological sign-posts on the road mony; but, the observations of modern of time; but the discoveries of science naturalists having rendered it toler- are still present with us, the lasting ably certain that that insect is not in trophies of the triumphs of mind, the habit of hoarding, a moral more though, perhaps, the names of their in accordance with the spirit of the first acquirers may be lost.
The Gospel may now be elicited. “The thoughtful man, whether he looks up moral intended in Solomon's allusion to the sky or down on the earth, to the ant, (Prov. vi. 6.) is simply to whether he gathers a flower or treads avail one's self of the favourable time on a stone, is reminded of some of without delay. The description which the utterances of the oracles of science. follows, of the sluggard sleeping, evi- The conqueror may, indeed, by workdently during the day, the proper sea- ing on the hopes or fears of multison of activity, and of the conse- tudes, induce them to follow him, quences of his vice, agrees with this and further the enterprizes which his interpretation. The other passage, ambition has sketched; but if a true (Prov. xxx. 25.) probably by another love of humankind animated their writer, also considers the ant simply breasts --- if they could behold the as the symbol of diligence.”
thousands of their own number who The following passage, from a re- would be left to perish on the field, cent publication, is, we think, de- or to sink beneath the ravages of inserving of the reader's consideration : clement seasons, hunger, and disease, " What should Joshua want with
while with cold eye their leader would the moon for daylight, to help him
count their corpses, calmly calculatto rout the foes of God more fiercely?
ing how he might best supply their
loss--surely they would all, as one Why not, according to the astrono
man, shrink back from unjust agmical ignorance of those days, let her sail away, unconsorted by the
gression, and leave the restless slave sun, far beyond the valley of Ajalon?
of ambition to weave in solitude his There was a reason here of secret,
imaginary plans of selfish aggranunobtruded science: if the
dizement. But with the exploits of
science it is far otherwise. The road to stopped, the moon must stop too; that is to say, both apparently: the
some new discoveryis announced, and
the world hastens to follow, drawn fact being, that the earth must for the while rest on its axis. This, I say,
by an instinctive love of advantage. is a latent scientific hint: and so
Of the greatness of the soul, then,
science gives abundant proof; but of * Rev. J. F. Denham, in Kitto's Cyclo- + Tapper's Probabilities : an aid to pædia of Biblical Literature.
Faith, p. 117.
its immortality she knows nothing by rectitude, would be more keen than experiment. And to the intellectual in one of less cultivation. “All inquirer, the uncertainty on this sub- around me," the man of science may ject becomes more painful than to the say, “is harmony and obedience from mere sensual man. The latter places the least to the greatest : as the blood his chief delight in the gratification circulates in my body, so flows the of his animal appetites; and having sap through the tree—the atmosphere made himself like to irrational crea- has its ebb and flow, similar to that I tures in his life, he may perhaps be observe in the ocean—the laws of content if he can convince himself gravitation are respected throughout that he will be like tnem in his death. the universe,—but in myself I find But with the contemplative man it is war and rebellion, my awakened connot so.
He cannot but feel that the science tells of sins done and duties thirst of his soul has not been half
omitted; how then, is my peace of slaked-that its powers are capable mind to be restored ?” Science can of a far greater development; even give no suitable relief in this emerwhen in the full possession of his gency : for, she tells no way by which physical powers, there have been sea- the stains of sin can be washed out, sons when he has felt that his body or the moral harmony of the offender was a clog and a hindrance to his restored. Here then comes in the more sublime aspirations ;--is he, Gospel with its voice of comfort: then, instead of being raised to a telling of atonement and pardon for higher state, to be finally crushed the truly penitent, of healing and into nothing-instead of being lifted restoration for the broken in heart. to a place amid those bright orbs on We
« when free from cares, dewhich he so loves to gaze, is he to be light to know what is passing in the trodden into dust, and scattered to material heavens;" but when filled the winds ?
with sorrow for sin, when bowed “Who would lose,
down by affliction, then is it that we Though full of pain, this intellectual being,
cast eager glances of apprehension or Those thoughts that wander through eter- hope towards those spiritual heavens nity,
where the atoner and purifier dwells. To perish rather swallowed up and lost 5. Science teaches its yotaries to In the wide womb of uncreated night, Devoid of sense and motion ?"
combine theory with practice. The
time is now past when philosophers Here, then, Christianity comes in confined themselves to fabricating to the aid of the humble enquirer : life theories which experiment had not and immortality are brought to light confirmed, and which could not be by the Gospel. The dark mountains brought to bear upon the necessities of doubt which bound scientific in- of life. Science has descended from quiries are irradiated by the Sun of the clouds to move among men, and righteousness: faith invites us to try the to scatter blessings as she goes.
She difficult ascent, revealing to us a safe is still, indeed, occupied in following path, and assuring us that a sunny the high but safe path of farlandscape lies on the other side. No reaching analysis; but she stoops representations given by science of nevertheless to introduce many new the worth of the soul, can at all equal comforts into our dwellings, to sugthat which is contained in the fact, gest greater facilities of intercourse, that God gave his only begotten Son to remove numerous lesser inconvefor its redemption.
niences, and even to frame playthings And further, though we are forced for the child. to acknowledge that there is no ne- Let us learn from her example that cessary connexion between intellectual Christianity too calls for more than a eminence and moral propriety, for mental adhesion to its teachings: that there are too many sad examples to religionis a practical thing which ought the contrary, yet 'we may conceive to pervade all the offices of life. Christhat to the enlightened mind the feel- tianity, it is true, invites to contemplaing of remorse and self-detestation tion-it summons the mind to dwell on account of any departure from on the most exalted subjects, and reveals visions on which the eye of 7. The mental dissatisfaction which faith loves to gaze. But it does not is the result of the most successful permit the believer to sit an inactive pursuit of science, is fraught with an and silent admirer of the wonders of important moral lesson. There is a creation, redemption and providence; melancholy grandeur in the following it calls upon him to take his part in statement by a celebrated philosopher, what is going on around
familiar with all the known heights his active or passive virtues to glorify and depths of creation. “Beside the his Father who is in heaven.
joy,” says Baron Humboldt, “mixed 6. Science shews man both his lit- as it were with woe, which we feel in tleness and his greatness. When he knowledge possessed, there dwells in thinks of the vast extent of the uni- the eager spirit, unsatisfied with the verse (to him infinite, for it con- present, the longing after yet untinually increases as he prosecutes his trodden, yet unimagined regions of inquiries) he seems lost amid a pro- knowledge." Yes; however wide fusion of life; his own petty concerns may be the extent of physical science, become merged in immensity; his the mind feels that there is something knowledge appears the lisping of a beyond : the horizon of the universe child; his size that of an insect; his flies before it as it advances : impaduration that of a flower of the field. tient of limits, it presses on to infinity. But, on the other hand, when he re- Here have we a type of what obtains members the wondrous triumphs of in spiritual things : “ the sublime,” mental research, of the bold advance
says a great poet,
“ dwells not in he has been permitted to make into space,” the eager soul can rest only the untrodden territories of nature,
in God. "
Hardly do we guess aright he learns to respect the strange tenant at things that are upon the earth, and of his small perishable frame, to ac- with labour do we find the things that knowledge that “there is a spirit in are before us, but the things that man, and the inspiration of the Al- are in heaven who hath searched out? mighty giveth them understanding," And Thy counsel who hath known, —that “the spirit of man is the candle except Thou give wisdom, and send of the Lord," though it is placed on Thy Holy Spirit from above?" (Wisa fragile base, and seems exposed to dom ix. 16, 17.)
M. N. extinction by the passing breeze.
THE PRIMITIVE BISHOP.
(By the Rev. Dr. Stone, of the Episcopal Church in the United States.) In his true character, as humble and exemplify wickedness : and so, with holy, laborious and Christ-like, a even greater facility, may any other teaching bishop comes in contact with ministry.* This, therefore, unfaall classes in the church, the old and vourably affects not our view. Take the young, the clergy and the people, two preachers of the Gospel--equally under the most favourable circum- learned and able, equally holy and exstances ; not merely as a good man emplary; in all essential respects alike, in the ministry, but as such a man, save that the one is a bishop, and the clothed with the authority, and sur- other merely an influential minister rounded by the reverence, which attach themselves to his ancient and * The comparatively small number of
bishops in a church, and the greater pubpeculiar office; the recognised and
licity of their teachings and manner of venerated teacher, not of a few, but life, keep them more strictly in the eye of of the whole flock committed to his public scrutiny, and render it more easy care; the grave and honoured ex- to compare their doctrine and conduct pounder of the doctrine of Christ to with the standards of truth and duty, than
can be the case with a more numerous the more or less widely spread clergy
body of clergy, each of whom is ordinarily , and people of his charge. It is true, confined within the limits of a narrower even a bishop may teach error and and more private sphere.
among non-Episcopalians: it will, I character of Christ and his Gospel upon apprehend, be impossible so to extend wide masses of men, and upon all the and diversify the Christian labours living institutes and permanencies and influence of the latter, as to of the Church. The point of influrender them equal in power and ence, from which he acts, gives him efficiency on the spiritual welfare of the best means of "driving away the flock of Christ, with the similarly from the Church all erroneous and extended labours, and the peculiarly strange doctrines, contrary to God's diversified influence of the former. Word.” He is not so far off from He has not the same point of advan- his clergy and people but that he can tage, from which to act. He carries see and measure error and its evils not with him, in the peculiar genius with his own eyes, and remove them of his office, the same silent, but by such means as are wisest and best; living and deep-felt power for good. nor yet, so nearly on an equality with This comparison is not intended to them in conceded authority and indepreciate the blessed power of the fluence as to strip his discipline of its able and holy man of God, in the just power for effect. He is, I office of such a minister ; but to shew venture to affirm, the happiest inthat it is simply impossible to clothe strumentality for religious good, him with all the means for good, which which the Church has ever known, or invest the equally holy and able man the world ever felt. He concentrates of God in the office of a bishop. In his confidence, veneration, love; he doctrine and in his teaching, in his ex- awakens respect, reverence, obediample and in his active measures for ence; he promotes harmony, zeal, the extension of true religion, there is a
and he does all with a pecupeculiarity of influence about such a liarity of success to which, as I bishop, to which no other minister of
venture to suppose, no one, under Christ can attain. It is, of course, other forms of the ministry, can a peculiarity which grows, not out of attain; to which no one in the lower the man, but out of his office, and out orders of an Episcopally constituted of the adaptedness in which that office ministry itself can attain: which meets certain great and permanent springs from the fact that there are susceptibilities in our common na- lower orders in this ministry; and ture. Say what we will, we cannot which, in truth, is partly but the take out of our nature the salutary power of those lower orders working feelings of deference and respect, upwards, and becoming manifest in with which it stands in the presence the results of this benignly effective of just and fitting, and rightly consti- presidency: tuted superiority of official rank; a The main objection to this view superiority of rank, not so highas toin- will, I suppose, be found in the allespire awe, and a painful sense of dis- gation, that the office of a bishop has tance; por yet depressed so nearly too much power, too strong attracto the common grade, or to the idea tions for the mere worldly heart in its of a mere gift from the people, as to love of authority and of official conbreed familiarity, or generate con
and that, therefore, tempt. In spite of theories, our bishops are more liable to become nature dreads the monotony of an worldly in spirit and corrupt in unbroken level. A beautiful and har- doctrine, and consequently baleful. in monious ascent of being and of orders their influence on the cause of spiritmarks all God's works in heaven and ual religion, than a ministry constion earth; and it is impossible to ex- tuted on the basis of official parity; tinguish the feelings, which sponta- If the Episcopal office were indeed neously spring up in the manifested and intrinsically identified with the presence of this divine constitution
pomp and circumstance, the wealth of things. A pure Gospel, and the and political power which, in some religion which it embodies, spread to countries, have been associated with the best advantage from such a bishop it, there would be weight in the obas I have described. He has the best jection. But such is not the case. opportunities for impressing the holy These corrupting influences belong
not to the office itself, so much as to days of his office? I answer, the the circumstances with which worldly most conspicuous follower of Christ, influence has surrounded the office. as well in poverty and sufferings as The love of power is innate, in- in the aboundings of his toils for the eradicable, and, unless under the souls of men; the very front mark in control of divine grace, inordinate. the Christian army to the arrow of To the human heart office is nothing, the destroyer and the sword of the but as it is a means for acquiring, or persecutor. “Nolo Episcopari,” “I an instrument for exercising, the desire not to be a bishop,” was the power which it loves. And even as utterance, not of a counterfeit or a such a means, or instrument, it is, false modesty, but of a human heart, perhaps, of less importance than speaking out of its deepest sensibilimany suppose. The main sources of ties, and meaning that, “if the Master power lie within a man; and when would mercifully excuse His servant, the spring is deep and copious, if it he would prefer labouring in less obdo not find, it will soon force a chan- seryed and less perilous posts of nel for its gushings. When the love duty." The Episcopal office was not of power is strong, if it do not meet, sought by the worldly or the amit will easily make, an office, into bitious then ; it could not be urged which it may vault and ride on high on any but those who were conamong the people. And when hu- strained, by love for Christ and for man ambition makes an office for the souls of men, to “count all things itself, it is somewhat apt to make it but loss," and to be counted as but higher than God, in his wisdom, has the offscouring of all things." seen fit to ordain.* So far, then, as Then, the influence of the office was the theory of the Episcopal office is not corrupting but purifying. It concerned, it may, perhaps, be said drew, into that front ministry, none that where no due gradation in the but the choicest of the fine gold; and ministry is established and conceded, it drew that gold thither but to refine the ambitions which lie deep in our it still more perfectly, as in a furnace nature, and the consequent difficulty of fire! Those days will never reof maintaining simple equality among turn; but the time may come God masses of men of varying abilities send it soon when the office of a and susceptibilities, will be more bishop shall have nothing-(in our likely to engender strifes after supe- country (the United States,] it now riority of place and power, than has little indeed)--to attract the where such a gradation in the min- heart, but superior opportunities of istry is established and conceded, doing good in the salvation of men, and where the very fixedness of in- amid more abounding toils, privastitutions tends, as far as anything tions, and hardships, endured from can tend, to generate a spirit of quiet love to the dear Saviour of our souls, submission and contentment of mind and to those for whom he so freely under the reign of lawful and ac- shed his own precious blood. The knowledged order.
idea, wherever it prevails, that the The best illustration, both of the dignity of this office must be maintheory and of the working of the true tained by surrounding it with the Episcopacy may, perhaps, be gathered adventitious array of wealth and from the earliest ages of the church. titles, seems like an imputation on What, then, was a bishop designed the lowly Jesus, and to be born of a to be? What was he in the pristine mere earthly conception of the dignity
in view : as if the works of Christ
and the office of his chief ambassador * I am willing that this should be applied to the causes which set in the church did not shine brightest and most Archbishops, Patriarchs, and Popes. heavenly when seen, like the stars, at These, as I have shewn, are not naturally night ; surrounded, if need be, by developed Episcopacy; they are man's the darkness of poverty, and of a aspirings, vaulting above primitive order:
wicked world's frown! True, bishops and, had that order been presbyterial, the leap upwards would have been quite as
need not court either poverty or perpossible, and but little higher.
secution; neither should they ignobly