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to diminish the strength of her Maiesties Navy, and to enrich the pride and glorie of the enemie. The Foresight of the Queenes commanded by M. Th. Vavisor, performed a verie great fight, and stayd two houres as neere the Revenge as the wether wold permit him, not forsaking the fight, till hee was like to be encompassed by the squadrons, and with great difficultie cleared himselfe. The rest gave divers voleies of shot, and entred as far as the place permitted and their own necessities, to keep the weather gage of the enemy, untill they were parted by night. A fewe daies after the fight was ended, and the English prisoners dispersed into the Spanish and Indy ships, there arose so great a storme from the West and Northwest, that all the fleet was dispersed, as well the Indian fleet which were then come unto them as the rest of the Armada that attended their arrivall, of which 14 saile togither with the Revenge, and in her 200 Spaniards, were cast away upon the Isle of S. Michaels. So it pleased them to honor the buriall of that renowned ship the Revenge, not suffring her to perish alone, for the great honour she achieved in her life time. On the rest of the Ilandes there were cast away in this storme, 15 or 16 more of the ships of war; and of a hundred and odde saile of the Indie fleet, expected this yeere in Spaine, what in this tempest, and what before in the bay of Merico, and about the Bermudas there were 70 and odde consumed and lost, with those taken by our ships of London, besides one verie rych Indian shippe, which set her selfe on fire, beeing boorded by the Pilgrim, and five other

taken by Master Wats his ships of London, between the Havaua and Cape S. Antonio. The 4 of this month of November, we received letters from the Tercera, affirming yat there are 3000 bodies of men remaining in that Iland, saved out of the perished ships: and that by the Spaniards own confession, there are 10000 cast away in this storm, besides those that are perished betweene the Ilands and the maine. Thus it hath pleased God to fight for us, and to defend the iustice of our cause, against the ambicious and bloudy pretenses of the Spaniard, who seeking to devour all nations, are themselves devoured. A manifest testimonie how iniust and how displeasing their attempts are in the sight of God, who hath pleased to witnes by the successe of their affaires, his mislike of their bloudy and iniurious designes, purposed and practised against all Christian Princes, over whom they seeke unlawful and ungodly rule and Empery.

To conclude, it hath ever to this day pleased God, to prosper and defend her Maiestie, to breake the purposes of malicious enimies, of foresworne traitours, and of unjust practises and invasions. She hath ever beene honoured of the worthiest Kinges, served by faithfull subjects, and shall by the favor of God, resist, repell, and confound all what soever attempts against her sacred Person or kingdome. In the meane time, let the Spaniard and traitour vaunt of their successe; and we her true and obedient vassalles guided by the shining light of her vertues, shall alwaies love her, serve her, and obey her to the end of our lives.

III. TRAINING FOR EMPIRE

THE EDUCATION OF MEN WHO ARE TO RULE

SIR THOMAS ELYOT

[From The Boke of the Governour, 1534]

Nowe wyll I somwhat declare of the chiefe causes why, in our tyme, noble men be nat as excellent in lernying as they were in olde tyme amonge the Romanes and grekes. Surely, as I haue diligently marked in dayly experience, the principall causes be these. The pride, avarice, and negligence of parentes, and the lacke or fewenesse of suffycient maysters or teachers.

As I sayd, pride is the first cause of this inconuenience. For of those persons be some, which, without shame, dare affirme, that to a great gentilman it is a notable reproche to be well lerned and to be called a great clerke: whiche name they accounte to be of so base estymation, that they neuer haue it in their mouthes but when they speke any thynge in derision, whiche perchaunce they wolde nat do if they had ones layser to rede our owne cronicle of Englande, where they shall fynde that kynge Henry the first, sonne of willyam conquerour, and one of the moste noble princes that euer reigned

These per

euer

in this realme, was openly called Henry that is therin, the commaundement of the beau clerke, whiche is in englysshe, fayre prince, and the uniuersall consent of the clerke, and is yet at this day so named. And people, expressed in statutes and lawes, do wheder that name be to his honour or to his prohibite, I meane, playeng at dyce, and reproche, let them iuge that do rede and other games named unlefull. compare his lyfe with his two bretherne, sones, I say, I wolde shulde remembre, or william called Rouse, and Robert le courtoise, elles nowe lerne, if they neuer els herde it, they both nat hauyng semblable lernyng that the noble Philip kyng of Macedonia, with the sayd Henry, the one for his dis- who subdued al Greece, aboue all the good solute lyuyng and tyranny beynge hated of fortunes that euer he hadde, most reioysed all his nobles and people, finally was that his sonne Alexander was borne in sodaynely slayne by the shotte of an arowe, the tyme that Aristotle the philosopher as he was huntynge in a forest, whichè to flourisshed, by whose instruction he mought make larger and to gyue his deere more attaine to most excellent lernynge. lybertie, he dyd cause the houses of lii Also the same Alexander often tymes sayd parisshes to be pulled downe, the people that he was equally as moche bounden to to be expelled, and all beyng desolate to be Aristotle as to his father kyng Philip, for tourned in to desert, and made onely pasture of his father he receyued lyfe, but of for beestes sauage; whiche he wolde neuer Aristotle he receyued the waye to lyue haue done if he had as moche delyted in nobly. good lerning as dyd his brother.

Who dispraysed Epaminondas, the moost The other brother, Robert le Courtoise, valiant capitayne of Thebanes, for that he beyng duke of Normandie, and the eldest was excellently lerned and a great philososonne of wylliam Conquerour, all be it that pher? Who discommended Julius he was a man of moche prowesse, and right Cesar for that he was a noble oratour, and, expert in martial affayres, wherfore he was nexte to Tulli, in the eloquence of the latin electe before Godfray of Boloigne to haue tonge excelled al other? Who euer reproued ben kyng of Hierusalem; yet natwith- the emperour Hadriane for that he was so standynge whan he inuaded this realme with exquisitely lerned, nat onely in greke and sondrie puissaunt armies, also dyuers noble latine, but also in all sciences liberall, that men aydinge hym, yet his noble brother openly at Athenes, in the uniuersall assemHenry beau clerke, more by wysdome than bly of the greatteste clerkes of the worlde, power, also by lernynge, addyng polycie to hie by a longe tyme disputed with philosovertue and courage, often tymes vayn- phers and Rhetoriciens, whiche were estemed quisshed hym, and dyd put him to flyght. mooste excellent, and by the iugement of And after sondry victories finally toke him them that were present had the palme or and kepte hym in prison, hauyng none other rewarde of victorie? And yet, by the meanes to kepe his realme in tranquillitie. gouernance of that noble emperour, nat only

It was for no rebuke, but for an excellent the publik weale flourisshed but also diuers honour, that the emperour Antonine was rebellions were suppressed, and the maiesty surnamed philosopher, for by his moste of the empire hugely increased. Was it any noble example of lyuing, and industrie in- reproche to the noble Germanicus (who by comparable, he during all the tyme of his the assignement of Augustus shulde haue reigne kept the publike weale of the succeeded Tiberius in the empire, if traitorRomanes in suche a perfecte astate, that by ous enuy had nat in his flourysshynge youth his actes he confirmed the sayeng of Plato, bireft hym his lyfe) that he was equall to That blessed is that publike weale wherin the moost noble poetes of his time, and, to either philosophers do reigne, or els kinges the increase of his honour and moost worthy be in philosophie studiouse.

commendation, his image was set up at These persones that so moche contemne Rome, in the habite that poetes at those lernyng, that they wolde that gentilmen's dayes used? Fynally howe moche excellent children shulde haue no parte or very litle lernynge commendeth, and nat dispraiseth, therof, but rather shulde spende their youth nobilitie, it shal playnly appere unto them alway (I saye not onely in huntynge and that do rede the lyfes of Alexander called haukyng, whiche moderately used, as solaces Seuerus, Tacitus, Probus Aurelius, Conought to be, I intende nat to disprayse) but stantine, Theodosius, and Charles the gret, in those ydle pastymes, whiche, for the vice surnamed Charlemaine, all being emperours,

a

man

and do compare them with other, whiche diete, and kepyng of his hauke from all lacked or had nat so moche of doctrine. sickenes, also how he can reclaime her and Verily they be ferre from good raison, in prepare her to flyght. And to suche a cooke myne opinion, whiche couaite to haue their or fauconer, whom he findeth expert, he children goodly in stature, stronge, deliuer, spareth nat to gyue moche wages with other well synging, wherin trees, beastes, fysshes, bounteous rewardes. But of schole and byrdes, be nat only with them equall, maister, to whom he will committe his childe, but also ferre do excede them.. And to be fedde with lernynge and instructed in connynge, wherby onely man excelleth all

vertue, whose lyfe shall be the principall other creatures in erthe, they reiecte, and monument of his name and honour, he neuer accounte unworthy to be in their children. maketh further enquirie but where he may What unkinde appetite were it to desyre to haue a schole maister; and with howe litel be father rather of a pece of flesshe, that charge; and if one be perchance founden, can onely meue and feele, than of a childe well lerned, but he will nat take paynes to that shulde have the perfecte fourme of a teache without he may haue a great salary, man? What so perfectly expresseth a man he than speketh nothing more, or els saith, as doctrine? Diogines the philosopher seing What shall so moche wages be gyuen to a one without lernynge syt on a stone, sayde schole maister whiche wolde kepe me two to them that were with him, beholde where seruantes? to whom maye be saide these one stone sytteth on an other; whiche

wordes, that by his sonne being wel lerned wordes, well considered and tried, shall ap- he shall receiue more commoditie and also pere to contayne in it wonderfull matter for worship than by the seruice of a hundred the approbation of doctrine, wherof a wyse cokes and fauconers.

maye accumulate ineuitable argu- The thirde cause of this hyndrance is negmentes, whiche I of necessite, to auoide ligence of parentes, whiche I do specially tediousnes, must nedes passe ouer at this note in this poynt; there haue bene diuers, tyme.

as well gentillmen as of the nobilitie, that The seconde occasion wherfore gentylmens deliting to haue their sonnes excellent in children seldome haue sufficient lernynge is lernynge haue prouided for them connynge auarice. For where theyr parentes wyll nat maysters, who substancially haue taught aduenture to sende them farre out of theyr them gramer, and very wel instructed them propre countrayes, partely for feare of to speake latine elegantly, wherof the pardethe, whiche perchance dare nat approche entes haue taken moche delectation; but them at home with theyr father; partely for whan they haue had of grammer sufficient expence of money, whiche they suppose and be comen to the age of xiiii yeres, and wolde be lesse in theyr owne houses or in a do approche or drawe towarde the astate of village, with some of theyr tenantes or man, whiche age is called mature or ripe, frendes; hauyng seldome any regarde to (wherin natonely the saide lernyng conthe teacher, whether he be well lerned or tinued by moche experience shal be perfectly ignorant. For if they hiare a schole maister digested, and confirmed in perpetuall reto teche in theyr houses, they chiefely en- membrance, but also more seriouse lernyng quire with howe small a salary he will be contayned in other lyberall sciences, and also contented, and neuer do inserche howe philosophy, wolde than be lerned) the parmoche good lernynge he hath, and howe entes, that thinge nothinge regarding, but amonge well lerned men he is therin es- being suffised that their children can onely temed, usinge therin lasse diligence than in speke latine proprely, or make verses with takynge seruantes, whose seruice is of moche out mater or sentence, they from thens forth lasse importance, and to a good schole mais- do suffre them to liue in idelnes, or els, putter is nat in profite to be compared. A ting them to seruice, do, as it were, banisshe gentilman, er he take a cooke in to his

them from all vertuous study or exercise of seruice, he wyll firste diligently examine that whiche they before lerned; so that we hym, howe many sortes of meates, potages, may beholde diuers yonge gentill men, who and sauces, he can perfectly make, and howe in their infancie and childehode were wonwell he can season them, that they may be dred at for their aptness to lerning and bothe pleasant and nourishynge; yea and if prompt speakinge of elegant latine, whiche it be but a fauconer, he wyll scrupulously nowe, beinge men, nat onely haue forgotten enquire what skyll he hath in feedyng, called their congruite, (as in the commune worde), and unneth can speake one hole sentence in nor the office pertaining unto man, ordred true latine, but, that wars is, hath all all thing by bodily strength: untill Merlernynge in derision, and in skorne therof curius (as Plato supposeth) or some other wyll, of wantonnesse, speake the moste bar- man holpen by sapience and eloquence, by berously that they can imagine.

some apt or propre oration, assembled them Nowe some man will require me to shewe to geder and perswaded to them what commyne opinion if it be necessary that gentil- modite was in mutual conuersation and honmen shulde after the age of xiiii yeres con- est maners. But yet Cornelius Tacitus detinue in studie. And to be playne and trewe scribeth an oratour to be of more excellent therein, I dare aflirme that, if the elegant qualities, saynge that, an oratour is he that speking of latin be nat added to other doc- can or may speke or raison in euery questrine, litle frute may come of the tonge; tion sufficiently elegantly: and to persuade sens latine is but a naturall speche, and the proprely, accordyng to the dignitie of the frute of speche is wyse sentence, whiche is thyng that is spoken of, the oportunitie of gathered and made of sondry lernynges. time, and pleasure of them that be herers.

And who that hath nothinge but langage Tulli, before him, affirmed that, a man may only may be no more praised than a nat be an oratour heaped with praise, but popiniay, a pye, or a stare, whan they speke if he haue gotten the knowlege of all thynges featly. There be many nowe a dayes in and artes of greatest importaunce. And famouse scholes and uniuersities whiche be howe shall an oratour speake of that thynge so moche gyuen to the studie of tonges onely, that he hath nat lerned? And bicause there that whan they write epistles, they seme to may be nothynge but it may happen to come the reder that, like to a trumpet, they make in praise or dispraise, in consultation or a soune without any purpose, where unto iugement, in accusation or defence: thermen do herken more for the noyse than for fore an oratour, by others instruction perany delectation that therby is meued. Where- fectly furnisshed, may, in euery mater and fore they be moche abused that suppose elo- lernynge, commende or dispraise, exhorte quence to be only wordes or coulo of or dissuade, accuse or defende eloquently, Rhetorike, for, as Tulli saith, what is so as occasion hapneth. Wherfore in as moche furiouse or mad a thinge as a vaine soune as in an oratour is required to be a heape of of wordes of the best sort and most ornate, all maner of lernyng: whiche of some is contayning neither connynge nor sentence? called the worlde of science, of other the Undoubtedly very eloquence is in euery circle of doctrine, whiche is in one worde of tonge where any mater or acte done or to be greke Encyclopedia: therfore at this day done is expressed in wordes clene, propise, may be founden but a very few oratours. ornate, and comely: whereof sentences be so For they that come in message from princes aptly compact that they by a vertue inex- be, for honour, named nowe oratours, if they plicable do drawe unto them the mindes and be in any degre of worshyp: onely poore consent of the herers, they beinge therwith men hauyng equall or more of lernyng beyng either perswaded, meued, or to delectation called messagers. Also they whiche do onely induced. Also euery man is nat an oratour teache rhetorike, whiche is the science that can write an epistle or a flatering ora- wherby is taught an artifyciall fourme of tion in latin: where of the laste, (as god speykng, wherin is the power to persuade, helpe me,) is to moche used. For a right

moue, and delyte, or by that science onely oratour may nat be without a moche better do speke or write, without any adminiculafurniture. Tulli saienge that to him be- tion 1 of other sciences, ought to be named longeth the explicating or unfoldinge of sen- rhetoriciens, declamatours, artificiall spekers, tence, with a great estimation in gyuing (named in Greeke Logodedali), or any other counsaile concerninge maters of great im- name than oratours. Semblably they that portaunce, also to him appertaineth the make verses, expressynge therby none other steringe and quickning of people languis-lernynge but the craft of versifyeng, be nat shinge or dispeiringe, and to moderate them of auncient writers named poetes, but onely that be rasshe and unbridled. Wherfore called versifyers. For the name of a poete, noble autours do affirme that, in the firste wherat nowe, (specially in this realme,) men infancie of the worlde, men wandring like haue suche indignation, that they use onely beastes in woddes and on mountaines, re- poetes and poetry in the contempte of elogardinge neither the religion due unto god, 1 prop, support

Was

quence, was in auncient tyme in hygh esti- after a semblable signification, and the permation: in so moche that all wysdome was sones were called gentilmen, more for the supposed to be therin included, and poetry remembraunce of their vertue and benefite, was the first philosophy that euer than for discrepance of astates. Also it knowen: wherby men from their childhode fortuned by the prouidence of god that of were brought to the raison howe to lyue those good men were engendred good chilwell, lernynge therby nat onely maners and dren, who beinge brought up in vertue, and naturall affections, but also the wonderfull perceivinge the cause of the aduauncement werkes of nature, mixting serious mater of their progenitours, endeuoured them with thynges that were pleasaunt: as it shall selfes by imitation of vertue, to be equall to be manifest to them that shall be so fortu- them in honour and autoritie; by good emunate to rede the noble warkes of Plato and lation they retained stille the fauour and Aristotle, wherin he shall fynde the autoritie reuerence of people. And for the goodof poetes frequently alleged: ye and that nesse that proceded of suche generation the more is, in poetes was supposed to be state of them was called in greke Eugenia, science misticall and inspired, and therfore

whiche signifiethe good kinde or lignage, in latine they were called l’ates, which worde

but in a more briefe maner it was after signifyeth as moche as prophetes. And

called nobilitie, and the persones noble, therfore Tulli in his Tusculane questyons

whiche signifieth excellent, and in the analosupposeth that a poete can nat abundantly gie or signification it is more ample than expresse verses sufficient and complete, or

gentill, for it containeth as well all that that his eloquence may flowe without labour whiche is in gentilnesse, as also the honour wordes wel sounyng and plentuouse, without

or dignitie therefore received, whiche be so celestiall instinction, whiche is also by Plato

annexed the one to the other that they can ratified.

nat be seperate.

It wold be more ouer declared that where

vertue ioyned with great possessions or dig“THE RANK IS BUT THE GUINEA'S STAMP"

nitie hath longe continued in the bloode or house of a gentilman, as it were an inherit

aunce, there nobilitie is mooste shewed, and [From The Boke of the Governour, 1534]

these noble men be most to be honored; for

as moche as continuaunce in all thinge that Nowe it is to be feared that where maies- is good hath euer preeminence in praise and tie approcheth to excesse, and the mynde is comparison. But yet shall it be necessary obsessed with inordinate glorie, lest pride, to aduertise those persones, that do thinke of al vices most horrible, shuld sodainely that nobilitie may in no wyse be but onely entre and take prisoner the harte of a gen- where men can auaunte them of auncient tilman called to autoritie. Wherfore in as lignage, an auncient robe, or great possesmoche as that pestilence corruptethe all sions, at this daye very noble men do supsences, and makethe them incurable by any pose to be moche errour and folye. Wherof persuation or doctrine, therfore suche per- there is a familiare example, whiche we beare sones from their adolescencie (which is the euer with us, for the bloode in our bodies age nexte to the state of man) oughte to be beinge in youthe warme, pure, and lustie, it persuaded and taughte the true knowlege of is the occasion of beautie, whiche is euery very nobilitie in fourme folowing or like. where commended and loued; but if in age

Fyrst, that in the begynnyng, whan pri- it be putrified, it leseth his praise. And the uate possessions and dignitie were gyuen by goutes, carbuncles, kankers, lepries, and the consent of the people, who than had all other: lyke sores and sickenesses, whiche do thinge in commune, and equalitie in degree procede of bloode corrupted, be to all men and condition, undoubtedly they gaue the detestable. one and the other to him at whose vertue And this persuasion to any gentilman, in they meruailed, and by whose labour and whom is apte disposition to very nobilitie, industrie they received a commune benefite, wyll be sufficient to withdrawe hym from as of a commune father that with equall suche vice, wherby he maye empayre his affection loved them. And that promptitude owne estimation, and the good renoume of or redinesse in employinge that benefite was his auncetours. than named in englisshe gentilnesse, as it If he have an auncient robe lefte by his was in latine benignitas, and in other tonges auncetor, let him consider that if the first

SIR THOMAS ELYOT

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