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And ours to hold,
5 Where Nature hath in store Fowl, venison, and fish;
And the fruitful'st soil,
Without your toil,
6 And the ambitious vine Crowns with his purple mass
The cedar reaching high
To kiss the sky, The cypress, pine, And useful sassafras.
A poet's brows
12 Thy Voyages attend, Industrious Hakluyt!
Whose reading shall inflame
Men to seek fame;
THE VICTORY OF ENGLAND
7 To whom, the Golden Age Still Nature's laws doth give:
Nor other cares attend,
But them to defend From winter's rage, That long there doth not live.
8 When as the luscious smell Of that delicious land,
Above the seas that flows,
The clear wind throws, Your hearts to swell, Approaching the dear strand.
9 In kenning of the shore (Thanks to God first given!)
O you, the happiest men,
Be frolic then!
As those from whom we came!
And plant our name
Apollo's sacred tree
SIR WALTER RALEIGH [From A Report of the Fight betwixt the Revenge and an Armada of the
King of Spain, 1591] Because the rumours are diversly spred, as well in Englande as in the lowe countries and els where, of this late encounter between her maiesties ships and the Armada of Spain, and that the Spaniardes according to their usual maner, fill the world with their vaine glorious vaunts, making great apparance of victories: when on the contrary, themselves are most commonly and shamefully beaten and dishonoured; therby hoping to possesse the ignorant multitude by anticipating and forerunning false reports: It is agreeable with all good reason, for manifestation of the truth to overcome falsehood and untruth; that the beginning, continuance, and successe of this late honourable encounter of Syr Richard Grinvile, and other her maiesties Captaines, with the Armada of Spaine; should be truly set downe and published without parcialltie or false imaginations. And it is no marvell that the Spaniard should seeke by false and slandrous Pamphlets, advisoes and Letters, to cover their owne losse, and to derogate from others their due honours especially in this fight beeing performed farre of; seeing they were not ashamed in the yeare 1588, when they purposed the invasion of this land, to publish in sundrie languages in print, great victories in wordes, which they pleaded to have obteined against this Realme, and spredde the same in a most false sort over all partes of France, Italie, and elsewhere. When shortly after it was happily manifested in verie deed to all Nations, how their Navy which they termed invincible, consisting of 240 saile of ships, not onely of their own kingdom, but strengthened with the greatest
Argosies, Portugall Caractes, Florentines, of Horse and foote. In this sort I have a and huge Hulkes of other countries: were little digressed from my first purpose, only
of by the necessarie comparison of theirs and warre, and a few of our owne Marchants, by our actions: the one covetous of honor the wise, valiant, and most advantagious without vaunt or ostentation; the other so conduction of the L. Charles Howard, high greedy to purchase the opinion of their own Admirall of England, beaten and shuffeled affaires, and by false rumors to resist the togither, even from the Lizard in Cornwall: blasts of their owne dishonors, as they wil first to Portland, where they shamefully left not only not blush to spread all maner of Don Pedro de Valdes, with his mightie untruthes: but even for the least advantage, shippe: from Portland to Cales, where they be it but for the taking of one poore adlost Hugo de Moncado, with the Gallias of venturer of the English, will celebrate the which he was Captain, and from Cales, victorie with bonefiers in everie town, driven with squibs from their anchors: were alwaies spending more in faggots, then the chased out of the sight of England, round purchase was worth they obtained. When about Scotland and Ireland. Where for the
as we never yet thought it worth the consympathie of their barbarous religion, hop- sumption of two billets, when we have taken ing to finde succour and assistance: a great eight or ten of their Indian shippes at one part of them were crusht against the rocks, time, and twentie of the Brasill fleet. and those other that landed, being verie Such is the difference between true valmanie in number, were not withstanding ure, and ostentation: and betweene honbroken, slaine, and taken, and so sent from ourable actions, and frivolous vainevillage to village coupled in halters to be glorious vaunts. But now to returne to shipped into Engla[n]d. Where her Maiestie my first purpose. of her Princely and invincible disposition, The L. Thomas Howard, with sixe of her disdaining to put them to death, and scorn- Maiesties ships, sixe victualers of London, ing either to retaine or entertaine them: the barke Ralegh, and two or three Pinnasses [they] were all sent backe againe to theire riding at anchor nere unto Flores, one of countries, to witnesse and recount the the Westerlie Ilands of the Azores, the last worthy achievements of their invincible and of August in the after noone had intelligence dreadfull Navy. Of which the number of by one Captaine Midleton, of the approach souldiers, the fearefull burthen of their of the Spanish Armada. Which Midleton shippes, the commanders names of everie being in a.verie good Sailer, had kept them squadron, with all other their magasines of companie three daies before, of good purprovision, were put in print, as an Army pose, both to discover their forces the more, and Navy unresistible, and disdaining pre- as also to give advice to my L. Thomas of vention. With all which so great and ter- their approch. He had no sooner delivered rible an ostentation, they did not in all their the newes but the Fleet was in sight: manie sailing rounde about England, so much as of our shippes companies were on shore in sinke, or take one ship, Barke, Pinnes, or the Iland; some providing balast for their Cockbote of ours: or ever burnt so much ships; others filling of water and refreshing as one sheep-cote of this land. When as on themselves from the land with such thinges the contrarie, Syr Francis Drake, with only as they coulde either for money, or by force 800 souldiers not long before, landed in recover. By reason whereof our ships being their Indies, and forced Santiago, Santa all pestered and romaging everie thing out Domingo, Cartagena, and the Fortes of of order, verie light for want of balast. And Florida.
that which was most to our disadvantage, the And after that, Syr Iohn Norris marched one halfe part of the men of every shippe from Peniche in Portugall, with a handfull sicke, and utterly unserviceable. For in the of souldiers, to the gates of Lisbone, being Revenge there were ninetie diseased: in the above 40 English miles. Where the Earle of Bonaventure, not so many in health as could Essex himselfe and other valiant Gentlemen, handle her maine saile. For had not twentie braved the Cittie of Lisbone, encamped at men beene taken out of a Barke of Sir the verie gates; from whence after many George Caryes, his being commanded to be daies abode, finding neither promised partie, sunke, and those appointed to her, she had nor provision to batter: made retrait by hardly ever recovered England. The rest land, in despite of all their Garrisons, both for the most part, were in little better state.
The names of her Maiesties shippes were shot eight forth right out of her chase, bethese as followeth: the Defiaunce, which sides those of her Sterne portes. was Admirall, the Revenge Viceadmirall, After the Revenge was intangled with this the Benarenture, commanded by Captaine Philip, foure other boorded her; two on her Crosse, the Lion by George Fenner, the larboord, and two on her starboord. The Foresight by M. Thomas Vavisour, and the fight thus beginning at three of the clocke Crane by Duff eild. The Foresight and the in the after noone, continued verie terrible Crane being but small ships; onely the other all that evening. But the great San Philip were of the middle size; the rest, besid[e]s having receyved the lower tire of the Rethe Barke Ralegh, commanded by Captaine venge, discharged with crossebarshot, shifted Thin, were victualers, and of small force or hir selfe with all diligence from her sides,
The Spanish fleete having shrouded utterly misliking hir first entertainment. their approch by reason of the Iland; were Some say that the shippe foundred, but wee now so soone at hand, as our ships had cannot report it for truth, unlesse we were scarce time to waye their anchors, but some assured. The Spanish ships were filled with of them were driven to let slippe their companies of souldiers, in some two hunCables, and set sayle. Sir. Richard Grinvile dred besides the Marriners; in some five, in was the last waied, to recover the men that others eight hundred. In ours there were were upon the Iland, which otherwise had
none at all, beside the Marriners, but the beene lost. The L. Thomas with the rest servants of the commanders and some fewe verie hardly recovered the winde, which Sir voluntarie Gentlemen only. After many enRichard Grinvile not being able to do, was terchanged voleies of great ordinance and perswaded by the maister and others to cut small shot, the Spaniards deliberated to his maine saile, and cast about, and to trust enter the Revenge, and made divers atto the sailing of his shippe: for the squadron tempts, hoping to force her by the multiof Sivil were on his weather bow. But Sir tudes of their armed souldiers and MusRichard utterly refused to turne from the ketiers, but were still repulsed againe and enimie, alledging that he would rather chose againe, and at all times beaten backe, into to dye, then to dishonour him selfe, his coun- their owne shippes, or into the seas. In the trie, and her Maiesties shippe, perswading beginning of the fight, the George Noble of his companie that he would passe through London, having received some shot thorow the two Squadrons, in despight of them: and her by the armados, fell under the Lee of enforce those of Sivill to give him way. the Revenge, and asked Syr Richard what Which he performed upon diverse of the he would command him, being one of the formost, who as the Marriners terme it, victulers and of small force: Syr Richard sprang their luffe, and fell under the lee of bid him save himselfe, and leave him to his the Rerenge. But the other course had beene fortune. After the fight had thus without the better, and might right well have beene intermission, continued while the day lasted answered in so great an impossibilitie of and some houres of the night, many of our prevailing. Notwithstanding out of the men were slaine and hurt, and one of the greatnesse of his minde, he could not bee great Gallions of the Armada, and the perswaded. In the meane while as hee at- Admirall of the Hulkes both sunke, and in tended those which were nearest him, the many other of the Spanish ships great great San Philip being in the winde of him, slaughter was made. Some write that sir and comming towards him, becalmed his Richard was verie dangerously hurt almost sailes in such sort, as the shippe could in the beginning of the fight, and laie speechneither way nor feele the helme: so huge less for a time ere he recovered. But two and high carged was the Spanish ship, being of the Revenges owne companie, brought of a thousand and five hundredth tuns. Who home in a ship of Lime from the Ilandes, afterlaid the Revenge aboord. When he was examined by some of the Lordes, and others: thus bereft of his sailes, the ships that wer affirmed that he was never so wounded as under his lee luffing up, also laid him that hee forsooke the upper decke, til an aborde: of which the next was the Admirall houre before midnight; and then being shot of the Biscaines, a verie mightie and puysant into the bodie with a Musket as hee was a shippe commanded by Brittan Dona. The dressing, was againe shot into the head, said Philip earried three tire of ordinance on and withall his Chirugion wounded to death, a side, and eleven peeces in everie tire. She This agreeth also with an examination taken
by Syr Frances Godolphin, of 4 other Mar- and entries. And that himself and the riners of the same shippe being returned, shippe must needes be possessed by the which examination, the said Syr Frances enemie, who were not all cast in a ring sent unto maister William Killigrue, of her round about him; The Revenge not able to Majesties privie Chamber.
one way or other, but as she was But to return to the fight, the Spanish moved with the waves and billow of the ships which attempted to board the Revenge, sea: commanded the maister Gunner, whom as they were wounded and beaten of, so he knew to be a most resolute mản, to split alwaies others came in their places, she hav- and sinke the shippe; that thereby nothing ing never lesse than two mightie Gallions by might remaine of glorie or victorie to the her sides and aboard her. So that ere the Spaniards: seeing in so manie houres fight, morning, from three of the clocke the day and with so great a Navie they were not able before, there had fifteene severall Armados to take her, having had fifteene houres time, assailed her; and all so ill approved their fifteene thousand men, and fiftie and three entertainment, as they were by the breake saile of men of warre to performe it withall. of day, far more willing to harken to a com- And perswaded the companie, or as manie position, then hastily_to make any more as he could induce, to yeelde themselves unto assaults or entries. But as the day en- God, and to the mercie of none els; but as creased, so our men decreased: and as the they had like valiant resolute men, repulsed light grew more and more, by so much more so manie*enimies, they should not now grew our discomforts. For none appeared shorten the honour of their nation, by proin sight but enemies, saving one small ship longing their owne lives for a few houres, or called the Pilgrim, commanded by Iacob a few daies. The maister Gunner readilie Whiddon, who hovered all night to see the condescended and divers others; but the successe: but in the mornyng bearing with Captaine and the Maister were of an other the Revenge, was hunted like a hare amongst opinion, and besought Sir Richard to have many ravenous houndes, but escaped. care of them: alleaging that the Spaniard
All the powder of the Revenge to the last would be as readie to entertaine a composibarrell was now spent, all her pikes broken, tion, as they were willing to offer the same: fortie of her best men slaine, and the most and that there being diverse sufficient and part of the rest hurt. In the beginning of valiant men yet living, and whose woundes the fight she had but one hundred free from were not mortall, they might doe their counsicknes, and fourescore and ten sicke, laid in trie and prince acceptable service hereafter. hold upon the Ballast. A small troupe to And (that where Sir Richard had alleaged man such a ship, and a weake Garrison to that the Spaniards should never glorie to resist so mighty an Army. By those hun- have taken one shippe, of her Maiesties, seedred all was sustained, the voleis, bourdings, ing that they had so long and so notably deand entrings of fifteene shippes of warre, fended them selves) they answered, that the besides those which beat her at large. On shippe had sixe foote water in hold, three the contrarie, the Spanish were.alwaies sup- shot under water which were so weakly plied with souldiers brought from every stopped, as with the first working of the squadron: all maner of Armes and pouder sea, she must needes sinke, and was besides at will. Unto ours there remained no com- so crusht and brused, as she could never be fort at all, no hope, no supply either of removed out of the place. ships, men, or weapons; the mastes all And as the matter was thus in dispute, beaten over board, all her tackle cut asunder, and Sir Richard refusing to hearken to any her upper worke altogither rased, and in of those reasons: the maister of the Revenge effect evened shee was with the water, but (while the Captaine wan unto him the the verie foundation or bottom of a ship, greater party) was convoyde aborde the nothing being left over head either for Generall Don Alfonso Bassan. Who finding flight or defence. Syr Richard finding him- none over hastie to enter the Revenge againe, selfe in this distresse, and unable anie longer | doubting least S. Richard would have blowne to make resistance, having endured in this them up and himselfe, and perceiving by the fifteene houres fight, the assault of fifteene report of the maister of the Revenge his several Armadoes, all by tornnes aboorde daungerous disposition: yeelded that all him, and by estimation eight hundred shot their lives should be saved, the companie of great artillerie, besides manie assaults sent for England, and the better sorte to
pay such reasonable ransome as their estate and drowned in this fight, well neere two would beare, and in the meane season to be thousand of the enemies, and two especiall free from Gally or imprisonment. To this commanders Don Luis de Sant Iohn, and he so much the rather condescended as well Don George de Prunaria de Mallaga, as the as I have saide, for feare of further loss and Spanish Captain confesseth, besides divers mischiefe to them selves, as also for the de- others of especial account, whereof as yet sire hee had to recover Sir Richard Grinvile; report is not made. whom for his notable valure he seemed The Admirall of the Hulkes and the greatly to honour and admire.
Ascention of Sivill, were both suncke by When this answere was returned, and that the side of the Revenge; one other recovered safetie of life was promised, the common sort being now at the end of their perill, the there; a fourth ranne her selfe with the most drew backe from Sir Richard and the shore to save her men. Syr Richard died maister Gunner, being: no hard matter to as it is said, the second or third day aboard diswade men from death to life. The maister the Generall, and was by them greatly beGunner finding him selfe and Sir Richard wailed. What became of his bodie, whether thus prevented and maistered by the greater it were buried in the sea or on the lande wee number, would have slaine himselfe with a know not: the comfort that remaineth to sword, had he not beene by force withheld his friendes is, that he hath ended his life and locked into his Cabben. Then the Gen- honourably in respect of the reputation erall sent manie boates abord the Revenge, wonne to his nation and country, and of the and diverse of our men fearing Sir Richards same to his posteritie, and that being dead, disposition, stole away aboord the Generall he hath not outlived his owne honour. and other shippes. Sir Richard thus over- For the rest of her Majesties ships that matched, was sent unto by Alfonso Bassan entred not so far into the fight as the to remove out of the Revenge, the shippe Revenge, the reasons and causes were these. being marvellous unsaverie, filled with bloud There were of them but six in all, whereof and bodies of deade, and wounded men like two but small ships; the Revenge ingaged a slaughter house. Sir Richard answered past recoverie: The Iland of Flores was on that he might do with his bodie what he list, the one side, 53 saile of the Spanish, divided for he esteemed it not, and as he was carried into squadrons on the other, all as full filled out of the shippe he swounded, and reviv- with soldiers as they could containe. Almost ing againe desired the companie to pray for the one halfe of our men sicke and not able him, The Generall used Sir Richard with all to serve: the ships growne foule, unroomhumanitie, and left nothing unattempted aged, and scarcely able to beare anie saile that tended to his recoverie, highly com- for want of ballast, having beene sixe mending his valour and worthines, and moneths at the sea before. If al the rest greatly bewailed the daunger wherein he had entred, all had ben lost. For the verie was, beeing unto them a rare spectacle, and hugenes of the Spanish fleet, if no other a resolution sildome approved, to see one violence had been offred, would have crusht ship turne toward so many enemies, to en- them between them into shivers. Of which dure the charge and boording of so many the dishonour and losse to the Queene had huge Armados, and to resist and repell the been far greater than the spoile or harme assaults and entries of so many souldiers. that the enemy could any way have received. All which and more, is confirmed by a Span- | Notwithstanding it is verie true, that the ish Captaine of the same Armada, and a Lord Thomas would have entred betweene present actor in the fight, who being sev- the squadrons, but the rest wold not conered from the rest in a storm, was by the descend; and the maister of his owne ship Lyon of London a small ship taken, and is offred to leape into the sea, rather than to now prisoner in London.
conduct that her Maiesties ship and the rest The generall commander of the Armada, to be a praie to the enemy, where there was was Don Alphonso Bassan, brother to the no hope nor possibilitie either of defence or Marquesse of Santa Cruce. The Admirall victorie. Which also in my opinion had il of the Biscaine squadron, was Britan Dona. sorted or answered the discretion and trust Of the squadron of Sivil, Marques of Arum- of a Generall, to commit himselfe and his burch. The Hulkes and Flyboates were com- charge to an assured destruction, without maunded by Luis Cutino. There were slaine hope or any likelihood of prevailing: therby