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sion for such a profuse genealogy, inconsistent; it occurs principally on the &c. &c. Whether we are to ascribe southern coast of Sicily, and is generally these lengthy dissertations and intere found to happen in calm weather, but is polations to the principle of pedantry considered as the certain precursor of a gale. or book-making weknow not; perhaps

The Marobia is felt with the greatest violence both had a share: but to what prin- the coast. Its approach is announced by a

at Mazzara, perhaps from the contour of ciple can we assign this extraordinary stillness in the atmosphere, and a lurid passage? speaking of the part of Ci- sky; when suddenly the water rises nearly cero's oration against Verres, which two feet above its usual level, and rushes relates to the temple where a picture into the creeks with amazing rapidity ; but of Hercules strangling the snakes was in a few minutes recedes again with equal deposited, we are told: “ To obtain velocity, disturbing the mud, tearing up this specimen of art, Verres attacked the sea-weed, and occasioning a noisome the temple in the night, and gave effluvia : during its continuance the fish occasion to the humorous descrip- float quite helpless on the turbid surface, tion of the circumstance by the and are easily taken. These rapid changes orator, who adds, that the Sici- (as capricious in their nature as those of lians remarked in punning irony, that minutes to upwards of two hours; and are

the Euripus) generally continue from thirty the Gods, in driving off the plundering succeeded by a breeze from the southward, Prætor, made as great an addition to which quickly increases to heavy gusts. his labours, as in the conquest of the This phenomenon may be occasioned by Erymanthean War!This lumi- a westerly wind blowing, at some distance nous effusion, flowing apparently from in the offing, towards the north coast of the mouth of Captain Smyth, but Sicily, and a south-east wind, at the same with which it is no great stretch of time, in the channel of Malta, the meeting critical charity to credit the printer of which would take place between Trapani

(P. 224, 225.) is not inaptly followed up by the dea and Cape San Marco. scription of a Mud Volcano :

The last chapter of these Memoirs MACCALUBA.— Three or four miles to is devoted to the Islands of Sicily, of the northward of Girgenti, and on the road to- which our Author remarks that they wards Arrogona, is the mud volcano, called all « exhibit the corrosive effects Maccaluba, probably a corruption of the of gases and spray; but the western Arabic word * makloube,” or upside down. coast, rising abruptly in precipitous It consists of numerous little hillocks with craters, on a kind of large truncated cone of to the eastward, is an interesting

masses, and shelving down gradually argillaceous barren soil, with wide cracks in all directions, elevated nearly two hundred geological feature, in which it agrees feet above the surrounding arid plain, and with the greatest part of the West about half a mile in circuit. These craters India Islands and many others." It are continually in action, with a hollow is remarkable that besides the westrumbling noise, and by the exertion of a ern coasts of all the Lipari Islands subterraneous force, they throw up a fine being steep and craggy, they each cold mud mixed with water, a little petro- with scarcely an exception have a leum and salt, and occasionally bubbles of high isolated rock off their northern air, with a sulphureous taint. The eruptions shores, a singularity extending even are more violent in hot than in rainy wea- to Ustica. ther, owing, perhaps, to the outer crust acquiring a greater consistence. Sometimes re

We quote with pleasure and praise ports, like the discharge ofartillery, are heard, tion of the great Volcano of the

Captain Smyth's impressive descripand slight local earthquakes are felt; until, at length, the whole is eased by an ebullition Lipari Isles; it has been seldomer of mud and stones, sometimes ejected to the visited by travellers than the remaining height of from thirty to sixty feet, though the members of this fiery triad, and perusual spouts reach only from a few inches to haps never under equal advantages two or three feet, increasing in violence at with those enjoyed by a naval officer intervals.

(P. 213, 214.) of knowledge and education such as Another very singular phenomenon Captain Smyth: occurs frequently near Mazzara on

The journey to the summit of Vesuvius, the same coast :

or even to that of Ætna, I found a trifling The “ Marobia” is an extraordinary exertion, compared with the violent exerphenomenon, most probably deriving its cise of climbing up Stromboli; and my name from Mare Ubbriaco, or Drunken efforts were the more fatiguing from being Sea, as its movement is apparently very hurried, as my companions, who were young men of the island, well inured to from its resemblance to a cluster, in the mountain, by their agility and strength, which form dates grow. These islets were always a-head of me. At length we are imagined to have formed the periturned round a summit of the ridge, and, phery of a great crater; and some all at once, obtained a partial sight of the philosophers assert that the longobject of our wishes. The point we had lost Evonymus of Plato is to be found arrived at was above the crater ; we then continued to descend, and to advance, un

amongst them. Our author is intil it suddenly burst into a fuller view, with duced to place it in Panaria itself ; a most imposing and appalling effect. and is also inclined rather to attribute Here we took up our station to await the the disappearance of volcanic islands approach of night; and in this awful spot to the action of the atmosphere and enjoyed one of the most magnificent spec- waves, than to suppose them swaltacles that nature can display.

lowed up in the abyss which had The crater is about one-third of the way been eaten by the fire within. In down the side of the mountain, and is con- support of his theory, he adduces tinually burning, with frequent explosions, and a constant ejection of fiery matter : it of Sabrina in the summer of 1811.

“ the gradual formation of the island is of a circular form, and about a hundred and seventy yards in diameter, with a

It rose to the height of two or three yellow efflorescence adhering to its sides, as

hundred feet, half a league from St. to those of Ætna. When the smoke clear.

Michael's in the Azores, and in a ed away, we perceived an undulating ig- spot where the sea had been nearly nited substance which, at short intervals, forty fathoms deep. This island acrose and fell in great agitation ; and, when quired the circumference of a mile, swollen to the utmost height, burst with a and continued for some time exhibit violent explosion, and a discharge of red. ing the most magnificent volcanic hot stones, in a semi-fluid state, accom

phenomena; in the autumn it had panied with showers of ashes and sand, and again disappeared, but left a dangera strong sulphureous smell. The masses are usually thrown up to the height of from the sea near the spot for many

ous shoal, and smoke was seen rising from sixty or seventy to three hundred feet; but some, the descent of which I months after.” Upon this we have but computed to occupy from nine to twelve one remark to make,viz. that if the inseconds, must have ascended above a

stance adduced proves any thing, it thousand. In the moderate ejections, the proves only that the winds and waves stones in their ascent gradually diverged, may have assisted in destroying like a grand pyrotechnical exhibition, and (which we believe no one will be fell into the abyss again ; except on the found to contest), that which was side next the sea, where they rolled down raised by the action of internal in quick succession, after bounding from heat. the declivity to a considerable distance in

In the island from which the whole the water. A few fell near us, into which, while in their fluid state, we thrust smalí rocky assemblage on this shore takes pieces of money, as memorials for friends, its name, there exist many vestiges

I enjoyed this superb sight, until nearly of the ancient prosperity which blessten o'clock ; and, as it was uncommonly ed their inhabitants. One which had dark, our situation was the more dreadful been dignified with the romantic and grand, for every explosion showed the name of the Æolian Organ, but which abrupt precipice beneath, and the foam of ends after all (mulier formosa in pisthe furious waves breaking against the cem)-in a warm-bath, is worth an rocks, so far below us as to be unheard ; idle reader's attention. (P. 262.) while the detonations of the volcano shook the very ground we sat on. At length, the

There is nothing very remarkable night getting excessively

cold, I determin. in the remaining part of these Meed to descend, and accordingly was con

moirs. In a separate chapter conducted down the other side of the ridge, (a sisting of one whole quarto page and comparatively easy journey,) by which we a half one, emblazoned at top with rapidly reached the vineyards, our feet the sad word “ Conclusion” in omina sinking ancle deep at each step ; and in ous capitals of tombstone size, as if about an hour we entered the cottage of our author's exit from the eyes of his one of my guides, the hospitable Saverio. readers was equally important and

(P. 255, 256.) heart-breaking with his departure Panaria and its Islets are suppos- from the eye of the world altogether, ed to have once formed but a single he thus apologizes for the demerits įsland; the group is called Dattoli, of his book:

Having now concluded the description of accompaniment to the charts and plans. I the coast of Sicily, and the whole of its trust that, in judging of this work, due dependencies, I beg to remind those who allowance will be made for those constantly may be disappointed at not meeting the recurring interruptions I have endured, usual relation of a tourist, in detailed ac

which are unavoidable in carrying on the counts of his diurnal entertainment, and duties of a man-of-war.

(P. 290.) anecdotes of hosts and servants, that my object has been to write a memoir only, interest” of this quarto volume on

How legitimately the “ use and which must necessarily be somewhat monotonous to the reader, as well as fatiguing in excuse of its length, expensiveness,

duodecimo matter, may be alleged to the writer. counting personal occurrences, and other and shamefully, inaccurate typogramatter, have easily filled a much larger vo- phy, we have some doubt; as a cerlume; but I have principally kept in view, tain great Logothete, however, is acwhat, I considered, might be useful or in customed to say,- we are willing to teresting to officers on that station, as an allow our author “ the benefit of it.”



The Old English Testers.

No. V.*


Since the subject of our present Delafield, + that we have little left to article may be considered as the first perform, except to abridge, and make Royal Jester whom we have intro- some slight alterations in, his manuduced to our readers, it may appear script collections on this subject. but respectful to announce him with The office of a Royal Fool was a kind of preface; and this is so well, considered as a post of no mean imand so accurately done to our hands portance. He was the individual among the papers of the late Mr. who administered to the mirth of

* By an error of the press our last Number was marked VI. It should have been IV.

+ Thomas Delafield, the son of humble parents living at Little Hasely, in Oxfordshire, was born December 21, 1690. He received his education partly at the free school of his native place, and partly by the kindness of a neighbouring clergyman, to whose benefice he afterwards succeeded. At the age of seventeen he was candidate for the mastership of the school in which he had himself been a scholar; but, although supported by the petition of all the respectable persons in the parish, was not appointed by the trustees. By the desire of the neighbourhood, and particularly by the advice and patronage of Mr Carter, a gentlenian of property and influence living at Great Hasely, he then opened a private school which met with great success, and shortly after, upon Mr. Carter's recommendation, he was ordained by Bishop Reynolds, and presented by his friend and patron to the vicarage of Great Milton. He subsequently became master of the free-school at Stoken-church, and had the curacy of Fingerst, in Buckinghamshire, when he resigned Great Milton; and, strange to say, outlived his two immediate successors, became a second time vicar, and again resigned it. He continued the school at Stoken-church, and resided there till his death, which took place probably before 1760.

Mr. Delafield was a very voluminous author. His manuscript collections, which are mostly topographical (and all written in his own hand), came into the possession of Mr. Gough, by whom they were bequeathed to the Bodleian Library. They may be thus dcscribed.

1. Loose Memoranda relative to the County of Berks. 2. An Essay towards an Account of the Parish of Fingerst in Buckinghamshire. 3. An Account of the Parish of Chilton, in the same county. This has been printed kings, and provided entertainment tainment, and amuse the minds of for the court; who was allowed the his guests, whilst his costly viands powerful prerogative of freedom of cheered and refreshed their bodies.t speech, and was permitted, without The general licence of speaking check or control, to reprove the without restraint, which was assumed vices, and satirize the follies, of his by persons of the description we are superiors. This was, indeed, to be now considering, appears to have effected by a witty allusion, or a been derived from the Fescennine smart repartee; for a grave sentence sports of the Romans, where the or a formal rebuke would doubtless most powerful could not escape from have provoked displeasure, and pro- censure, and the mightiest were upbably have drawn down destruction braided with their faults. An instion the moralist. It has been well tution this, which was in some mearemarked, that the license granted to sure copied in the universities of this the jester, or mimic fool, was very country to a period almost within similar to that allowed to real idiots the memory of man; when at a and madmen; namely, that they public act, one of the wittiest and might do what they listed, and say boldest members of the University what they pleased, without danger started up a Terræ-filius, and, after of being called to account. Demen- a joking and ludicrous manner, extiam simulat, cujus venia non dicturus posed in raillery and banter the folmodò prohibita, sed et facturus erat, lies and foibles of his betters. I says Justin ; and thus Augustus,

Nor was it otherwise than a sagaamongst his amusements at his pub- cious appointment that set up perlic suppers, had his Aretalogi, bis sons of this sort in the courts of merry jesters, to season the enter- princes. A plain, honest, and simple

in the Appendix to Dr. Bandinel's edition of Bishop Kennett's “ Parochial Antiquities," Oxford, 1818. 4to.

4. Additions to “ Magna Britannia” in Buckinghamshire. 5. History of the Parish of Stoken-church.

6. An Attempt towards an Account of the Parish of Great Milton. Printed for private presents only, with additions, by the Rev. Mr. Ellis, vicar of Great Milton ; Oxford, 1819. 8vo.

7. Collections towards a History of the Parish of Hasely.
8. Additions and Corrections to Godwin's Catalogue of English Bishops.

9. An Attempt towards a Collection of those that have been Poets Laureate, Jesters, or Historians to our Kings or the Court of England.

The above is believed to be a complete list of Mr. Delafield's works in the University library, and it is not improbable that this notice may be the means of discovering others in the hands of private collectors: if so, it may tend to their better preservation, if we remark, that they are highly curious, and contain much valuable information.

• Justini Historia. Lib. ii. cap. 7.
+ Suetonius, Aug. Cap. 74, p. 104. ed. Bipont.

The sallies of these Terræ-filii bowever were oftentimes so indecorous that it was found necessary, at length, to prohibit the exercise altogether. Nor were the actors always perunitted to attack their superiors with impunity, as the following original document sufficiently proves : 66 Submission of Robert Field, M. A. of Trinity College, Oxford, and Terræ

Filius of 1661, which he pronounced on his knees in the apodyterium of the house of convocation in the presence of the Vice-Chancellor, heads of houses,

and the senior proctor. Aug. 6, 1661. « I Robert Field doe here before this venerable company freely and apertly declare, that

being the last act in the place of Terræ Filius, I did then in a speech there by me made, unadvisedly and injuriously asperse severall persons of eminency in this university, beyond the bounds of common modesty, without due respect unto the common rules of charity, and the knowne statutes and peace of the said university. Well therefore pondering with myselfe, and upon recourse had to second and more prudent thoughts, I professe my selfe swaid by the moment of my proper conscience to acknowledge my detested error, and my just sorrow for this my offence and misdemeaner : humbly beseeching, that this my unfeigned submission may be accepted, and confiding that this petulancy of mine shall never be drawne into example to the disturbance of the coinnon peace, and the prejudice of academicall discipline.”

meaning was not always the lan- the Apostle into the word aforegoing, guage of a court-obsequium amicos, Mwporoylo stultiloquium, hath prevailed on veritas odium parit ; and it was there- the present age, with a great deal of good fore the more necessary, in those reason, to lay the office aside. I days of rude authority and unlimited The first Joculator Regis of whom power, to tolerate some public per- we have any account, is Rahere, who son, who might be licensed to show

was not only a royal buffoon, but the men their errors, without being ex, founder of St. Bartholomew's Hosposed to the lash of privilege and pital and Priory, and, be it known to prerogative. They were, moreover, the lovers of noise and revelry, we of no small advantage to great per- are indebted to his influence with his sons, since they acted as antidotes to master, King Henry the First, for all the poison of flatterers, and some- the pleasures of Bartlemy fair. Dugtimes induced their patrons to reform dale gives an excellent account of the in earnest a fault that seemed to be circumstances that led to this merry mentioned but in jest. History re- gentleman's conversion, and induced cords an instance of a jester being him, after playing the fool for many the only person in a whole court years to please the court, to play it who dared communicate some disas

once more for the benefit of religion trous intelligence to his sovereign;* and humanity, and finally to become and the quaint and entertaining Ful- Prior of the house he had himself lert

says of Tarlton (a person of no founded. Rahere having spent his mean note, who will form the subject youth at court or in the houses of the of our next number) that he told nobility, to whom his wit and sprightQueen Elizabeth more of her faults liness rendered him peculiarly atthan most of her chaplains, and cured tractive, began to repent him of the her melancholy better than all her follies and vanities of the course he physicians.

had hitherto pursued; and, to expiate That (continues Mr. Delafield) which his crimes, and obtain a full remiswas called a jest, or wise saying, with our sion, resolved to adopt the fashionforefathers never let flye at vertue, nor able and only efficacious mode of trespassed on good manners. It was not by getting absolution-namely, to take indulging a very little wit and a great deal of ill-nature, without reason, to expose fancied all was going on well, when

a journey to Rome. He did so, and men's characters or reputations. It was not to substitute frothy, light fancies, for lest he should die in his Holiness's

unfortunately be fell sick, and fearing good sense ; nor wild incoherences of thought and language, for humour or wit. domain, vowed a vow to build a hosThese are the growth and refinement of pital for the poor, if he might but our modern times : which, through the recover, and once again reach Englicentiousness used by such as abused their land. Rahere got better, and made liberty, turning the evtpatería facetia of good haste to get home; but, whilst

* It is related of Philip King of France, that when his navy was destroyed at Sluys, and thirty thousand of his best men slain or drowned (for numbers cast themselves into the sea rather than be taken prisoners), no person dared to disclose so terrible a disaster, and the task was at length entrusted to his Jester, who did it by continually repeating, “ Cowardly Englishmen! Faint-hearted Englishmen!” &c. which induced the king to inquire why he so named them ? Because, said his fool, they durst not leap out of their ships into the sea as our brave Frenclimen did.” From which the king understood what had happened. Walsingham, Historia brevis, 1574. p. 134.

+ Worthies of England. Vol. ii. p. 311.

# In former ages the courts of France and England were not thought completely embellished without a favourite idiot, who bore the title of the King's Jester, and who was as remarkably distinguished by a cap and bells, as his royal master was distinguished by his diadem and robes. This animal frequently assumed the face and behaviour of folly, to answer his own particular views and advantages. His bluntness and simplicity recommended him in those places, where truths, if spoke by a man of sense, were disagreeable and dangerous. Their expressions were often so full of humour and sarcasm, that, to this day, they are recorded as pieces of wit. Such was the famous reply of Archy to King James the First, when his Majesty amidst all his wisdom was sufficiently inspired with folly to send his only son into Spain. But fools at present are no longer admired in courts, or, if they are, they appear there without their cap and belly. Lord Orrery's Life of Swift, p. 280.

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