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And what is it to your majesty, to lay upon the earl the trust and credit of settling your majesty's forces in those parts, and to give him your majesty's free protection to come in, without fear, from time to time, to answer to any thing that shall be objected against him, and to retire home again? And if it shall at any time happen, that he shall so offend, as to deserve punishment, then your majesty is to prepare your princely forces, and make royal war upon him, letting him sharply taste what it is to offend so gracious and great a prince.

And likewise the rest of the lords of those countries, are (upon the receiving in of your majesty's garrisons, and paying the duties and compositions before specified) to have the like measure offered them.

I am the bolder, most gracious sovereign, to set down this my opinion for managing those remote places, and preventing these present expected troubles ; because I have been an eye witness of a needless and chargeable war held against one of the lords of the north, namely, Surleboy, a Scot, which war ended not by your majesty's forces, but by the loss of that rebel's chief instrument his son Alexander; yet were the said traitors intreated to accept of their pardon, and had more bestowed upon them for playing the traitors, than they demanded before. And my fear is (if this expected fury shall follow to be wars) it will fall out to the like or a worse issue ; for he, who doth now oppose himself against the earl, was the chief commander then, and did most dishonourably perform it, as shall be apparently proved, when it shall please your majesty to appoint.

I have heard, many think much, that the earl performed not his promise with the new lord deputy, but they little consider what slender encouragement he had given him at his coming in to do it. If he found, as like he did, in what great peril he was to be detained, as, notwithstanding the assurance whereupon he came in, if his adversaries' credit would have place, he had been restrained. There was no likelihood of his performance of any thing he then undertook, because he saw himself in so great peril ; neither is it like, he will hereafter hazard the like. But, if his promise be expected to be performed, then, I think, he desireth good assurance, first, of his own safety, whereupon there may be hope he will effect all promises, good offices, and services, for the good of that poor kingdom, and till then there is nothing to be expected from him but doubt, and preparation to defend himself, and offend greatly.

When your majesty's garrison-soldiers were first planted in the county of Monaghan, there was gre service offered to Sir WilLiam Fitzwilliam by Sir Henry Duke, for his sitting down at the abby of Cloonis (whereof he is farmer) with his own company of

light foot, and fifty of your highness' garrison-soldiers, and to have discharged your majesty's of all manner of victualling charge, only to have been monthly fully paid their entertainment; and at that time there were at the same abby good and defensible buildings to succour your majesty's garrison, which are defaced and pulled down by the traitors, for fear they should serve for that purpose. If this offer had been accepted, it had greatly furthered your majesty's service now, and peradventure had prevented, or at least hindered the troubles now expected, because it is so near upon Maguire's country, and the stay of his passage to the English pale.

Notwithstanding it much imported, that this service should have been hearkened unto, yet Sir William Fitzwilliam's malice at that time was so extreme against Sir Henry Duke, who no doubt would have performed it as effectually, as he offered it, he utterly rejected it; even as he did the like and many greater services, offered by other your majesty's good servitors there.

His greedy desire at that time in respect of his own gain, made him careless of these offers, and of those good servitors, who would freely offer themselves; he esteemed best of the baser sort, as of one Willis, and such as he was, whom he made captains and officers in the Irish countries, who with their great troops of base rascals behaved themselves so disorderly, as made the whole country to rise in an uproar and to drive them out, which advantage given by those bad and lewd fellows to the ill-disposed Irishry, hath emboldened them ever since to stand in no fear or subjection of your highness' state, or forces there. These, and many the like services, as bad, or worse, did Sir William Fitzwil.. liam whilst he had authority in that place.

Although many needless journies were made by Sir William Fitzwilliam, which were both chargeable to your majesty, and troublesome to your poor subjects, yet was there one into the province of Conaught, which was very necessary, and grounded upon probable reason, determined for the cutting off and utter banishing of the traitor O’Roirke, and all his confederates ; which service could not be performed without the assistance of the Earl of Tyrone, who was sent unto before the journey was undertaken. The messenger was one belonging to your highness' council there, a friend of Sir William Fitzwilliam's, and one well affected by the earl, who declared to him the cause of his coming down, to be for preparation against O’Roirke, and what the lord deputy's demand was, that the earl should perform therein. The earl most honourably (as he had often times before) undertook to perform as much as the lord deputy then required, returning the said messenger very well satisfied; for he sent the lord deputy word, he would be ready to attend the service with one thousand . men at the place appointed, and more he would have brought, if he had more time, or sooner warning. The place to him assigned was on the border of Tyrconnel, on that side of Laugherne towards Conaught, there to stop the passage, that O'Roirke with his companies and creatures should not that way escape into those parts, which he well liked of and promised so to do, adding further, (if it pleased the lord deputy to command him) he would break a ferry with his forces into O’Roirke's country, and either drive him out, or deprive him of life, and prey his whole country, and do great service upon all O’Roirke's adherents. This answer of the earl's seemed to satisfy the lord deputy very well, who prepared your majesty's forces forthwith, and sent word to the earl to be in readiness upon six days warning.

The lord deputy took with him all your highness' garrison, the raising out of the pale as many as he thought fit, and went onward his journey, giving out, (because the rebels should not suspect) that it was only to see sessions and assizes duly kept in Conaught, and sat in divers places accordingly, insomuch as at length he came to Sligo, which joins upon O'Roirke's country, where he abode four or five days, with all his forces, being sufficient to execute upon O’Roirke, and the other traitors, as much as he had before determined; the earl all this while expecting when he should be called to that pretended service, kept all his forces ready together for that purpose, which was no small charge for him. But as it fell out afterwards, Sir William (as it seemed) had no such intention; for upon a sudden he departed from Sligo, journeying quite cross the whole province of Limerick, leaving O'Roirke's country at his back, doing no service, but charging the poor country (whereof as then it had little need) imposing the performance, of all this expected stratagem of Sir Richard Bingham, with some of the garrison to assist him, who most honourably and painfully prosecuted the said proud traitor upon his feet, to the great endangering of his life by the disease of that country, which caught him in the pursuit of that traitor, whom he then drove out of his country, by which means he was afterwards sent to have his deserts here in England. Which exploit (if it had been performed as it was plotted by Sir William Fitzwilliam) O'Roirke had perished there, and all those traitors which are now assistants to his son, had then been cut off.

It may please your majesty likewise to be advertised, that divers persons have been, for their offences, pardoned by your majesty, and thereby emboldened to frequent all places without fear, having been apprehended and committed straitway to prison, without any cause given (since their pardoning) whereof law might take hold, they have offered very sufficient bail, which hath been refused, and they detained, because they in times past, were bad, (for which they were pardoned) or for fear they should be bad in time to come. And being thus kept severely in prison many years, they have at length made friends there, and by great sums of money here, purchased their pardon from thence, whereby they have been enlarged. Now, when they obtain their liberty by these money means, and not by the justice, which your majesty's laws allow them, they think themselves very hardly used; and others thereby become doubtful and afraid to trust to their pardons; supposing, if they want such friends and such means, they shall be either indiscriminately cut off, or else for ever kept in prison upon suggestion or surmize. But if they might perceive, that it is not your majesty's pleasure to have them thus handled and that none should lie in prison without receiving trial by your highness's laws, if their cause so required, or else upon good sureties to go at liberty, by either of which means they may enjoy the benefit of your gracious laws, even as your good subjects, which never offended, no doubt it would free them from great fear and suspicion and make them more dutiful than ever they were.

There is one prisoner in the castle of Dublin ; an aged and impotent gentleman, of whom (if it be to your highness's good pleasure) I desire your majesty shall take notice, his name is Sir Owen Mac Toole : one who was never a traytor against your majesty, nor never in any traitorous action : but so good a subject and so faithful a servitor as (for his deserts) he had a pension from your majesty, whereof Sir John Perrot bereft him. This gentleman was sent for by promise and assurance from the state, that he should not be abridged of his liberty ; contrary whereunto he was committed unto prison, where he hath remained these eight years, for whose enlargement all bail hath been refused. Yet is the gentleman of so great years, as he is not able to go, and scarcely able to ride: for which respects and for the state's promise (methinks) he ought to find favour, moreover he is pledge for no man: if he were, pledges profit nothing, as before I have rehearsed. He is father in law to the Earl of Tyrone: and if the earl recovers your majesty's favour, how highly your majesty shall honour yourself by bestowing this old gentleman's liberty upon the earl, and how much your majesty shall provoke the earl to acknowledge your highness's favour therein, your majesty may easily judge, and they who know the state of that kingdom can inform. But if the earl be not so happy to obtain such grace at your majesty's hands, yet it may please your majesty graciously to regard the poor aged gentleman, that upon good sureties he may have his liberty, for which I know there would be five hundred pounds given though he can by no means steed them in any bad prac. tice against your majesty's state there, neither in body nor council,

neither can his imprisonment stay any of his friends from doing evil, if they be badly disposed: if therefore your highness will be pleased to release him of your own princely motion, he putting in sufficient sureties within the English pale, to be ever ready within twenty days to answer to whatsoever may be objected, you shall bind him (as his bounden duty) always to pray for your highness, and mightily enerease the affection of your majesty's people. For the due reformation of all the disorders in that

poor realm of Ireland, and the execution of what worthy action soever shall be by your majesty, and your honourable council here determined, and for recovering the honour of that state, which former governors there have lost ; your majesty, in judgment, hath made most excellent choice of the now lord deputy, a man accompanied with all necessary parts both in body and mind, as I doubt not but his service shall hereafter give good testimony, although he have received the sword in a far more troublesome and dangerous time, than any of his late predecessors ever did. For neither the last Desmond's wars, nor those of Connor's and the Moors, being both put together, are comparable to that, which is now expected, if it prove, wars; which I desire (if it be God's will and your majesty's good pleasure) may be otherwise, not for my private affection for any in the north, but for the public good which I wish to that poor kingdom.

For the benefit whereof, and for the performance of all such honourable services, as are now expedient to be done, and all the rest before in this declaration mentioned, its your majesty, who must not only direct him, but also thoroughly enable his lordship that he may give better encouragement to your majesty's soldiers, to take pains in your highness's service, than they have had, or yet have ; because they daily see, that he who never served your majesty in those services, shall come to far better preferment in that place, than the best commander or serving servitor there. Besides you cannot get that done, which they do, who painfully, and faithfully serve.

What encouragement then can a man have to offer himself in the wars of that country, who shall neither get honour, reward, nor payment for his labour? I speak by experience of myself, who (upon my credit) have not had ten crowns imprest of my own private pay, those ten years, to furnish me towards your inajesty's service, when I was called upon, and yet I have made one at all times.

When such hard measure then is offered unto captains, I humbly refer to your majesty, what encouragement they can have to go to the field. Although without money or any thing else, they will do their best endeavour, with their substance, and them,

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VOL. I.

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