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wonderful,-For what purpose he ever the reflecting reader is forced to supposes the fancy to exist ? If a acknowledge that such an estimate physiologist meets with a part in the is childish and absurd as applied to human body (as the spleen, e. g.) any intellectual faculty, he may perwhose uses he is unable to explain, haps endeavour to make himself he never allows himself to pronounce more particularly acquainted with it a superfluity, but takes it for the purposes of this; which in that granted that it performs some useful case he will find as various and as functions in the animal economy important as those of any other whatwhich will appear on further know- soever. (N.B. I have here used the ledge. But, as to the fancy, to words Fancy-Imagination-Imagijudge by the language of most men, native power—as equivalent to each it should seem to make a part of our other: because it was not necessary intellectual system simply for the for the present purpose to take nosake of being resisted by the under- tice of them in any other relation standing, or of furnishing an object than that of contradistinction to the of invective to moralists.-If how. formal understanding, or logos.)

MADNESS.

I Am persuaded myself that all rally from sympathy as it is called, madness, or nearly all, takes its rise but sometimes in the case of neighin some part of the apparatus con- bouring organs from absolute presnected with the digestive organs, sure when the liver is enlarged. In most probably in the liver. That such cases the sympathetic disorder, the brain is usually supposed to be which at first is only apparent, soon the seat of madness has arisen from becomes real and unrealizes the origitwo causes ; first, because the brain nal one. The brain and the lungs is universally considered the organ are in all cases of diseased liver, I of thought, on which account any believe, liable beyond any other ordisease which disturbs the thinking gans to this morbid sympathy: and, principle is naturally held to be seat- supposing a peculiar mode of dised there ; secondly, because in dis- eased liver to be the origin of madsections of lunatics some lesion or ness, this particular mode we may disorganization of the brain has been assume to have as one part of its generally found. Now, as to the peculiarity a more uniform determifirst argument, I am of opinion that nation than other modes to this gethe brain has been considered the neral tendency of the liver to geneorgan of thought chiefly in conse- rate a secondary disease in the brain. quence of the strong direction of the Admitting all this, however, it will attention to the head arising out of be alleged that it merely weakens or the circumstance that four of the destroys the objections to such a senses, but especially that the two theory: but what is the positive armost intellectual of the senses, have gument in its behalf? I answertheir organs seated in that part of my own long experience, and latterour structure. But, if we must use ly my own experiments directed to the phrase “ organ of thought” at this very question, under the use of all, on many grounds I should be opium. For some years opium had disposed to say that the brain and simply affected the tone of my stothe stomach-apparatus through their mach: but as this went off and the reciprocal action and reaction jointly stomach, by medicine, ad exercise, make up the compound organ of &c. began to recover its strength; thought. Secondly, as to the post- I observed that the liver began to mortem appearances in the brains of suffer. Under the affection of this lunatics, no fact is better ascertained organ I was sensible that the genial in modern pathology than the netas- spirits decayed far more rapidly and tasis, or translation to some near or deeply; and that with this decay the remote organ, of a disease which had intellectual faculties had a much primarily affected the liver: gene- closer sympathy. Upon this I tried

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some scores of experiments, raising compass to describe all that took and lowering alternately for periods of place: it is sufficient to say that the 48, 60, 72, or 84 hours the quantity power of the biliary functions to of opium. The result I may perhaps affect and to modify the power of describe more particularly elsewhere: thinking according to the degree in in substance it amounted to this, that which they were themselves affected, as the opium began to take effect, and in a way far different from the the whole living principle of the in- action of good or bad spirits, was tellectual motions began to lose its prodigious; and gave me a full reelasticity, and as it were to petrify; I velation of the way in which insanity began to comprehend the tendency of begins to collect and form itself. madness to eddy about one idea ; and During all this time my head was the loss of power to abstract-tó hold unaffected. And I am now more abstractions steadily before me or to than ever disposed to think that some exercise many other intellectual acts, affection of the liver is in most cases was in due proportion to the degree the sole proximate cause, or if not, in which the biliary system seemed an indispensable previous condition to suffer. It is impossible in a short of madness.

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ENGLISH PHYSIOLOGY. In spite of our great advantages posed to coincide: for there is nofor prosecuting Physiology in Eng- thing unphilosophic in supposing a land, the whole science is yet in a scale of intellectual gradations languishing condition amongst us; amongst different races of men, any and purely for the want of first prin- more than in supposing such a graciples and a more philosophic spirit dation amongst the different indiviof study. Perhaps at this moment duals of the same nation. But it is the best service which could be ren- in a high degree unphilosophic to dered to this subject would be to suppose, that nature ever varies her translate, and to exhibit in a very lu- workmanship for the sake of absominous aspect, all that Kant' has lute degradation. Through all difwritten on the question of teleology ferences of degree she pursues some or the doctrine of Final Causes. Cer. difference of kind, which could not tainly the prima philosophia of the perhaps have co-existed with a highscience must be in a deplorable con- er degree. If therefore the negro dition, when it could be supposed intellect be in some of the higher that Mr. Lawrence's book brought qualities inferior to that of the Euforward any new arguments in be- ropean, we may reasonably presume half of materialism; or that in the that this inferiority exists for the old argument which he has used (an purpose of obtaining some compenargument proceeding everywhere on satory excellence in lower qualities a metaphysical confusion which I will that could not else have existed. notice in a separate paper) there was This would be agreeable to the anaany thing very formidable.—I have logy of nature's procedure in other inmentioned this book, however, not stances: for, by thus creating no for the purpose of criticising it gene- absolute and entire superiority in rally, but of pointing out one un- any quarter—but distributing her philosophic remark of a practical ten- gifts in parts, and making the several dency, which may serve to strengthen divisions of men the complements as prejudices that are already too strong. it were of each other, she would On examining certain African skulls point to that same intermixture of Mr. Lawrence is disposed with many all the races with each other which other physiologists to find the indi- on other grounds, à priori as well as cations of inferior intellectual facul- empirical, we have reason to suppose ties in the bony structure as com- one of her final purposes, and which pared with that of the Caucasian the course of human events is maniskull. In this conclusion I am dis- festly preparing.

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ON HAMLET'S SOLILOQUY

“ TO BE OR NOT TO BE.

TO BE or xoT TO BE, that is the question. This celebrated soliloquy has been his second soliloquy on the same sub. so highly extolled as a fine specimen ject, after he had received the awful of right reasoning proceeding from a communication of his father's mur. vigorous and virtuous mind, that any der, remains to be considered. On attempt to treat it as an incongruous the first visitation Hamlet promises assemblage of intruding thoughts, that the Ghost's commandment “ all springing from a morbid sensibility, alone shall live within the book and will probably alarm the prejudices of volume of his brain, unmixed with those who have held it in veneration; baser matter;" and so anxious is he but as a great outrage against popu- to take full revenge on the murderer, lar opinion has already been com, that when it is in his power to do it mitted in speaking of Hamlet as a pat," he rejects the opportunity, lest man suffering mental aberrations, by killing the king when at PRAYER possibly the minor offence, of con- he should send him to Heaven intrasting, a former soliloquy in the stead of to HELL. same play with that which is the subject of present remark, and point. To take him in the purging of his soul,

And am I then revenged ing attention to the unsoundness of When he is fit and

seasoned for his passage ? Hamlet's arguments in the latter, ds No. evidence of the progress of his disease, Up sword; and know thou a more horrid may be considered as adding but little hent: to the original transgression.

When he is drunk, asleep, or in his rage; When Hamlet is first left alone, Or in the incestuous pleasures of his bed ; and before he is informed of his At gaming, swearing; or about some act: father's murder, he displays a dis- That has no relish of SALVATION in't: relish of life, but controls his feel. Then trip him, that his heels may kick at ings by the pious reflection that, And that his soul may be as damn'd and “The EverLASTING HAD FIXED HIS

black
CANON 'GAINST SELF SLAUGHTER. AS HELL WHERETO IT GOES.
O, that this too, too solid flesh would melt,
Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew,

Those, who are of opinion that Or that the Everlasting had not fixed

Hamlet is in the full enjoyment of a His canon 'gainst self-slaughter-God! O vigorous and virtuous mind through God!

out the whole play, must needs ad. How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable mit his religious creed to have been Seem to me all the uses of this world ! a very singular one, since it made Fye on't! O fye ! 'tis an unweeded garden the Amighty fix his canon 'gainst That grows to seed ; things rank and gross self-slaughter, but not against murin nature

der, and murder too in malice of the Possess it merely.

deepest dye, seeking not only to kill It may be observed, that Shakspeare the body of the victim, but his soul has seized the first opportunity to re- also. Indeed, the only canon against present Hamlet as a man IMPRESS- self-slaughter is that which says

« Thou shalt do no murder." This, RELIGION. At the time Hamlet thus Hamlet, when he was of sound mind, moralized, the theory, which he af- properly construed to mean, Thou terwards cherished, and which ulti- shalt not take the life of any human mately produced mental alienation, being—and not merely—one man had not entered his mind; consequent- shall not kill another. This was a ly his opinions on a future state pro- wholesome construction of the comceeded from a full and free exercise of mandment-all men being creatures his intellectual faculties; and as his of the same Maker, who holds the train of reasoning was sound, so his lives of all and the continuance or conclusions are justified by religion extinction of any, is not a question and philosophy. How far the same between mortal and mortal, or afpraise can with justice be given to fecting the right of either, but bea JUNE, 1824.

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tween the man and his God, to whom As evidence of Hamlet's wish for all are due. The canon in terms ex- life, it has been observed that, when pressing a commandment against he had an opportunity of dying withmurder, and that commandment out being accessary to his own death, having been construed by Hamlet when he had nothing to do but, in himself in the first soliloquy to ex. obedience to his uncle's command, to tend to self-slaughter, it would be allow himself to be quietly conveyed difficult to believe that the same man, to England, where he was sure of sufif he were in the same state of mind, fering death, instead of amusing him: could subsequently imfer that the self with meditations on mortality, he canon applied to self-slaughter only, very wisely consulted the means of and not to murder, in the ordinary ac- self-preservation, turned the tables ceptation of the word—yet Hamlet upon his attendants; and returned to comes to this conclusion, and thinks Denmark. it “ perfect conscience" to kill his

Up from my cabin, uncle, and that it is to be damn'd," My sea-gown scarf 'd about me, in the dark to let him live any longer :

Gropa I, to find out them : had my desire; This is more strange that such a inunler is. Finger'd their packet; and in fine withdrew

To mine own room again : making so bold, Having promised to take, venge: Mr fears forgetting manners, to unseal ance on his uncle, he determines to Their grand commission, where I found, assume madness, the better to gratify

Horatio, his revenge and to provide for his A royal knavery: an exact conimand,own safety, of which he is thence- Larded with many several sorts of reasons forth remarkably careful, having a Importing Denmark's health and England's strong motive for which to live. In

too, deed there is no circumstance affect. With ho! such bugs and goblins in my ing Hamlet that should prompt him That, on the supervise, no leisure bated,

life, to entertain a thought of self destruc. No, not to stay the grinding of the axe, tion; on the contrary, revenge towards his father's murderer and the My head should be struck 017: usurper of his throne- love for the fair Ophelia, and the ambition of Or I could make a prologue to my brains,

Being thus benetted round with villanies, reigning, all concurred to render life They had began the play ; I sat me down; desirable.

On each of these points Devis'), a new commission ; wrote it fair ; Hamlet is very explicit in the course

Wilt thou know of the play. That he sought revenge, The effect of what I wrote ? and loved Ophelia, will not be ques- Iloratio.

Ay, good my lord. tioned ; and that he was anxious to llamut. An carnest conjuration to the reign, is made perfectly clear by his King (of England), urging “ the stepping between him That on the view and knowing of these and his hopes," as one of the causes

contents, for which he hated his uncle.

Without debatement further, more or less,

He should THE BEARERS * put to sudden He that hath killed my king and whored death, my mother,

NOT SHRIVING-TIME ALLOW'd. Popped in between the clection and my hopes, Thrown out his angle for my proper life, I had my father's signet in my purse, And with such cozenage, is't not perfect Which was the model of the Danish seal : conscience

Folded the writ up in form of the other, To quit him with this arm ? and is't not to Subscribed it, gave it the impression, placed be damn'd

it safely, To let this canker of our nature come

The changeling never known : now the next In further evil?

day Thus, so far from wishing to die

Was our sea fight; and what to this was

sequent after he had received the Ghost's Thou know'st already. commandment, Hamlet was anxious to preserve his own life, and to take Hamlet having every motive to the life of the king. •

wish for life, and being extremely * Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who were his school-fellows and friends, who, for anything that appears in the play, were perfectly ignorant of the king's design. This was either the cunning of madness, or a most cold blooded murder.

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anxious for its preservation, is never- a scholar and a prince confessing that theless found debating on suicide in the Everlasting had fixed his canon the third act of the play, as if his 'gainst self-slaughter, but doubting condition were so desperate, that he the truth of revelation, and the exsaw no possibility of repose but in istence of a future state? Would the uncertain harbour of death. Shakspeare, considering for whom he

Will it be believed, that the stu- wrote, have put such arguments into dious and virtuous prince, who in the mouth of a man whom he meant the first scené considered this world to represent as in his right senses ; as an unweeded garden, and looked and, that too after he had deviated to other realms for a more blissful from the historical fact, by making state of being, but was deterred him a Christian instead of a Pagan? from seeking those realıns by his It is confidently contended that he steady belief in the revelation which would not, but, on the contrary, that awards punishments for those who he has designedly given an unconshall be guilty of self-slaughter, could nected train of reasoning to Hamlet, be so entirely divested of his reli- in the following soliloquy, on purpose gious impressions, and, indeed, of to display the unsoundness of his inhis philosophy, as to utter in the tellect. third act a soliloquy in which his very existence in a future state is Whether 'tis nobler in the

mind to suffer

To be or not to be,—that is the question. made a subject of doubt? Will it The slings and arrows of outrageous forfind belief, that in two acts such a

tune, change in the mind of man could be Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, wrought without supervening malady And by opposing, end them? To die—to to effect the change! Nay, that the sleep, same man could talk of “ salvation No more; and by a sleep to say we end through prayer,of “ heaven,” The heartache, and the thousand natural and "hell," "" no shriving-time allow

shocks ed,and afterwards speak of his mo

That flesh is heir to :-'tis a consummation ther's offence as a deed which from Devoutly to be wish'd. To die- to sleep; the sacred ceremony of

To sleep! perchance to dream! aye, there's

the rub; CONTRACTION plucks

For in that sleep of death what dreams The very soul : AND SWEET RELIGION

may come,

When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, A RHAPSODY OF WORDS.

Must give us pause : There's the respect If the images in the soliloquy That makes calamity of so long life : were connected, and the train of For who would bear the whips and scorns reasoning consistent, still the mere

of time, debating of such a question by a

The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's scholar, who believed in a

contumely, 'gainst self-slaughter,” and salvation The pangs of despised love, the law's delay,

The insolence of office, and the spurns through prayer, would induce an

That patient merit of the unworthy takes, opinion that disease alone could have strained his mind to such a consider. With a bare bodkin ? who would fardels

When he himself might his quietus make ation; but when the soliloquy itself bear, shall be found to be false in meta- To grunt and sweat under a weary life, phor, incongruous in reasoning, and But that the dread of something after impotent in conclusion; when “sweet death, religion” is indeed " made a rhap- The undiscover'd country, from whose sody of words,” it must force a be

bourne lief, that the poet intended to mark No traveller returns-puzzles the will ; the growth of Hamlet's mental dis. And makes us rather bear those ills we

have, order, by contrasting the present with Than fly to others that we know not of! the former state of his thoughts in

Thus conscience docs make cowards of us the two soliloquies. It may not be all; wimportant to call to recollection And thus the native hue of resolution the period at which Shakspeare wrote Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought; the play of Hamlet. Is it probable And enterprizes of great pith and moment, that an author, in the reign of Eliza. With this regard, their currents turn awry beth, when England was straight. And lose the name of action. laced in religious bands, should draw . The question is to be, that is, to

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