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they do entertain of religion, than they understand. It was the reign of igwould mix up hexameter verse and norant servility, and ignorant dominahyperbolic figure with the working of tion. But with the invention of printa mathematical problem. Cui bono is ing, the cloud began to break-the the touchstone applied to everything. darkness has been long and slowly The one party looks with sovereign passing away; and light, at least for contempt on the formality and frip- this present world, has been pouring pery of the other; while the friend in at a rapidly increasing ratio. Miland the abettor of antiquated and lions now read and think for themornamental forms, trembles before selves-rightly or not may be the the sacrilegious hand that would strip question-but read and think they even the fringes of the tabernacle. will; and though for a time, as far as And collision between these two hosts education is imperfect, the multitude must come. The great question for may be in a measure under the bad the philanthropist and the moral and influence of selfish and designing religious statesman is, how shall that agitators, yet this evil is gradually collision be controlled so as to sub- righting itself. Improving education serve the true interests of mankind ? clears the bleared and prejudiced
It is needful to look at the consti- sight, and improves the judgment, tuent elements of each party. The till at length it will become vain for difference is very marked and charac- the advocate of any selfish and unfair teristic.
object to seek a larger influence The opponents of change, the friends than the real merit of his object warof the olden time, are the aristocratic rants. Now, it is out of this mighty classes, who are falling rather behind, mass of millions uneducated, halfboth in wealth, knowledge, and in- educated, or well educated, having fluence; but who are as yet sustained the advantage of cheap and extensive in this struggle by an indiscriminate reading, and of unfettered discussion, crowd of adepts in the fine arts—who baring
the views of enlightened stateslive on the luxurious indulgences of men placed before them daily in the the wealthy, and are marshalled for the public prints, that a party of thinking contest by a rising spirit of activity laity arises. It is not the original and external improvement in the land-holding gentry. It is the crowd clergy of the Established Church. that has been called to wealthy inEven the most careless of the hunting dependence in all its various grades and shooting clergy now turns with by the energies of commerce-the an anxiety almost astounding to him- merchant, the manufacturer, the reself, to the decoration of his neglected tailer, the mechanic, the artizan, each parish church, and the restoration of in his calling diligent, able, and wellits architecture, and “ hunts the remunerated, attending to the culticountry" for subscriptions.
vation of his own mind, occupying The other party is the million, who his position in life respectably, eduare coming under the influence of cating his children to a grade higher more general education, but education than his own, and giving a portion of chiefly for this present world. Once his time and thoughts to consider the mere herd of brute passion, the seriously the political relations in multitude cared little what were the which he stands, and theconstitutional habits of the higher orders, and on rights to which he is, as a Briton, what principles they governed. If born. This is an increasing class: they had bread, they cared little whe- light is being infused lower and lower ther it was given at the castle or the along the line of rational existence. convent door, whether it came by The boozing pot-house brute is dirude tillage, by war, or by marauding minishing in numbers; and the keenand poaching plunder. The serf of a eyed, close-thinking, fluent-speaking, lord who could not sign his own name
hard-headed constituent of a repreto a Magna Charta, was little likely sentative legislature, is multiplying on to trouble himself with the abstract every side, and will multiply under principles of a government, which the growing facilities for education, even his owner did not pretend to till he whose distinction once consisted as much in the superiority of consolidating. In many individual his knowledge as of his wealth, will instances, local prejudices and attachfind himself only on a par in respect ments still retain a measure of special to his knowledge, and not quite at bias; but there is a wide range of men ease as to the permanent superiority of fair and honourable mind, and of his patrician abundance.
good understanding, who are rising Now this latter party will take superior to their once dominant pecunothing for granted, simply because liarities, and are drawing nearer and it has been before. As they had nearer to each other, satisfied that eslittle or no standing in the antiquated sential truth is at once simple and and the obsolete, they would rather all-important, and that if its influence forget it, or avoid it, than not. It is effectively secured, the adventitious tells of an inequality which they have accompaniments may be one way or no desire to remember, and in which other, as the case may be; and that they see no necessary good. It speaks all bitterness and bickering about of graduated distinctions of rank ele- them, is criminal and injurious. They vation, for which they see no absolute see daily with deeper and more subcharacteristic lines in human nature; stantial reverence the overpowering and to the need for which, the superior loveliness of revealed truth, and earand unbending strength of their own nestly wishing it unimpeded dominion sharpened intellect bears no witness. over the human mind for holiness and They would be rather prepared to happiness, they become more and accept a tabula rasa for the platform more prepared to modify or annihilate of society, and to erect a new system those obstacles, which have their orion it upon the pattern of their own gin in peculiar and one-sided views experience and example--a progres- of subordinate matters. sive and simple movement which, It is evident that from a portion of blinking all the past, shall give to that party, “The Lay Churchman" every man just the degree of eleva- has arisen. It comes from intelligent tion to which mental power, strenuous and attached members of the Church effort, industry, and consistency can of England; who cordially prefer its raise him.
essential and distinctive characterIn such a crowd of eager aspirants istics, but are ready to make some for influence, wealth, and distinction, surrender of subordinate specialties there will be many of rude, ill-formed, for the sake of the great cause of and extravagant notions, calculated union and evangelical religion. They rather to break up the whole social have started well. Whether their procompact rashly, than to eliminate
gress shall be equally calm and judithe long tolerated and yet remaining cious remains to be proved; but the evils, and to consolidate and improve move will take place, under the guithat which is good.
dance of wise men, or of rash and But in addition to these, there is innovating men, as the case may be. also the gradual formation of a differ- A wise and cordial fostering of the ent class; men who, under the influ- true Church of England spirit, as a ence of experience, and of revealed reforming spirit, would give it a right truth, acquire the “spirit of power, and profitable direction. and love, and of a sound mind," and, It is, however, well worthy of obserlittle biassed by ruling prejudices, vation, that this movement is manilearn to look at everything around festly portentous of a spirit which will them with a calm and sound judg- demand attention in one way or other, ment, and deliberately to consider either for good or evil to the Episcopal every institution, and every admitted Establishment; and it would be well principle and practice, in its real if those who are in authority would merits, desirous “ to prove all things, give to it fair consideration before it and hold fast that which is good.' be too late. That eclectic party is growing and
SCIENCE AND REVELATION.
That the study of science, judiciously effect which would be produced by conducted, may tend to the advance- the manual dissection of a flower or ment of true religion, will be now shell, by which its structure and nice generally allowed : for, even if some adaptations are displayed. Most usemodern discoveries seem at first sightful is it, then, that when we walk amid to give rise to difficulties in the inter- the many departments and galleries of pretation of the sacred Canon, this nature's stupendous museum, we very circumstance may become a trial should have in science an interpreter of faith by which its solidity and at hand, to direct attention to the stedfastness will be increased. The most important objects, to open rebold assumptions and extravagant cesses into which we should otherwise theories of a few scientific enquirers, not have thought of prying, to lift show that a too eager and exclusive curtains which our indolence or preapplication to the most legitimate occupation would not have cared to studies may become mischievous ; raise, and to combine the whole marwhile, on the other hand, the noble vellous exhibition into a system which manner in which many modern men shall at once charm by its gracefulof science have hastened to lay the ness, and instruct by its truth. Every produce of their toil at the shrine of object, thus explained, reminds us of revealed truth, and to shew how the God: we see His harmonious worklong chain of truths whose links they manship as well in the plumage of the had been combining, though it reached
eagle, who to an abyss which human thought could not fathom, might yet be per
-Stood at pleasure 'neath heaven's
zenith, like ceived by faith to be held by the hand A lamp suspended from its azure dome,' of Him who “ sitteth on the circle of the earth,” a gives a palpable proof which the microscope shews us in the
as in those exquisitely-shaped feathers that science may be an useful ally of
powder brushed from the butterfly's Christianity. We believe that the works of nature and the sacred
wing :-in the sublime motions of
those orbs, which come forth amid the Scriptures are productions of the same Almighty wisdom ; can, then,
nightly firmament like a choir of the most scrutinizing inspection of
angels from some hidden pavilion of the one reveal anything irreconcileable
the Most High, as well as in the fall with the truth of the other? No; if
of the particles of dust which a gust it should ever seem to be
of wind has tossed into the air. Even,
let us be certain that the apparent discrepancy from communion with the outward
when we are for a while shut out has its origin in our own haste, impatience, and ignorance.
world, the analysis of our own minds We purpose, in the following ob
may, yield abundant testimony of servations, to mention some of the
Almighty skill. And the more diliways in which science and religion gently the study of nature is pursued, join in the education of the soul.
the more surprising and numerous 1. The numerous works on Natural
become the proofs of design. “By Theology now before the public, have
the discovery of the general laws of nature,” says
Professor Whewell, familiarized nearly every reader with
we are led into a scene of wider the proofs of design to be found in creation. The use of science, then,
design, of deeper contrivance, of more
comprehensive adjustments. Final in demonstrating the existence and wisdom of God, by expounding the
causes, if they appear driven further laws of nature, is obvious. To minds
from us by such an extension of our of a certain class, mere abstract state
views, embrace us only with a vaster ments of the wisdom of the Creator,
and more majestic circuit: instead of
a few threads connecting some deof the harmony manifested in the universe, of the fitness and beauty of this
tached objects, they become a stumajestic world, would not have half the
péndous network which is wound shelled infusory animalcules." Yet round and round the universal frame each of these is the object of Almighty of things."*
He willed them all into being. That the wisdom of the Creator He regulates their habits. He orders thus manifest in his works, is omni- their uses. He determines their end. present in its operations, appears in a And if, from considering this anistriking manner from the care which mated part of the dust of the world,” science shews us is bestowed on the we turn our eyes to the inaccessible minutest, as well as on the loftiest of heavens, science shews us in the celescreated things. He who spake as tial host, not, as ancient observers never man spake, declared that a dreamed, the stern arbiters of fate, sparrow should “not fall on the but bodies subject to known laws ground without the Father;" and which the divine Ruler has made so modern discoverers give many new uniform in their operation, that the proofs of this care of God for creatures astronomer, bending over his calcufar smaller than sparrows.
lations, can point out the exact place surprising than all," says a scientific where a planet, hitherto unperceived, writer,t is the microcosm of organ- ought to be, and where it is accordized nature in the Infusoria, for a
ingly found! more exact acquaintance with which Most glorious, then, is the affirmawe are indebted to the unwearied re- tion which the diligent inquirer into searches of Ehrenberg. Of these God's works can bring from beneath creatures, which for the most part we and from above, to the question which can see only by the aid of the micro- He solemnly proposes in His revealed scope, there exist many species so Word: “ Can any hide himself in small that millions piled on each other secret places that I shall not see him? would not equal a single grain of saith the Lord. Do not I fill heaven sand, and thousands might swim at and earth ? saith the Lord.” once through the eye of the finest But though science shews many needle. The coats-of-mail and shells marvellous things, the aspiring soul of these animalcules exist in such pro- asks for information which she candigious quantities on our earth, that, not give. Man wishes to know someaccording to Ehrenberg's investiga- thing of his Maker, and science pretions, pretty extensive strata of rocks, sents him only with an abstract idea as, for instance, the smooth slate near which eludes the grasp of his underBilin, in Bohemia, consist almost en- standing, and mocks, as it were, the tirely of them. Conceive further that affection of his heart. For, when we each of these animalcules, as micro- have, in thought, gazed eagerly on scopic investigations have proved, has the universe expanding all around us his limbs, entrails, &c.; the possibility into infinity–when the adventurous vanishes of our forming the most re- intellect, following the deductions of mote conception of the dimensions of astronomy has striven to press through these organic forms."
the stratum of stars into the farthest The dust,” says Baron Hum- depths of space, scaling by its aid boldt, “ which makes the air misty heights where the imagination alone, over a great area, and falls about the bold as are its soarings, would not Cape de Verd Islands, to which Dar- have dared to trust itself,-or when, win has so properly directed attention, led by geology, it has intruded into is found from Ehrenberg's observa- the dark chambers beneath the earth's tions to contain an infinity of silicious surface, where have long lain locked
up the secrets of other times—the *“Indications of the Creator," p. 95. long-clasped registers of the world's A similar illustration has been used in ano
age-huge bones and skeletons of ther work. “Endeavour to discover traces
anomalous forms, preserved, as it of the arrangement exhibited by nature in her productions, which are rather scattered were, in subterraneous cabinets for in the form of a network, than placed in us, on whom the ends of the world that of a chain.”-“The First Day in Heaven,” p. 51.
$ It has been well said, “ that the reason
of Newton and Galileo took a sublimer Peschel's Physics, by West. Vol. i. p.5.
flight than the fancy of Milton and Cosmos.
are come," when, we say, having under general laws, to reduce subgazed on all these wonders, the as- stances to their primitive elements. tonished spirit turns to experimental She is not content with merely certiscience by whose aid she had been fying that such and such a thing has thus far conducted, and asks, “Who been observed; but she carries on hath established all the ends of the her enquiries as to how it was proearth? What is His name, and what duced, pressing on to unity. The is his Son's name, if thou can'st tell?” chemist seeks for the component she is silent. Boldly as she has pene- particles of matter, and the astronor trated into the recesses of nature's mer, examining the populous districts temple-many as are the proofs she of heaven, asks eagerly for a central has found that it is the building of some being “who is worthy to be So religion teaches us the folly of praised” by every one permitted to those who rest in second causesenter it-yet she seeks in vain for the who, while examining the work, castno visible form of the presiding Deity; thought upon the Maker—who, while like Pompey, in the temple at Jeru- contemplating the arrangements of salem, she finds no tangible image of providence, ask not whose hand has adoration, nothing but an empty so disposed them. “I am the Lord, shrine, a vacant sanctuary. While, and there is none else. I form the then, Science thus interrogated stands light and create darkness; I make mute and confused, Faith brings the peace and create eyil; I the Lord do reply from the Book of Revelation. all these things.” When the Great “In the beginning God created the King comes forth among his creaheaven and the earth.” “ Thus saith tures, (we are adopting the illustrathe Lord thy Redeemer, and he that tion of an ancient philosopher, *) the formed thee from the womb, I am the servants of his power advance before Lord that maketh all things; that him in orderly array ; but at the last, stretcheth forth the heavens alone, that the Supreme Monarch himself apspreadeth abroad the earth by myself." pears, and those who have waited “In the beginning was the Word, his approach, fall down and worship; and the Word was with God, and the while others, who had retired, satisWord was God. The same was in fied with the glory of his inferior the beginning with God. All things ministers, see not the magnificence of were made by him, and without him the king. was not anything made that was 3. Science is often of great use in made.”. “Through faith we under- interpreting doubtful passages, or stand that the worlds were framed by bringing out latent beauties, in the the word of God.” By his Spirit Book of Revelation. he hath garnished the heavens.” “ A grand and immutable law of
Here, then, revealed truth comes in definite weight,” (says Mr. Griffiths, to crown the discoveries of experi- in his interesting “ Chemistry of the ment. Science has shewn those Four Seasons,")" presides over every marks of design which tell of a analytical and synthetical operation.” designer; and Revelation informs us Chemistry thus tending to the diswho that designer is. And many an covery of the elements of things, and important communication has the of the laws by which they are conlatter to make to us concerning him, trolled, presents its votary with powertelling us of his love for man, and ful illustrations of the truth, that “a his hatred of sin, his mercy and his just weight and measure
are the justice-assuring us not only that He Lord's; that a just weight is His is, but also “ that he is a rewarder of delight;" that “He comprehended them that diligently seek him ;” and the dust of the earth in a measure, declaring, moreover, that “God so and weighed the mountains in scales, loved the world, that he gave his and the hills in a balance." only begotten Son, that whosoever What a fine illustration will a treabelieveth in him should not perish,
tise on human anatomy and physiology but have everlasting life.”
furnish of the text, I am fearfully 2. Science teaches us to trace effects to their causes, to combine phenomena * Plotin, Ennead. v. lib, 5, c. 3.