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treat moral qualities as pure abstrace is to exercise the mind in unravelling tions, are stripped of their human in its own thoughts, which else lie terest: and few adults even could huddled and tangled together in a write endurably upon such subjects state unfit for use, and but dimly dein such a shape; though many might veloped to the possessor's own conhave written very pleasingly and ju- sciousness.—The three other modes diciously upon a moral case-i. e. on of producing a love of knowledge, a moral question in concreto. Grant which the Experimentalist relies on, that a school-boy has no independant viz. the proportioning the difficulties to thoughts of any value; yet every the capacity of the learner, the pleaboy has thoughts dependent upon sure of success, and the communicawhat he has read-thoughts involved tion of clear, vivid, and accurate in it--thoughts derived from it: but conceptions, are treated with good these he will (cæteris paribus) be more sense--but not with any great orior less able to express, as he has ginality: the last indeed (to speak been more or less accustomed to ex- scholastically) contains the other press them. The unevolved thoughts, three eminenter: for he, who has once which pass through the youngest arrived at clear conceptions in relathe rudest-the most inexperienced tion to the various objects of his brain, are innumerable ; not detach- study, will not fail to generate for ed--voluntary thoughts, but thoughts himself the pleasure of success; and inherent in what is seen, talked of, so of the rest.
But the power of experienced, or read of. To evolve communicating “ accurate concep these, to make them apprehensible tions” involves so many other by others, and often even to bring powers, that it is in strictness but anthem within their own consciousness, other name for the faculty of teaching is very difficult to most people; and in general. Wefully agree with the Exat times to all people: and the power, perimentalist(atp.118), that the tutor hy which this difficulty is conquer- would do well « to provide himself ed, admits of endless culture: and, with the various weights commonly amongst the modes of culture, is spoken of, and the measures of conthat of written composition. The tent and of length; to portion off true value of this exercise lies in the upon his play-ground a land-chain, a necessity which it imposes of form- rood,” &c. to furnish “maps" tracing ing distinct ideas of connecting them “the routes of armies ;" *plates ex--of disposing them into such an ar- hibiting the costumes” of different rangement as that they can be con- nations: and more especially we nected—of clothing them in words- agree with him (at p. 135) that in and many more acts of the mind : teaching the classics the tutor should both analytic and synthetic. Al have at hand «plates or drawings that is necessary is to determine for of ships, temples, houses, altars, dothe young composer his choice of mestic and sacred utensils, robes, and matter : require him therefore to of every object of which they are narrate an interesting story which he likely to read.” “ It is," as he says, has formerly read; to rehearse the “impossible to calculate the injury most interesting particulars of a day's which the minds of children suffer excursion : in the case of more ad- from the habit of receiving imperfect vanced students, let them read one ideas:" and it is discreditable in the of the English state trials, where the highest degree to the majority of evidence is of a complex character good classical scholars that they have (as the trials on Titus Oates's plot), no accurate knowledge of the Roman or a critical dissertation on some in calendar, and no knowledge at all of teresting, question, or any thing in the classical coinage,&c.: not one out short which admits of analysis of of every twenty scholars can state the abstraction of expansion--or exhi- relation of the sestertius to the denabition in an altered shape. Subjects rius, of the Roman denarius to the for all this are innumerable; and, Attic drachma, or express any of according to the selection made, more them in English money.
All such or less opportunity is given for col- defects are weighty: but they are not lecting valuable knowledge; but this adequate illustrations of the injury purpose is collateral to the one we which arises from inaccurate ideas in are speaking of: the direct purpose its most important shape. It is a subject however which we have here constantly in the possession of marks no room to enlarge upon.
sufficient to obtain a holiday per REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS.-It week, has bought but three quarters has already been mentioned that cor- of a day's relaxation during the whole poral punishments are entirely abol of the last year. The same boy purished ; * and upon the same principle chased his place on the list by a saall such disgrace as “ would destroy crifice of marks sufficient to have self-respect." “ Expulsion even has obtained for him twenty-six halfbeen resorted to, rather than a boy holidays.” The purchase of rank, should be submitted to treatment the reader must remember, is no which might lead himself and his way objectionable considering the school-fellows to forget that he was a means by which the purchase-money gentleman.” In this we think the Ex- is obtained. One chief means is by perimentalist very wise: and precisely study during the hours of leisure upon this ground it was that Mr. i.e. by voluntary labour : this is treatColeridge in his lectures at the Royal ed of (rather out of its place) in Institution attacked Mr. Lancaster's Chap. VII. which ought to be cona system, which deviated from the Ma- sidered as belonging to the first part dras system chiefly in the complexity of the work, viz. to the exposition of of the details, and by pressing so the system. Voluntary labour took cruelly in its punishments upon the its rise from the necessity of furnishprinciple of shame. “ Public dis- ing those boys, who had no chance grace" (as the Experimentalist al- of obtaining rank through their taleges, p. 83) “ is painful exactly in lents, with some other means of disproportion to the good feeling of the tinguishing themselves: this is acoffender :” and thus the good are complished in two modes: first, by more heavily punished than the giving rewards for industry exerted bad. Confinement, and certain dis- out of school hours, and receiving abilities, are the severest punish- these rewards as the price of rank; ments: but the former is “as rare making no other stipulation than one, as possible ; both because it is attend- in addition to its being “ tolerably ed with unavoidable disgrace" (but well executed "-viz. that it shall what punishment is wholly free from be in a state of completion. The this objection?) “ and because, un Experimentalist comments justly at like labour, it is pain without any p. 187, on “the mental dissipation utility” (p. 183)The ordinary in which persons of talent often inpunishments therefore consist in the dulge” as being “destructive beforfeiture of rewards, which are cer- yond what can readily be imagined" tain counters obtained by various and as leading to “a life of shreds kinds of merit. These are of two and patches."
« We take care" classes, penal (so called from being (says he) “ to reward no boy for received as forfeits), and premial fragments, whatever may be their which are obtained by a higher de- excellence. We know nothing of gree of merit, and have higher his exertions until they come before powers attached to them. Premial us in a state of completion." Hence, counters will purchase holidays, and besides gaining the “ habit of finishwill also purchase rank (which on ing” in early youth, the boy has this system is of great importance). an interest also in gaining the habit A conflict is thus created between of measuring his own powers: for pleasure and ambition, which gene- he knows « that he can receive rally terminates in favour of the lat- neither fame nor profit by instalter: “a boy of fourteen, although ments; and therefore “ undertakes
On this point there is however an exception made, which amuses us not a little, “ In a few instances,” says the Experimentalist, “ it has been found or supposed neces. sary to resent insolence by a blow: but this may be rather called an assertion of private right, than an official punishment. In these cases a single blow has almost always been found sufficient, even the rarity of the infliction rendering severity unnecessary. He insists therefore that this punishment (which, we cannot but think, might have been comniuted for a long imprisonment) shall not be called a punishment, nor entered on the public records as such : in which case however it becomes a private “ turn-up," as the boxers call it, between the boy and his tutor.
nothing which he has not a rational Chap. IV. On the best method of hope of accomplishing." * A second acquiring Languages.- The Experimode of preventing rank from being mentalist had occasion to observe monopolized by talents is by flinging “that, in the Welsh towns which are the school into various arrangements, frequented by the English, even the one of which is founded on “ pro- children speak both languages with priety of manners and general good fluency:"this fact, contrasted with conduct.”
the labour and pain entailed upon
the boy who is learning Latin (to We have thus gone through a say nothing of the eventual disgust pretty full analysis, and a very ac- to literature which is too often the curate one, of the new system as remote consequence), and the drudcontained in the three first chapters. gery entailed upon the master who Of the five miscellaneous chapters, teaches Latin,--and fortified by the the seventh or last but one, (on consideration, that in the former involuntary labour) has been inter- stance the child learns to speak a woven with our analysis ; and the new language, but in the latter only eighth, which contains a comparison to read it,-first drew his attention of public and private education, we to the natural mode of learning lando not purpose to notice; the ques. guages, i. e. learning them from tion is very sensibly discussed; but daily use. This mode never fails with it is useless to discuss any question living languages: but how is it to be like this, which is a difficult problem applied to dead languages ? The Exonly because it is an unlimited pro- perimentalist retorts by asking what blem. Let the parent satisfy himself is essential to this mode? Partly the about the object he has in view for necessity which the pupil is laid his child, and let him consider the under of using the language daily particular means which he has at for the common intercourse of life, his disposal for securing a good pri- and partly his hearing it spoken by vate education, and he may then those who thoroughly understand it. determine it for himself. As far as “Stimulus to exertion then, and good the attainment of knowledge is con- models, are the great advantages of cerned,-it is always possible to se- this mode of instruction :” and these, cure a good public education, and he thinks, are secured even for a not always possible to secure a good dead language by his system: the private one. Where either is pos- first by the motives to exertion which sible indifferently, the comparison will have already been unfolded; and the proceed upon more equal grounds: second by the acting of Latin dramas and inquiry may then be made about (which had been previously noticed the child's destination in future life: in his Exposition of the system). for many destinations a public edu. But a third imitation of the natural cation being much more eligible than method he places in the use of transfor others. Under a perfect indetermi- lations, “ which present the student nation of every thing relating to the with a dictionary both of words and child—the question is as indeter- phrases arranged in the order in minable as whether it is better to which he wants them," and in an go to the Bank through Holborn or abstinence from all use of the gramthrough the Strand: the particular mar, until the learner himself shall case being given, it may then be come to feel the want of it; j. e. possible to answer the question ; using it with reference to an experipreviously it is impossible. Three ence already accumulated, and not chapters therefore remain, viz.- as an anticipation of an experience Chap. IV. on Languages ; Chap. V. yet to come. The ordinary objection on Elocution; and Chap. VI. on Pen- to the use of translations—that they manship.
produce indolent habits, he answers
* The details of the system in regard to the penal and premial counters may be found from p. 23 to 29. We have no room to extract them : one remark only we must make-that we do not see how it is possible to ascribe any peculiar and incommunicable privileges to the premial as opposed to the penal counters, when it appears that they may be exchanged for each other at an established rate."
'thus : “ We teach by the process of tation of verses distinguished by the construing; and therefore, even with simplicity of their rhythmus, marchthe translation before him, the scho- ing at the same time and marking lar will have a task to perform in the accented syllables by the tread matching the English, word by word, of the foot; from this to the recitawith the language which he is tion of more difficult verses ; from learning For this natural method that to measured prose; thence to of learning languages he alleges the ordinary prose; and lastly to narraauthority of Locke, of Ascham, and tive and dialogue. of Pestalozzi. The best method, Chap. VI. Of Penmanship.-This with those who have advanced to is a subject on which we profess no some degree of proficiency, he con- experience which could warrant us siders that of double translations, in contradicting a writer who should i.e. a translation first of all into rest his innovations solely upon that the mother tongue of the learner, ground: but the writer before us and a re-translation of this transla- does not rely on the practical issue tion back into the language of the of his own experiment (he does not original. These, with the help of even tell us what that issue was), extemporaneous construing, i.e. con- but on certain à priori arguments, struing any passage at random with which we conceive to be ill-reasoned. the assistance of a master who sup- The amount of the chapter is this plies the meaning of the unknown that to write a good running hand is words as they arise (a method prac- the main object to be aimed at in tised, it seems, by Le Febyre the the art of caligraphy: we will go father of Madame Dacier, by others farther, and concede that it is the before his time, and by Condillac sole object, unless where the pupil since)-compose the chief machinery is educated for a writing-master. which he employs for the communi- Thus far we are agreed; and the cation of dead languages.
question is as to the best means of Chap.V. On Elocution.--In this chap- attaining this object. On which ter there is not much which is very question the plan here proposed difimportant. To read well, the Expe- fers from those in use by the very rimentalist alleges, presupposes so natural error—that what is admitted much various knowledge, especially to be the ultimate object, this plan of that kind which is best acquired would make the immediate object. by private reading, and therefore The author starts from a false theory most spares the labour of the tutor, of the practice amongst writingthat it ought reasonably to bestow masters: in order that their pupils high rank in the school. Private may write small and ruming hands reading is most favourable to the well, writing-masters (as is wellrapid collection of an author's mean- known) begin by exacting from them ing: but for reading well—this is a long praxis in large hands. But the not sufficient: two great constitu- rationale of this praxis escapes the ents of that art remain to be ac- Experimentalist: the large hand and quired-Enunciation and Inflection. the small hand stand related to each These are best learned by Recitation. other, in the estimate of the masters, Thus far there is no great novelty: as a means to an end; whereas the the most interesting part of the Experimentalist supposes them to chapter is what relates to Stammer- be viewed in the relation simply of ing. This defect is held by the Expe- two co-ordinate or collateral ends : rimentalist to result from inattention which false presumption he to rhythmus : so much he thinks has grounds what would on his own view been proved by Mr. Thelwall. What- be a very sound advice; for justly soever therefore compels the pupil conceiving that the small hand is of to an efficient perception of time and incomparably more use in life, he measure, as for example, marching argues in effect thus : let us comand music (p. 32), he resorts to for its municate the main object, and then correction. Stammerers, he observes, (if he has leisure and taste for it) let can all sing : let them be taught to the pupil direct his attention to the sing therefore, if not otherwise cor- lower object: “when the running rigible: and from this let them de- hand is accomplished,” says he,“ the scend to recitative : then to the reci- pupil may (if it be thought neces
sary) learn to write the larger hands pears little better than a scrawl." according to the received models." Now to us the result appears in a When it is acquired ! " Aye, but in different light. It is true that the order that it may be acquired,"—the large hands reduced do not appear writing-master will reply, “I must good running hands according to the first teach the larger hands.” As standard derived from the actual well might the professor of dancing practice of the world : but why? hold out as a tempting innovation to Simply because they are too good: i.e. the public-I teach the actual dances, they are ideals and in fact are meant the true practical synthesis of the to be so; and have nothing 'chasteps and movements, as it is in fact racteristic: they are purely generic demanded by the usage of the ball. hands, and therefore want indiviroom: let others teach the analytic dualization: they are abstractions ; elements of the art--the mere useless but to affect us pleasurably, they steps-to those who have time to should be concrete expressions of waste on superfluities. In either art some human qualities, moral or in(as in many others) that, which is tellectual. Perfect features in a hufirst (or rather sole) in order of in- man face arranged with perfect symportance, is last in the order of at- metry, affect us not at all, as is tainment: as an object per se, the well known, where there is nothing larger hand is not wanted at all, characteristic; the latency of the either before or after the running individual in the generic, and of the hand: if it does really contribute generic in the individual, is that nothing to the more accurate forma- which gives to each its power over tion of the letters, by compelling the our human sensibilities. And this pupil to exhibit his aberrations from holds of caligraphy no less than the ideal letter more clearly because other arts. And that is the most on a scale of greater magnitude perfect hand-writing which unites (which yet in the second sentence of the minimum of deviation from the this chapter our Experimentalist him- ideal standard of beauty (as to the self admits), then let it be abandoned form and nexus of the letters) with at once: for not doing this service, it the maximum of characteristic exdoes nothing at all. On the other pression. It has long been practic hand, if this be its specific service, cally felt, and even expressly afthen it is clear that, being no object firmed, in some instances even exper se, but simply a means to an ob- panded into a distinct art and project, it must have precedency in the fessed as such,) that it is possible to order of communication. And the determine the human intellectual chainnovation of our Experimentalist is racter as to some of its features from so far (in the literal sense of that the hand-writing. Books even have word) a preposterous inversion of the been written on this art, as e. g. the old usage: and this being the chief Ideographia, or art of knowing the principle of his "plan" we desire to characters of men from their handknow no more of it; and were not writings, by Aldorisius : and, though sorry that (p. 178) we found him this in common with all other modes declining “ to enter into a detail of of physiognomy, as craniology, Lait.”—The business of the chapter vaterianism (usually called physiogbeing finished however, there yet nomy), &c. &c. has laboured under remains some little matter of curi- the reproach of fancifulness, yet osity. 1. The Experimentalist affirms we ought not to attribute this wholly that “Langford's copper-plate copies, to the groundlessness of the art as or indeed any other which he has a possible art—but to these two seen, fail” if tried by a certain test: causes; partly to the precipitation what test? Why this: that “the and imperfect psychology of the large hand seen through a diminishing professors; who, like the craniologlass, ought to be reduced into the gists, have been over-ready to decurrent hand; and the current hand, termine the indicantia before they magnified, ought to swell into a had settled according to any tolerable large hand.” Whereas, on the con- theory the indicanda ; i. e. have trary, “ the large hands reduced ap- settled what A, what B, what C, rear very stiff and cramped; and shall indicate, before they have inthe magnified running hand "_" ap- quired what it was presumable upon