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whose services he may at all times command; and for whose compensation provision shall be made by law.

9. The votes for Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Treasurer of the State shall be sorted and counted, and the result declared by a Committee, appointed by the Senate and House of Representatives. If at any time there shall be no election by the freemen, of Governor or Lieutenant-Governor, or Treasurer of the State, the Senate and House of Representatives shall, by a joint ballot, elect to fill the office, not filled by the freemen as aforesaid, one of the three candidates for such office (if there be so many) for whom the greatest number of votes shall have been returned.

10. The Secretary of State, and all officers whose elections are not otherwise provided for, and who, under the existing provisions of the Constitution, are elected by the Council and House of Representatives, shall hereafter be elected by the Senate and House of Representatives, in joint Assembly, at which the presiding officer of the Senate shall preside, and such presiding officer in such joint Assembly, shall have a casting vote, and no other.

11. Every bill which shall have passed the Senate and House of Representatives, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the Governor; if he approve, he shall sign it; if not, he shall return it, with his objections in writing, to the house in which it shall have originated, which shall proceed to reconsider it. If, upon such reconsideration, a majority of the house shall pass the bill, it shall, together with the objections, be sent to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by a majority of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be taken by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Governor, as aforesaid, within five days (Sundays excepted,) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall become a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the two houses, by their adjournment within three days after the presentment of such bill, shall prevent its return; in which case it shall not become a law.

12. The writ of habeas corpus shall in no case be suspended. It shall be a writ issuable of right; and the General Assembly shall make provision to render it a speedy and effectual remedy in all cases proper

therefor. 13. Such parts and provisions, only, of the Constitution of this State, established by Convention on the 9th of July, 1793, as are altered or suspended by any of the foregoing amendments, or are repugnant thereto, shall hereafter cease to have effect.

14. The assistant judges of the county court shall be elected by the freemen of their respective counties.

15. Sheriffs and high bailiffs shall be elected by the freemen of their respective counties.

16. State's attorneys shall be elected by the freemen of their respective counties.


17. Judges of probate shall be elected by the freemen of their respective probate districts.

18. Justices of the peace shall be elected by the freemen of their respective towns; and towns having less than one thousand inhabitants may elect any number of justices of the peace not exceeding five; towns having one thousand, and less than two thousand inhabitants, may elect seven ; towns having two thousand, and less than three thousand inhabitants, may elect ten ; towns having three thousand, and less than five thousand in habitants, may elect twelve ; and towns having five thousand, or more, inhabitants, may elect fifteen justices of the peace.

19. All the officers named in the preceding articles of amendment (articles 14 to 18) shall be annually elected by ballot, and shall hold their offices for one year, said year commencing on the first day of December next after their election.

20. The election of the several officers mentioned in the preceding articles (articles 14 to 18), excepting town representatives, shall be made at the times and in the manner now directed in the constitution for the choice of senators. And the presiding officer of each freemen's meeting, after the votes shall have been taken, sorted and counted, shall, in open meeting, make a certificate of the names of each person voted for, with the number of votes given for each, annexed to his name and designating the office for which the votes were given, a record of which shall be made in the town clerk's office, and he shall seal up said certificate, and shall write thereon the name of the town and the words, Certificate of votes for

and add thereto, in writing, the title of the office voted for, as the case may be, and shall deliver such certificate to some representative chosen as a member of the general assembly, whose duty it shall be to cause such certificate of votes to be delivered to the committee of the general assembly appointed to canvass the same. And at the sitting of the general assembly, next after such balloting for the officers aforesaid, there shall be a committee appointed of and by the general assembly, who shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of their duty, and whose duty it shall be to examine such certificates and ascertain the number of votes given for each candidate, and the persons receiving the largest number of votes for the respective offices, shall be declared duly elected, and by such committee be reported to the general assembly, and the officers so elected shall be commissioned by the governor. And if two or more persons desig. nated for any one of said offices shall have received an equal number of votes, the general assembly shall elect one of such persons to such office.

21. The term of office of the governor, lieutenant governor, and treasurer of the state, respectively, shall commence when they shall be chosen and qualified, and shall continue for the term of one year, or until their successors shall be chosen and qualified, or to the adjournment of the session of the legislature, at which, by the constitution and laws, their successors are required to be chosen, and not after such adjournment. And the legislature shall provide, by general law, declaring what officer shall act as governor whenever there shall be a vacancy in both the offices of governor and lieutenant governor, occasioned by a failure to elect, or by the removal from office, or by the death, resigration, or inability of both governor and lieutenant governor, to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the office of governor; and such officer, so designated, shall exercise the powers and discharge the duties appertaining to the office of governor accordingly, until the disability shall be removed, or a governor shall be elected. And in case there shall be a vacancy in the office of treasurer, by reason of any of the causes enumerated, the governor shall appoint a treasurer for the time being, who shalí act as treasurer until the disability shall be removed, or a new election shall be made.

22. The treasurer of the state shall, before entering upon the duties of his office, give sufficient security to the secretary of state, in behalf of the state of Vermont, before the governor of the state, or one of the judges of the supreme court. And sheriffs and high bailiffs, before entering upon the duties of their respective offices, shall give sufficient security to the treasurer of their respective counties, before one of the judges of the supreme court, or the two assistant judges of the county court of their respective counties, in such manner and in such sums as shall be directed by the legislature.

23. The senate shall be composed of thirty senators, to be of the freemen of the county for which they are elected, respectively, who shall have attained the age of thirty years, and they shall be elected annually by the freemen of each county respectively.

The senators shall be apportioned to the several counties, according to the population, as ascertained by the census taken under the authority of Congress in the year 1840, regard being always had, in such apportionment, to the counties having the largest fraction, and giving to each county at least one senator.

The legislature shall make a new apportionment of the senators to the several counties, after the taking of each census of the United States, or after a census taken for the purpose of such apportionment, under the authority of this state, always regarding the above provisions of this article.

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This ancient Commonwealth was first permanently settled by Europeans, who landed at Plymouth, Dec. 22, 1620. The history of this state is full of interest. Its name was probably derived from two Indian word: Mos and Wetuset—the former signifying an Indian's arrow-head, and the latter a hill.

The territory of Massachusetts, for many years, comprised two separate colonies—the Plymouth colony and the colony of Massachusetts Bay. In 1692, these colonies were united under one charter, and received the name of Massachusetts. The American Revolution was begun in this State, and here the first American blood was spilled in achieving its noble conquests. Massachusetts furnished more men and more money than any other of the colonies, in carrying forward the war of the Revolution. It is the most thickly settled State in the union, having about 100 inhabitants to the square mile. The Constitution was framed in 1780. It has been several times amended. Her House of Representatives is one of the largest legislative bodies in the world.—Area, 7,800 sq. m. Population, in 1850, 994,499.

Boston, the capital, is the largest city in New England, with a population, in 1845, of 120,000, and is the second commercial city in the union. John HANCOCK, President of the first American Congress, and first to set his bold hand to the Declaration of Independence, was a citizen of Boston. It was, also, the birth place of Benjamin Franklin, one of the five appointed to trame that interesting document.



PREAMBLE. The end of the institution, maintenance, and administration of government, is to secure the existence of the body politic, to protect it, and to furnish the individuals who compose it with the power of enjoying, in safety and tranquillity, their natural rights and the blessings of life: and whenever these great objects are not obtained, the people have a right to alter the government, and to take measures necessary for their safety, prosperity, and happiness.

The body politic is formed by a voluntary association of individ. uals. It is a social compact, by which the whole people covenants with each citizen, and each citizen with the whole people, that all shall be governed by certain laws for the common good. It is the duty of the people, therefore, in framing a Constitution of government, to provide for an equitable mode of making laws, as well as for an impartial interpretation and a faithful execution of them; that every man may, at all times, find his security in them.

We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging with grateful hearts the goodness of the Great Legislator of the Universe, in affording us, in the course of his Providence, an opportunity, deliberately and peaceably, without fraud, violence, or surprise, of entering into an original, explicit, and solemn compact with each other; and of forming a new Constitution of civil government, for ourselves and posterity; and devoutly imploring his direction in so interesting a design, do agree upon, ordain, and establish, the following declaration of rights and frame of government, as the Constitution of the commonwealth of Massachusetts.

PART I. A Declaration of Rights of the Inhabitants of the Commonwealth of

Massachusetts. Art. 1. All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential, and inalienable rights : among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property ; in fine, that of sceking and obtaining their safety and happiness.

2. It is the right, as well as the duty, of all men in society, publicly, and at stated seasons, to worship the Supreme Being, the Great Creator and Preserver of the Universe. And no subject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshiping God in the manner and seasons most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience; or for his religious profession or sentiments; provided he doth not disturb the public peace, or obstruct others in their religious worship.

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