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ANNALS OF IRELAND,
ECCLESIASTICAL, CIVIL AND MILITARY. - ..
“ History bears and requires Authors of all sorts, and we must look for bare matter in some writers, as well as fire words in others."
(Preface to Gibson's Edition of Camden's
Britannia. London, 1695.).
A. D. 1535, March 19. GEORGE BROWNE, a Friar of the Augustinian Order, was advanced to the Archiepiscopal See of Dublin. While he was Provincial of his Order in England, he advised the people to make their applications to Christ alone, for which doctrine he was much taken notice of. He was the first of the clergy that embraced the Reformation in Ireland. (Ware, vol. i. p. 348.)
September 30. Archbishop Browne wrote to the Lord Cromwell, informing him, that Cromer, Archbishop of Armagh, and his Priests, had sent two messengers to Rome, and that it was feared O'Neal would be ordered by the Pope to oppose the introduction of the Reformation. He stated, “ That the Island had « been for a long time held in ignorance by the Romish Re« gulars; and that the Seculars were as ignorant as the peo“ ple, being not able to say Mass, or pronounce the words, ,« not knowing what they themselves said in the Romish “ tongue.” Ware, vol. i. p. 349.)
1538, March 30. The Archbishop of Dublin wrote again to the Lord Cromwell, complaining, that the relics and images of both his cathedrals took off the attention of the common people from the true worship; but that the Prior and the Dean found them so profitable, that they took no notice of his commands to remove them. He desired a more explicit order for the removal of these nuisances, and that the Chief Governors might be obliged to assist him in it. He acquainted him, that the Prior and Dean had written to Rome to be encouraged, and shewed the danger of delaying the work until the arrival of the mandate they expected. That the Duke of
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Norfolk had combined with the Archbishop of Armagh to oppose the Reformation, and that the Pope had granted great indulgences for rebellion, for the defence and propagation of the faith. (Ibid. 319.)
ADDENDA. April 22. On this day the City of Dublin, which was at first governed by a Provost, and afterwards by a Mayor and Bailiffs, obtained their Bailiffs to be changed into Sheriffs; and John Reaves and Robert Eyons were the two first Sheriffs that were chosen or appointed for that city, Sir Richard Cox's Hibernia Anglicana, vol. i. p. 284.)
In this year the Lord Deputy Saintleger was sent for to England, and carried with him O'Connor and O’More as prisoners; but upon their submission they were received into favour, and honoured with a pension of one hundred pounds per annum, out of the Exchequer, during their lives, which O’More enjoyed not very long, for he died within the year, suddenly at London. (Ibid.)
28. The Pope and Cardinals of Rome wrote a letter to O'Neal, of Ulster, encouraging him to repress heresy and the enemies of his Holiness; assuring this turbulent Chieftain, that while the Mother Church had such a princely son as he, she should never fall, but have more or less a footing in Britain in spite of fate. (Ware, vol. i. p. 350.)
On Whitsun Eve, Sir Edward Bellingham, who had been sent into England with an account of the submission of the County of Kildare, was now sent back Lord Deputy,—he landed at Dalky, and two days after, he received the sword at Christ Church, according to custom. He was a zealous Protestant and a brave soldier. As soon as he was settled, he marched into Leix and Offaly against Cahir, O'Connor, and others, that were brewing new treasons there, and forced them to submit. He brought the country to that degree of subjection, that he is said to be the first man, since King Edward the Third's time, that enlarged the English borders beyond the pale. From Offaly the Lord Deputy marched to Delvin, against Mac Coughlan, whose country he totally destroyed. (Hibernia Anglicana, vol. ii. p. 281.)
June 24. The Archbishop of Dublin caused a Franciscan Friar to be apprehended, and on his person was found the letter of the Pope and Cardinals to O'Neal. The Ambassador was put in the pillory, and afterwards into prison; but it being rumoured that he was to he hanged, he laid violent hands on himself. N. B. This historical record was not quoted in the
deliberations of the Popish Convention, on the application to the Spanish Cortes.
September 1. The Archbishop of Dublin, about this time, accomplished his determined purpose to remove all superstitious relics from his two cathédrals in Dublin, and in their room placed the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, in gilt frames. (Robert Ware's Romish Fox.)
About the end of this year, one Forrest, a Friar, and a great correspondent with Rome, was executed in London, and his library and papers being searched, the following letter was found, together with an account of vast sums, which he had expended for the Church of Rome and her designs :
« BROTHER, « We behold how the King is changed from a Christian to « an Heretic, and how he has robbed Christ's Vicar of his « rights and privileges, by placing himself in his Holiness's « seat there, as supreme over the Catholic Church within the
realm. It was the late damned Assembly of Lords and « Commons that furthered his designs, otherwise he would ** not, nor durst he assume it to himself. We have thought 66 of these passages, and do agree, that there is no way to 66 break this Tyrant's neck but one. Puff him up in his < pride, and let our friends say unto him, that it is beneath so
mighty a Monarch as he to advise with Parliaments, but to os act all in person, and that it behoved his Majesty to be chief " actor himself.
“ If he assumes this, it will take off great. blemishes from " the nation, which the Church holds them guilty of, and do « our business, for then the people (it being contrary to their « laws,) will fall from him ; also, the Catholic party of his “ Council will be too strong for the Heretics, and then thie « common sort will be able to declare his tyranny. .
" This is to be contrived with-the Church's best Members, “ and cautiously, because it is observed, that the Parliaments " of England have hindered the Church in most of the Kings' “ reigos, otherwise she had held her party better than she « has now. “ You have our Convent's hearty prayers for your guide.
" THOS. POWELL. .« From St. Francis, at Paris,
or 1st Jan. 1536.”
(Hunting the Romish Fox-Dublin, 1883, by Rob. Ware.) As the Reformation proceeded in England, so the Popish zeal and superstition increased in Ireland, and the pale itself began to be disturbed with it, for Richard Fitz Eustace, and Alexander, his brother, sons of the Viscount Baltenglass, were busy forming a rebellion in the County of Kildare; but the presence of the Lord Deputy (without blows,) brought them to a submission, and stífled this infant conspiracy in the cradle; and it was well it did; for this rebellious distemper was very infectious, and in a little time would have spread over the whole kingdom. The Lord of Baltenglass himself was a little tainted with it; but by the means of Sir Edward Bellingham (when Lord Deputy) the Viscount was pardoned. (Cox's Hibernica Anglicana, vol. i. p. 281.)
November 18. Cormack Roe O'Connor, who had been proclaimed a traitor, came to Dublin, and with tears in his eyes, begged pardon of the Lord Deputy and Council, in Christ Church, and had it; but, being of a turbulent spirit, he soon after relapsed into rebellion, and being taken by the Earl of Clanrickard, he was sent to Dublin, and hanged; so true is that observation of Cæsar Williamson,
“ Nec gentem ullam reperies, cui peccare et flere, magis na“ turale est.”
1541. In this year Robert Waucop, titular Archbishop of Armagh, introduced the Jesuits into Ireland by the favour and countenance of Pope Paul III.-John Codur was the first of the society that went thither, (O'Sullivan's Catholic History of Ireland, p. 79,) and was followed by Alphonsus, Salmeron, &c. &c.; and the observing reader .will easily perceive the dismal and horrible effects of that mission, which hath ever since embroiled Ireland even at this day.- (Hib. Anglicana, vol. i. p. 272.)
The Priory and Convent of Christ's Church, Dublin, was changed into a Deanery by Henry VIII. at this time.
* 1542, September 1, O'Rourke, of Brefny, submitted to the King. · December 3. Archbishop Dowdall was consecrated Primate of Ireland, He was a learned man, and as zealous against the Reformation as his predecessor Primate Cromer had been. He was however contented to take his advancement from King Henry VIII. and could never obtain a provision from the Pope, who had promoted another man to the Primacy of Ireland.
1543. M‘Donel and M‘William submitted to the King...
1544. Archbishop Brown erects three Prebends in Christ's Church, viz. St. Michael's, St. Michan's, and St. John's. (Ware, vol. i. p. 691.)
1545. Henry VIII. granted the territory of the Abbey of St. Thomas to William Brabazon, ancestor to the Earl of Meath. (Harris's History of Dublin.)
This year the Council of Trent assembled. 1546. King Henry VIII. dies, January 28th.
April 1. Sir William Brabazon' was sworn Lord Justice. In his time happened a strange and unnatural action, for Bryan, Lord of Upper Ossory, sent his own son, Teig, to Dublin, a prisoner, where he was executed.
In the month of July this year, Patrick O'More and Bryan O'Connor, with joint forces, invaded the County of Kildare, and burned Athy. But the Lord Justice immediately pursued them; and leaving a garrison at Athy, he marched into Offaly, and made a fort at Dingen, (now Philipstown,) and forced O'Connor to fly into Connaught. But the necessities of the State obliged the King to coin brass, or mixed, money, and to make it current in Ireland by proclamation, to the great dissatisfaction of all the people, especially the soldiers.
(Hibernia Anglicana, vol. i. p. 280.) 1550, February. King Edward VI. sent an order into Ireland for reading the Liturgy and Service in the Mother Tongue; which order was first observed in Christ's Church on Easter-day in the same year, in presence of the Lord Deputy, St. Leger, Archbishop Browne, and the Mayor and Bailiffs of the City of Dublin. Primate Dowdall bent all his force against receiving the Liturgy in English, but Dr. Edward Staples, Bishop of Meath, Dr. Robert Travers, Bishop of Leighlin, and Dr. John Coyn, or Quin, Bishop of Limerick, adhered to Archbishop Browne. (Ware, vol. i. p. 350.)
In this year the Liturgy of the Church of England was printed in Dublin by Humphry Bowel, and it was the first book published in Ireland. (Hurris's History of Dublin.)
May 10. Arthur M'Gennis, was by provision of the Pope, constituted Bishop of Dromore, and confirmed therein by the King, a proof adduced by Sir Richard Cox of the slow pro. gress of the Reformation in Ireland at this time. (Hib. Ang. vol. i. p. 288.)
September 3. Thomas Lancaster, a Protestant, was made Bishop of Kildare. (Ibid.)
“ Semper Eadem is more emphatically descriptive of our Res ligion than our Jurisprudence.”
(Mr. Plowden.) 1551, February 6. King Edward VI. sent the following order for the Liturgy of the Church of England to be read in Ireland in the English tongue: