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SECTION III.

the labor of 6.4 men. Now how much Malthus, if I understand it, is egrelabor will be required to produce the gious : in column five he estimates remaining 24 quarters for profits? the labor necessary to produce the

Phil. Because fifteen quarters re- entire 120 quarters; which, he says, quire the labor of one man (by column is the labour of eight men: and so it one), 24 will require the labor of 1.6. is, if he means by labor what pro

. Right: and thus, Philebus, you duces both wages and profits; otherhave acknowledged all I wish. The wise not. Of necessity therefore he object of Mr. Malthus is to ascertain has assigned the value both of wages the cost in labor of producing ten and profits in column five. Yet in men's wages (or 120 quarters) under column six he gravely proceeds to the conditions of this case Alpha. The estimate profits a second time. cost resolves itself, even on Mr. Mal- X. Yes; and, what is still worse thus's principles, into so much wages in estimating these profits a second to the laborers and so much profit to time over-he estimates them on the their employer. Now you or I will whole 120: i. e, he allows for a seundertake to furnish Mr. Malthus cond profit of 30 quarters ; else it the 120 quarters not (as he says) at a could not cost two men's labor (as cost of ten men's labor, (for at that by bis valuation it does); for each cost we could produce him 150 quar- man in the case Alpha produces fifters by column one) but at a cost of teen quarters. Now 30 quarters eight. For six men and four tenths added to 120 are 150. But this is will produce the whole wages of the product of ten men, and not the the eight producers; and one man wages of ten men: which is the -and six tenths will produce our profit amount offered for valuation in coof 25 per cent.

lumn three, and which is all that coPhæd. The mistake then of Mr. lumn seven professes to have valued.

Phæd. I am satisfied, X. But X. Right: but now in this case Mr. Philebus seems perplexed. Make all Malthus presents the result as a truth. clear therefore by demonstrating the Phil. Yes, X.; but observe: the same result in some other way. result is the direct contradiction of With your adroitness, it can cost you Mr. Ricardo's result. The quantitius no trouble to treat us with a little of column first, vary in value by codisplay of dialectical skirmishing. lumn the last : but the result, in Mr. Show us a specimen of manœuvring: Ricardo's hands, is—that they do not enfilade him: take him in front and vary in value. rear: and do it rapidly and with a X. But, if in Mr. Malthus's hands, lighthorseman's elegance.

the principle is made to yield a truth, X. If you wish for variations, it is then at any rate the principle is iteasy to give them. In the first ar- self true: and all that will be proved gument, what I depended on was against Mr. Ricardo is—that he apthis—that the valuation was inaccu- plied a sound principle unskilfully. rate. Now then, secondly, suppose But Mr. Malthus writes a book to the valuation to be accurate; in this prove that the principle is not sound. case we must still disallow it to Mr. Phæd. Yes, and to substitute anoMalthus: for in column 5 and 6 he ther. values by the quantity of producing X. True: which other, I go on labor: but that is the Ricardian prin- thirdly to say, is actually employed

ciple of valuation, which is the princi- in this table. On which account it ple that he writes to overthrow. is fair to say that Mr. Malthus is a

Phæd. This may seem a good quoad third time refuted. For, if two inhominem argument. Yet surely any consistent principles of valuation be man may use the principle of his an- employed, then the table will be vitagonist in order to extort a particu- cious because heteronymous. lar result from it?

Phil. Negatur minor. X. He may: but in that case will X. I prove the minor (viz. that the result be true, or will it not be two inconsistent principles are emtrue ?

ployed) by column the ninth: and Phæd. If he denies the principle, thence also I deduce a fourth and a he is bound to think the result not fifth refutation of the table. true ; and he uses it as a reductio ad Phæd. Bravo! Now this is a pretty absurdum.

skirmishing

X. For in column the last I say, that have a fifth refutation. Can't you the principle of valuation employed give us a sixth, X.? is different from that employed

in co- X. If you please. If Mr. Mallumn 5 and 6. Upon which I offer thus's theory be good, it shall be imyou this dilemma; it is--or it is not: possible for any thing whatsoever at choose.

any time to vary in value. For how Phil. Suppose I say, it is? shall it vary? Because the quantity

X. In that case, the result of this of producing Jabor varies ? But table is a case of idem per idem; a that is the principle which he is writpure childish tautology.

ing to overthrow. Because the value Phil. Suppose I say, it is not ? of the producing labor varies ? But

X. In that case, the result of this that is impossible: for he writes to table is false.

prove that labour cannot vary in Phil. Demonstrate.

value. X. I say that the principle of valua- Phil

. Yes, it shall vary :-how? tion employed in column 9 is-not the because the quantity of labor comquantity of producing labor, but the manded shall vary. quantity of labor commanded. Now, X. But how shall that vary : A if it is, then the result is childish can never command a greater quantautology, and identical with the tity of labor, or of any thing which premises. For it is already intro- is presumed to be of invariable yaduced into the premises as one of the lue, until A itself be of a higher vaconditions of the case Alpha (viz. iu- lue. To command an altered quanto column 2) that 12 quarters of corn tity of labor, which (on any theory) shall command the labor of one must be the consequence of altered man: which being premised, it is a value, can never be the cause of altermere variety of expression for the very ed value. No alterations of labor same fact to tell us in column 9 that therefore, whether as to quantity or the 150 quarters of column the first value, shall ever account for the altershall command 12 men and five ed value of A: for they are either intenths of a man: for 144, being 12 sufficient or impossible. (quoad Mr. times 12, will command 12 men, and Malthus). the remainder of six quarters will Phil. Grant this, yet value may command the half of a man. And it still vary: for profits may vary. is most idle to employ the elaborate X. So that if A rise, it will irremachinery of nine columns to deduce, sistibly argue profits to have risen? as a learned result, what you have Phil. It will: because no other already put into the premises and element can have risen. postulated amongst the conditions. X. But now column 8 assigns the

Phæd. This will therefore destroy value of a uniform quantity of corn, Mr. Malthus's theory a fourth time. viz. 100 quarters. In case Alpha

X. Then, on the other hand,-if 100 quarters are worth 8.33. What the principle of valuation employed are 100 quarters worth in the case in column 9 is the same as that em- lota? ployed in columns 5 and 6, that prin- Phil. They are worth 10. ciple must be the quantity of pro- X. And that is clearly more. Now ducing labor-and not the quantity if A have risen, you have allowed of labor commanded. But in this that I am entitled to infer that procase the result will be false. For fits have risen: Now what are procolumn 9 values column the first. fits in the case lota? Now, if the 150 quarters of case Phil. By column 4 they are 20 per Alpha are truly valued in column cent. first, then they are falsely valued in X. And what in the case Alpha ? column the last; and, if truly va- Phil. By column 4, 25 per cent. lued in column the last, then falsely X. Then they have fallen in the valued in column the first. For by case lota : but because A has risen column the last the 150 quarters are in case lota from 8.33 to 10 it is an produced by the labour of 12 men: irresistible inference on your theory but it is the very condition of column that they ought to have risen. the first, that the 150 quarters are

Phæd. Ha! ha! Philebus, this is produced by 10 men.

nate : go on, X, and skirmish with Phad. Ila! ha! ha! this is nate, him a little more in this voltigeur as our friend O'H. says. Here we style.

THE DRAMA. COVENT GARDEN AND DRURY LANE. The Pair of Spectacles! virtuous bad assistant, -mysterious, The Easter holidays have been and addicted to listening at the cloyed with the usual sweetmeats of side scenes. All the characters are pantomime--and Mr. Farley, and, after one mother for a length of time, we presume, Mr. Wallack, have been and virtue wins by half, a neck at producing their great romantic mince- last. But Miss Love is not herself pies for the mouths of children above for the first time, we believe, in the the age of 10. Both our great melo- memory of man, she is habited in dramatists, we suspect, have been male attire,—and alas ! she sneaks bitten by Mr. Bullock, as both their about as though she were only huntstructures are Egyptian: If Mr. ing for a petticoat. What a pity Farley squats himself on the peaked- she ever lifted the drapery a foot point of a pyramid, Mr. Wallack is above the ancle! Her knee, to be 11ot to be outdone, but comes in, sure, is still curtained—but she is mounted on an alligator, and covered not turned like Miss Tree, and should with hieroglyphics, like one of Bart- still keep to the muslins and the ley's bills. The Nile is spread before ginghams. They have only one the pit at each house; and we see Miss Foote at Covent-Garden ; but none but crocodile-tiers' at Covent they have several Miss Legs ! Garden and Drury Lane. If we did It is needless to criticise the lannot know that Farley was head hor- guage or the acting :- the latter was ror-man at one theatre, and Wallack a good deal the better of the two. chief spirit-merchant at the other, Young Grimaldi, in a white body we should conjecture that Bartley jacket, plays off several antics at the was the author of the Spirits of the end of the first act; which were inMoon at Covent Garden, and the tended for dancing hyeroglyphics, we Spirit of the Star at Drury Lane. suppose. We were right well puzHe knows all about the planets, and zled ! The scenery throughout is might be expected to set a comet on rare and opulent in moonlights and its legs, and turn Lucifer to accoumt. sunlights. The scene-painter is the However, the marvels are sufficiently great performer indeed, and, in the marvellous, and after Young's Ham- Easter bunt after that wily thing, let, and Macready's Virginius, three popular favour, generally comes in hours of camel, lizard, pyramid and for the brush ! sand, are, it must be owned, lively At Drury-Lane, the same fine and entertaining. Green and gold scenery is lavished on the public; are the colours a worn by the riders.” and the performers undergo 'similar

“ The Spirits of the Moon” is difficulties with their rival Egyptians perhaps rather better and brighter at Covent-Garden. Harley plays a than the “ Spirit of the Star.” It coward inimitably well, but it is an ought to be so. In the first scene easy part to play. There are some we see a deal of Nile palpitating a- most effective scenic inventions; and bout the stage; and a moon-minor for once, we think Covent-Garden is a turned to a moon-major; or, to make little surpassed in this department. it clearer by means of a circulating What will Holloway say to this? medium, we behold a kind of sky. -Oh Grieve, go Grieve ! sixpence expand into a luminous We have had no other novelties; dollar, out of which a spirit comes, but as soon as the moon and stars are that, with other spirits of a lesser out, we shall have the usual weekly coinage, makes the waters get about allowance of new tragedies and their business--and allows the busi- operas. Kean's boots will get milness of the drama to proceed. The dewed ! plot of the piece is, “ as you were." By the bye, we should not omit to Farley is a villain, with several sub- say that the Covent-Garden play-bill terranean vaults, like the Westminster has a word that no one can pronounce Wine Company ; Mrs. Vining, a loud and that would go twice round Mrs. voiced mother, motherly to a degree; Davenport's waist. In the DruryMiss Beaumont, pretty and plaintive, Lane bill, there is also a Greek word, rather overdressed, like a pullet at the but it is not a quarter so perplexing. Free-masons';-Mr. T. P. Cooke, a

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

April 24. We have beon deliberating for some their Royal Highnesscs Madame, the time past upon what in the world we were Duchess of Angoulême, the Duchess of to do this month for foreign intelligence. Berri, and the Duchess of Orleans, folEvery Continental Power seems, to us lowed by their ladies, came to occupy the newsmongers, to be in a provoking apathy seats prepared for them on the King's left. - there is not even a plot or a rebellion The King appears! Acclamations of ento fill up a page with. The consequence thusiasm salute the ADORED MONARCH! is, our diurnal contemporaries are obliged His Majesty testifies by several gracious to invent wars and rumours of wars to-day, inclinations how much he is moved by in order to have an opportunity of filling a these marks of attachment. (We had by column or two to-morrow with a contra- a curious chance written the word marks,' diction--this we cannot do, because our masks—and we were strongly inclined to let ingenuity on the first of May could not be it so stand, remembering, as we do, how counteracted until the first of June, and of much more suddenly and decisively his course an entire month's mischief might Majesty moved,' after the return from ensue. It is wonderful to see the effects of Elba, having just before received many this information-famine in the country- similar • marks of attachment’ from the one of the editors, who we suppose is not very same men who grew hoarse afterwards in an advertising district, declares, in a shouting • Vive Napoleon !') Their state of absolute despair, that " there are Royal Highnesses Monsieur and the Duke not even births, marriages, or burials, of Angoulême are placed on stools (we and that, in short, “ Nature herself seems wonder they are not described) on the right at a stand.” Under these circumstances and left of the throne. His Serene Highwe are reduced to the necessity of inserting ness the Duke of Orleans is seated farthe King of France's speech, for which we ther removed. The Prince de Talleyrand, hope our readers will forgive us. We Grand Chamberlain (oh, Vicar of Bray, would not do it if we could-but as some Vicar of Bray, rest in peace hereafter !). excuse we may be allowed to quote, in exte. is on a stool at the foot of the throne; nuation, the effect which a Paris paper, the the King's Ministers, the Marshals, and Etoile, attributes toit. “Wemust renounce," the great Dignitaries, occupy seats a little it says, “ the hope of depicting the impres- lower. The King, addressing the Peers, sion produced by the speech of his Majesty! says, Messieurs les Pairs,' be seated. What an empire does the voice of a son of The Lord Chancellor says to the Deputies, Henry the Fourth exercise over the hearts * Messicurs les Deputés,' the King per of Frenchmen! His Majesty and his au. mits you to be seated." After this flourish gust family must, long after their departure, comes the speech, which we here present have heard the unanimous cries of Live to our readers. the King; Live the Bourbons; Live the - Gentlemen, Duke of Bourdeaux !”. It certainly would “ I am happy to be able to congratulate appear from this as if the son of Henry the you on the benefits which Divine ProviFourth had very excellent ears as well as a dence has bestowed on my people, on my fine voice ! We are only surprised that army, and on my family, since the last the Ultra scribe did not say at once, “ He sitting of the Chambers. must have heard the cries long after he " The most generous, as well as the most was out of hearing :"—to be sure, poor just of enterprises, has been crowned with Sheridan in his “ Critic,” gives as a reason complete success. for not seeing the English fleet, that it was “ France, tranquil at home, has nothing “out of sight;" but with a French flatterer more to fear from the state of the Penin. that would be precisely the reason why a sula; Spain, restored to her King, is reking should see it. In order to preserve conciled with the rest of Europe. for the Morning Post a fine model for the “ This triumph, which offers such sure next opening of Parliament we think it pledges to social order, is due to the dissight to give also in the words of the cipline and bravery of a French army, con“Etoile," the preliminaries to the Royal ducted by my son, with as much wisdom oration--they are French all over. " A as valour. quarter of an hour after the opening of the “ A part of this army has already regates of the Louyre all places were occu- turned to France; the other shall not repied by a crowd of ladies, whose elegant main in Spain, except for the time necesdresses formed round the saloon a rain-bow sary to secure the internal peace of that shaded with a thousand colours. At twelve country. the Peers, in grand costume, were intro- “ It is to you, Gentlemen, it is to your duced ; a moment after the Deputies were patriotism, that I wish to owe the estaintroduced. While the deputations of the blishment of so satisfactory a state. Ten two Chambers went to receive the King, years of experience have taught all French

fore you.

men not to expect true liberty except from own intentions one way or the other, and in. the institutions which I founded in the deed we have very little doubt, if his Majesty Charter. This experience has at the samne could do it without ships, which are untime led me to recognize the inconveniences fortunately requisite, that we should soon of a regulatory disposition, which requires see an expedition fitted out to put down modifying, in order to consolidate my work. the revolutionary principles of the new

“ Řepose and fixed purpose are, after world—there would be quite as good a juslong struggles, the first necessity of France. tification for it as in the case of Spain. · As The present mode of renewing the Cham- to Spain herself, she is restored to tranber does not attain this object. A project quillity, and yet a considerable part of of law will be laid before you for a sep- the French army has been left behind to tennial renewal.

preserve the “ internal peace of the coun. “ The short duration of the war--the iry.” A strange kind of tranquillity which prosperous state of the public revenue can only be maintained at the point of the the progress of credit, give me the satisfaca bayonet! There is an utter silence as to tion of being able to announce to you that any act of amnesty, any liberal constituno new tax, no new loan, will be necessary tion, any plan, in fact, to render a resi. to cover the expences of the year just past. dence in Spain endurable hereafter to a

“ The resources appropriated for the human being. These are things of course current service will suffice. Thus you will in which the son of St. Louis is not at all not find any obstacle in anterior expences, involved. The state of the French finances in the way of ensuring the service of the is such as to afford matter of congratulaa year, the budget of which will be laid be- tion to that country ; but to the wise fore

sight of the exile of St. Helena must this “ The union which exists beween my be attributed, and therefore we find the allies and me, my friendly relations with fact merely noticed in the speech.--What all other States, guarantee a long enjoy- an uproar of jubilates there would have ment of general peace. The interests and been, could the son of St. Louis have said the wishes of States agree in reinoving with any face—“ We have done it.”. A every thing which might trouble it. financial operation has, however, taken

"I have hope that the affairs of the place, which seems to have given much. East, and those of Spanish and Portuguese dissatisfaction—a reduction of the Rentes. Americi, will be regulated for the greatest This is said by the discontented to be a plan advantage for the states and people whom to benefit the emigrants, by a distribution of they interest, and for the greatest develope- stock, at the expence of the nation. We ment of the commercial relations of the have neither inclination nor information to world.

enter into the controversy. There is a very “ Already numerous channels are regu- disgraceful attempt making to exclude B. larly opened to the products ot' our agricul. Constant from the Chamber, on the ground ture and our industry ; sufficient maritime of incivism. It seems, the forefathers of Mr. forces occupy the stations most suited for Constant were obliged to fly from France. the efficacious protection of this commerce. on account of their religious opinions ; sub

“ Measures are taken to ensure the sequently to the revolution, however, all payment of the capital of the rentes created such emigrants were restored to their civism by the State in times less favourable, or to provided they conformed to a specified rule;, obtain their conversion into stock, bearing this the family of Constant did ; but the interest more conformable with those of Ultras have had a committee appointed, in other transactions.

the base hope of detecting some informa" This operation, which must have a lity, and thereby driving from the French happy influence on agriculture and com- Chamber one of the few friends of freedom merce, will, when it is completed, allow left in it. This requires no comment. the reduction of taxes, and the closing of The accounts from Spain represent that the last wounds of the Revolution.

country as in a deplorable state. The “ I have made known to you my inten. Royal Volunteers are committing every detions and my hopes. It is in the improve- predation possible wherever they have ment of our internal situation that I shall power, and indeed it seems very difficult always look for the power of the State and to restrain them. An attempt has been the glory of my reign.

made to purify the Spanish troops in some “ Your concurrence is necessary to me, degree ; and by way of experiment how far Gentlemen, and I rely on it. God has vi- the attempt succeeded, they were entrusted sibly seconded our efforts : you may attach with the garrison duty of Madrid on the your names to an era happy and memorable 31st of March ; the French, however, were for France. You will not reject such an obliged to resume their stations on the 1st honour."

of April, so that even one day's power was The realers of this speech must observe considered too much with which to entrust how carefully his Majesty steers clear of them. Indeed thc time of Bourmont, the involving himself on ihe subject of South French general, is stated to be fully occu. America. Not a single word is said as to his pied in the protection of the few Liberals

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