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seen and observed are: the courts of princes, see and visit eminent persons in all kinds, specially when they give audience to ambas- which are of great name abroad; that he sadors: the courts of justice, while they sit may be able to tell how the life agreeth and hear causes: and so of consistories ec- with the fame. For quarrels, they are with clesiastic: the churches and monasteries, care and discretion to be avoided : they are with the monuments which are therein ex- commonly for mistresses, healths, place, and tant: the walls and fortifications of cities words. And let a man beware how he keepand towns, and so the havens and harbors : eth company with choleric and quarrelsome antiquities and ruins; libraries, colleges, dis- persons; for they will engage him into their putations, and lectures, where any are; ship- own quarrels. When a traveler returneth ping and navies: houses, and gardens of home, let him not leave the countries where state and pleasure near great cities; ar- he hath traveled altogether behind him, but mories, arsenals, magazines, exchanges, maintain a correspondence by letters with burses, warehouses; exercises of horseman- those of his acquaintance which are of most ship, fencing, training of soldiers and the worth. And let his travel appear rather in like; comedies, such whereunto the better his discourse than in his apparel or gesture; sort of persons do resort; treasuries of jew- and in his discourse, let him be rather adels and robes, cabinets and rarities; and to vised in his answers than forward to tell conclude, whatsoever is memorable in the stories; and let it appear that he doth not places where they go. After all which, the change his country manners for those of tutors or servants ought to make diligent foreign parts; but only prick in some flowinquiry. As for triumphs, masks, feasts, ers of that he hath learned abroad, into weddings, funerals, capital executions, and the customs of his own country. such shows, men need not to be put in mind of them; yet they are not to be neglected.

3. Of Studies If you will have a young man to put his Studies serve for delight, for ornament, travel into a little room, and in short time and for ability. Their chief use for delight to gather much, this you must do: first, as is in privateness and retiring; for ornament was said, he must have some entrance into is in discourse; and for ability is in the the language before he goeth. Then he judgment and disposition of business. For must have such a servant, or tutor, as know- expert men can execute, and perhaps judge eth the country, as was likewise said. Let of particulars, one by one; but the general him carry with him also some card or book counsels and the plots and marshaling of describing the country where he traveleth, affairs come best from those that are which will be a good key to his inquiry. Let learned. To spend too much time in studies him keep also a diary. Let him not stay is sloth; to use them too much for ornalong in one city or town; more or less as ment is affectation; to make judgment the place deserveth, but not long: nay, when wholly by their rules is the humor of a he stayeth in one city or town, let him scholar. They perfect nature, and are perchange his lodging from one end and part fected by experience. For natural abilities of the town to another, which is a great are like natural plants, that need pruning adamant of acquaintance. Let him seques- by study; and studies themselves do give ter himself from the company of his coun

forth directions too much at large, except trymen, and diet in such places where there they be bounded in by experience. Crafty is good company of the nation where he men contemn studies, simple men admire traveleth. Let him, upon his removes from them, and wise men use them.

For they one place to another, procure recommenda- teach not their own use; but that is a wistion to some person of quality residing in dom without them, and above them, won by the place whither he removeth, that he may observation. Read not to contradict and use his favor in those things he desireth to confute; nor to believe and take for see or know. Thus he may abridge his granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but travel with much profit.

to weigh and consider. Some books are to As for the acquaintance which is to be be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some sought in travel, that which is most of all few to be chewed and digested—that is, profitable is acquaintance with the secre- some books are to be read only in parts, taries and employed men of ambassadors; others to be read, but not curiously, and for so in traveling in one country, he shall some few to be read wholly, and with dilisuck the experience of many. Let him also gence and attention.

Some books also may


be read by deputy, and extracts made of twenty letters when he was angry); then to them by others; but that would be only in go less in quantity (as if one should, in forthe less important arguments and the bearing wine, come from drinking healths meaner sort of books; else distilled books to a draught at a meal); and, lastly, to disare like common distilled waters, flashy continue altogether. But if a man have the things. Reading maketh a full man, con- fortitude and resolution to enfranchise himference a ready man, and writing an exact self at once, that is the best :

And therefore if a man write little he had need have a great memory; if he

Optimus ille animi vinder lædentia pectus confer little he had need have a present wit;

Vincula qui rupit, dedoluitque semel." and if he read little he had need have much Neither is the ancient rule amiss, to bend cunning to seem to know that he doth not. nature as a wand, to a contrary extreme, Histories make men wise, poets witty, the whereby to set it right; understanding it mathematics subtle, natural philosophy where the contrary extreme is no vice. deep, moral grave, logic and rhetoric able Let not a man force a habit upon himself to contend, Abeunt studia in mores. Nay, with a perpetual continuance; but with there is no stond or impediment in the wit some intermission. For both the pause rebut may be wrought out by fit studies, like inforceth the new onset; and if a man that as diseases of the body may have appropri- is not perfect be ever in practice, he shall ate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone as well practice his errors as his abilities, and reins, shooting for the lungs and breast, and induce one habit of both: and there is gentle walking for the stomach, riding for no means to help this but by seasonable inthe head, and the like. So if a man's wit termissions. But let not a man trust his be wandering, let him study the mathemat- victory over his nature too far; for nature ics, for in demonstrations, if his wit be will lay buried a great time, and yet revive called away never so little, he must begin upon the occasion or temptation.

Like as · again; if his wit be not apt to distinguish it was with Æsop's damsel, turned from a or find differences, let him study the school- cat to a woman, who sat very demurely at men, for they are cymini sectores; ? if he be the board's end till a mouse ran before her. not apt to beat over matters and to call up Therefore, let a man either avoid the occaone thing to prove and illustrate another, sion altogether, or put himself often to it, let him study the lawyer's cases.

that he may be little moved with it. defect of the mind may have a special re- A man's nature is best perceived in priceipt.

vateness; for there is no affectation : in 4. Of Nature in Men

passion, for that putteth a man out of his Nature is often hidden, sometimes over

precepts; and in a new case or experiment,

for there custom leaveth him. come, seldom extinguished. Force maketh nature more violent in the return; doctrine

They are happy men whose natures sort and discourse maketh nature less impor

with their vocations; otherwise they may tune; but custom only doth alter and subdue

say, Multum incola fuit anima mea,” when nature.

they converse in those things they do not He that seeketh victory over his nature,

affect. In studies, whatsoever a man comlet him not set himself too great nor too

mandeth upon himself, let him set hours small tasks; for the first will make him de

for it; but whatsoever is agreeable to his jected by often failing, and the second will

nature, let him take no care for any set make him a small proceeder, though by often

times: for his thoughts will fly to it of themprevailings. And, at the first, let him prac

selves, so as the spaces of other business or tice with helps, as swimmers do with blad

studies will suffice. ders or rushes; but after a time, let him

A man's nature runs either to herbs or practice with disadvantages, as dancers do weeds; therefore let him seasonably water with thick shoes; for it breeds great perfec

the one, and destroy the other. . tion if the practice he harder than the use.

5. Of Great Place Where nature is mighty, and therefore

Men in Great Place are thrice servants; the victory hard, the degrees had need be, first to stay and arrest nature in time (like

So every

servants of the Sovereign or State, servants to him that would say over the four-and

1 "He is the best vindicator of his mind, who

breaks the chains that gall his breast and at the 1 Studies develop into habits. 2 Hajr-splitters.

2 “My soul has long been a sojourner."

same moment ceases to grieve."

So as

of fame, and servants of business.

In the discharge of thy place set before they have no freedom, neither in their per- thee the best examples; for imitation is a sons, nor in their actions, nor in their times. globe of precepts. And after a time set It is a strange desire to seek power and to before thee thine own example, and examlose liberty: or to seek power over others ine thyself strictly whether thou didst not and to lose power over a man's self. The best at first. Neglect not also the examples rising unto place is laborious; and by pains of those that have carried themselves ill in men come to greater pains: and it is some- the same place; not to set off thyself by times base; and by indignities men come to taxing their memory, but to direct thyself dignities. The standing is slippery and the what to avoid. Reform, therefore, without regress is either a downfall or at least an bravery, or scandal of former times and eclipse, which is a melancholy thing. Cum persons: but yet set it down to thyself, as non sis qui fueris, non esse cur velis vivere.1 well to create good precedents as to follow Nay, retire men cannot when they would, them. Reduce things to the first institution, neither will they when it were reason, but and observe wherein and how they have deare impatient of privateness, even in age generated : but yet ask counsel of both times; and sickness, which require the shadow; of the ancient time, what is best ; and of the like old townsmen, that will be still sitting latter time, what is fittest. Seek to make at their street door, though thereby they thy course regular, that men may know beoffer age to scorn. Certainly great persons forehand what they may expect; but be not had need to borrow other men's opinions to too positive and peremptory, and express think themselves happy. For if they judge thyself well when thou digressest from thy by their own feeling, they cannot find it; rule. Preserve the right of thy place, but but if they think with themselves what other stir not questions of jurisdiction; and men think of them, and that other men rather assume thy right in silence and de would fain be as they are, then they are facto than voice it with claims and chalhappy as it were by report, when, perhaps, | lenges. Preserve likewise the rights of inthey find the contrary within. For they are ferior places, and think it more honor to the first that find their own griefs, though direct in chief than to be busy in all. Emthey be the last that find their own faults. brace and invite helps and advices touchCertainly, men in great fortunes are stran- ing the execution of thy place; and do not gers to themselves, and while they are in the drive away such as bring thee information, puzzle of business, they have no time to tend as meddlers, but accept of them in good their health, either of body or mind. Illi part. mors gravis incubat, qui notus nimis omni- The vices of authority are chiefly four: bus, ignotus moritur sibi.2

delays, corruption, roughness, and facility. In place there is license to do good and For delays: give easy access; keep times evil, whereof the latter is a curse; for in appointed; go through with that which is evil, the best condition is not to will, the in hand, and interlace not business but of second not to can. But power to do good necessity. For corruption : do not only bind is the true and lawful end of aspiring. For thine own hands or thy servants' hands from good thoughts, though God accept them, yet taking, but bind the hands of suitors also towards men are little better than good from offering. For integrity used doth the dreams, except they be put in act; and that one; but integrity professed, and with a cannot be without power and place, as the manifest detestation of bribery, doth the vantage and commanding ground. Merit other. And avoid not only the fault but and good works is the end of man's motion, the suspicion. Whosoever is found variaand conscience of the same is the accom- ble and changeth. manifestly without maniplishment of man's rest. For if a man can fest cause, giveth suspicion of corruption. be a partaker of God's theater, he shall like- Therefore always when thou changest thine wise be partaker of God's rest. Et conversus opinion or course, profess it plainly, and Deus, ut aspiceret opera que fecerunt ma- declare it, together with the reasons that nus suæ, vidit quod omnia essent bona move thee to change; and do not think to nimis; 3 and then the Sabbath.

steal it. A servant or a favorite, if he be

inward, and no other apparent cause of es1 “Since you are not what you were, there is no reason why you should wish to live."

teem, is commonly thought but a by-way to 2 "Death presses heavily upon him who dies un

close corruption. For roughness; it is a known to himself, though known to all others." 3 Gen. i. 31.

needless cause of discontent: severity breedeth fear, but roughness breedeth hate. Even of some, only to come off speedily for the reproofs from authority ought to be grave, time, or to contrive some false periods of and not taunting. As for facility, it is business, because they may seem

men of worse than bribery. For bribes come but dispatch; but it is one thing to abbreviate now and then; but if importunity or idle by contracting, another by cutting off; and respects lead a man, he shall never be with- business so handled at several sittings or out. As Solomon saith, To respect persons meetings goeth commonly backward and foris not good, for such a man will transgress ward in an unsteady manner. I knew a for a piece of bread.

wise man that had it for a byword, when he It is most true that was anciently spoken, saw men hasten to a conclusion, “Stay a A place showcth the man. And it showeth little, that we may make an end the sooner.” some to the better, and some to the worse. On the other side, true dispatch is a rich Omnium consensu, capax imperii, nisi imper- thing; for time is the measure of business, asset, saith Tacitus of Galba, but of Ves- as money is of wares; and business is bought pasian he saith, Solus imperantium Vespa- at a dear hand where there is small dissianus mutatus in melius. Though the one patch. The Spartans and Spaniards have was meant of sufficiency, the other of man- been noted to be of small dispatch: Di ners and affection. It is an assured sign venga la muerte de Spagna, “Let my death of a worthy and generous spirit, whom come from Spain,” for then it will be sure to honor amends. For honor is, or should be, be long in coming. the place of virtue: and as in nature things Give good hearing to those that give the move violently to their place and calmly in first information in business; and rather their place, so virtue in ambition is violent, direct them in the beginning than interrupt in authority settled and calm.

them in the continuance of their speeches; All rising to great place is by a winding for he that is put out of his own order will stair; and if there be factions, it is good to go forward and backward, and be more side a man's self whilst he is in the rising,

tedious while he waits upon his memory, and to balance himself when he is placed. than he could have been if he had gone on

Use the memory of thy predecessor fairly in his own course. But sometimes it is seen and tenderly; for if thou dost not, it is a that the moderator is more troublesome than debt will surely be paid when thou art gone.

the actor. If thou have colleagues, respect them; and Iterations are commonly loss of time; but rather call them when they look not for it, there is no such gain of time as to iterate than exclude them when they have reason often the state of the question; for it chasto look to be called. Be not too sensible or eth away many a frivolous speech as it is too remembering of thy place in conversa- coming forth. Long and curious speeches tion and private answers to suitors; but let are as fit for dispatch as a robe or mantle it rather be said, When he sits in place he is with a long train is for a race. Prefaces, another man.

and passages, and excusations, and other

speeches of reference to the person are great 6. Of Dispatch

wastes of time; and though they seem to

proceed of modesty, they are bravery. Yet A ffected dispatch is one of the most dan

beware of being too material when there is gerous things to business that can be. It is like that which the physicians call prediges: wills; for pre-occupation of mind ever re

any impediment or obstruction in men's tion, or hasty digestion, which is sure to fill

quireth preface of speech, like a fomentathe body full of crudities and secret seeds

tion to make the unguent enter. of diseases. Therefore measure not dispatch

Above all things, order and distribution by the times of sitting, but by the advancement of the business. And as in races, it is

and singling out of parts is the life of dis

patch, so as the distribution be not too not the large stride, or high lift, that makes

subtle; for he that doth not divide will never the speed, so in business, the keeping close

enter well into business, and he that dividto the matter, and not taking of it too much

eth too much will never come out of it at once, procureth dispatch. It is the care

clearly. To choose time is to save time;

and an unseasonable motion is but beating 1 Had he never reigned he would always have been thought worthy to have been Emperor.

the air. There be three parts of business2 Vespasian was the only one of the Roman Emperors who was improved by wearing the Imperial

the preparation, the debate or examination,. purple.

and the perfection; whereof, if you look for

dispatch, let the middle only be the work of Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memany, and the first and last the work of

mento, few. The proceeding upon somewhat con- Hæ tibi erunt artes, etc. ceived in writing doth for the most part facilitate dispatch; for though it should be So likewise we see that Anytus, the acwholly rejected, yet that negative is more cuser of Socrates, laid it as an article of pregnant of direction than an indefinite, as charge and accusation against him, that he ashes are more generative than dust.

did, with the variety and power of his dis

courses and disputations, withdraw young THE SERVICE OF LEARNING TO THE STATE

men from due reverence to the laws and cus

toms of their country, and that he did proFRANCIS BACON

fess a dangerous and pernicious science,

which was, to make the worse matter seem [From The Advancement of Learning, 1605]

the better, and to suppress truth by force 1. In Praise of Learning

of eloquence and speech.

But these, and the like imputations, have And as for the disgraces which Learning rather a countenance of gravity than any receiveth from Politiques, they be of this ground of justice: for experience doth warnature; that Learning doth soften men's rant, that both in persons and in times, there minds, and makes them more unapt for the hath been a meeting and concurrence in honor and exercise of arms; that it doth Learning and Arms, flourishing and excellmar and pervert men's dispositions for mat- ing in the same men and the same ages. For, ter of government and policy, in making as for men, there cannot be a better nor the them too curious and irresolute by variety of like instance, as of that pair, Alexander the reading, or too peremptory or positive by Great and Julius Cæsar the Dictator; strictness of rules and axioms, or too im- whereof the one was Aristotle's scholar in moderate and overweening by reason of the philosophy, and the other was Cicero's rival greatness of examples, or too incompatible in eloquence: or if any man had rather call and differing from the times by reason of for scholars that were great generals, than the dissimilitude of examples; or at least, generals that were great scholars, let him that it doth divert men's travails from action take Epaminondas the Theban, or Xenophon and business, and bringeth them to a love the Athenian; whereof the one was the first of leisure and privateness; and that it doth that abated the power of Sparta, and the bring into states a relaxation of discipline, other was the first that made way to the whilst every man is more ready to argue overthrow of the monarchy of Persia. And than to obey and execute. Out of this con- this concurrence is yet more visible in times ceit, Cato, surnamed the Censor, one of the than in persons, by how much an age is a wisest men indeed that ever lived, when greater object than a man. For both in Carneades the philosopher came in em- Egypt, Assyria, Persia, Græcia, and Rome, bassage to Rome, and that the young men the same times that are most renowned for of Rome began to flock about him, being arms, are likewise most admired for learnallured with the sweetness and majesty of ing, so that the greatest authors and philosohis eloquence and learning, gave counsel in phers, and the greatest captains and govopen senate that they should give him his ernors have lived in the same ages. Neither dispatch with all speed, lest he should infect can it otherwise be: for as in man the ripeand enchant the minds and affections of the ness of strength of the body and mind youth, and at unawares bring in an altera- cometh much about an age, save that the tion of the manners and customs of the state. strength of the body cometh the more early: Out of the same conceit or humor did Virgil, so in states Arms and Learning, whereof the turning his pen to the advantage of his one correspondeth to the body, the other to country, and the disadvantage of his own the soul of man, have a concurrence or near profession, make a kind of separation be- sequence in times. tween policy and government, and between And for matter of Policy and Governarts and sciences, in the verses so much ment, that learning should rather hurt, than renowned, attributing and challenging the enable thereunto, is a thing very improbaone to the Romans and leaving and yielding ble: we see it is accounted an error to comthe other to the Grecians:

mit a natural body to empiric physicians,

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