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I AM not ignorant how hard a part I put upon you in transferring to you the treaty, and the power to conclude peace with the Irish: nor would I have you ignorant of that necessity in the condition of my affairs here, which inforces me to it; and therefore I have commanded Digby to inform you more at large. I shall only say thus much to you, that I consider you as a person so entirely addicted to my service, as that you will not be deterred by difficulties from what may so much conduce to it, as the easing me at present of that treaty: wherein if I should do that here, which perhaps may be necessary there (even to the preservation of the kingdom), it might, through indisposition here, be of dangerous consequence to the main of my affairs. And I am very confident, that you will be secured from all apprehensions concerning yourself in the resolution to run the same fortune with me, which if it please God, that it prove good, you may promise yourself such a part in, as may be obtayned by your having me for

Your most assured, constant friend, Bath, 17 July, 1644.





MY Lord Herbert having business of his own in Ireland (wherein I desire you to do him all lawful favour and furtherance), I have thought good to use the power I have, both in his affection and duty, to engage him in all possible ways, to further the peace there ; which he hath promised to do. Wherefore (as you find occasion, you may confidently use and trust him in this, or any other thing he shall propound to you for my service; there being none, in whose honesty and zeal, to my person and crown, I have more confidence. So I rest,

Your most assured, constant friend, Oxford, 27 Dec. 1644.

CHARLES R. To this letter was added the following postscript in cypher :

His honesty or affection to my service will not deceive you; but I will not answer for his judgment.





UPON the great rumours and expectations which are now of a peace, I think it necessary to tell you the true state of it, lest mistaken reports from hence might trouble my affairs there.

The rebels here have agreed to treat, and most assuredly one of the first and chiefest articles they will insit on, will be to continue the Irish war; which is a point not popular for me to break

on ; of which you are to make a double use; first, to hasten (with all possible diligence) the peace there ; the timely conclu. sion of which, will take off that inconvenience, which other. wise I may be subject to, by the refusal of that article upon any other reason. Secondly, by dexterously conveying to the Irish the danger there may be of their total and perpetual exclusion from those favours I intend them, in case the rebels here clap up peace with me upon reasonable terms, and only exclude them; which possibly were not counsellable for me to refuse, if the Irish peace should be the only difference betwixt us, before it were perfected there. These, I hope, are sufficient grounds for you to persuade the Irish diligently to dispatch a peace upon reasonable terms, assuring them, that you having once engaged to them my word in the conclusion of a peace, all the earth shall not make me break it. But not doubting of a peace, I must again remember you to press the Irish for their speedy assistance to me here, and their friends in Scotland; my intention being to draw from thence into Wales (the peace once concluded) as many as I can of my armed Protestant subjects, and desire, that the Irish would send as great a body as they can to land about Cumberland; which will put those northern counties into a brave condition. Wherefore you must take speedy order to provide all the shipping you may, as well Dunkirk, as Irish, bottoms; and remember, that after March it will be most difficult to transport men from Ireland to England, the rebels being masters of the seas.

So expecting a diligent and particular account in answer to this letter, I rest,

Your most assured friend, 9th June, 1644,


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I AM sorry to find by Colonel Barry the sad conditions of your particular fortune, for which I cannot find so good and speedy remedy as the peace of Ireland (it being likewise most necessary to redress my affairs here); wherefore I command you to dispatch it out of hand; for the doing of which, I hope my public dispatch will give you suficient instruction and power, yet I have thought it necessary (for your more encouragement in this necessary work) to make this addition with my own hand.

As for Poyning's Act, I refer you to my other letter; and for matter of religion, though I have not found it fit to take public notice of the paper, which Browne gave you, yet I must command you to give him, the Lord Muskery and Plunket particular thanks for it, assuring them that without it there could have been no peace, and that sticking to it, their nation in general, and they in particular, shall have comfort in what they have done. And to shew, that this is more than words, I do hereby promise them (and command you to see it done) that the penal statutes against Roman Catholicks shall not be put in execution, the peace being made, and they remaining in their due obedience. And furtlier, that when the Irish give me that assistance, which they have promised, for the suppressing of this rebellion, and I shall be restored to my rights, then will I consent to the repeal of them by a law.

But all those against appeals to Rome and Præmunire must stand. All this in cypher you must impart to none but those three already named, and that with injunction of strictest secrecy.

So again recommending to your care the speedy dispatch of the peace of Ireland, and my necessary supply from thence, as I wrote to you in my last private letter, I rest

Your most assured constant friend, Oxford, 18 Jan. 1644-5.

CHARLES R. In case, upon particular mens fancies, the Irish peace should not be procured upon the powers I have already given you, I have thought fit to give you this further order (which I hope will prove needless), to endeavour to renew the cessation for a year: for which you shall promise the Irish (if you can have it no cheaper) to join with them against the Scots and Inchiquins; for I hope by that time, my condition may be such as the Irish may be glad to accept less, or I able to grant more.


[PAGE 128.]

CHARLES by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. to our right trusty and right well-beloved cousin, Edward Somerset, alias Plantagenet, Lord Herbert, Baron Beauford of Caldicote, Grismond, Chepstow, Ragland, and Gower, Earl of Glamorgan, son and heir apparent of our intirely beloved cousin Henry Earl and Marquis of Worcester, greeting. Having had good and long experience of your prowess, prudence, and fidelity, do make choice, and by these nominate and appoint you, our right trusty and right well-beloved cousin, Edward Somerset, &c. to be our generalissimo of three armies, English, Irish, and foreign, and admiral of a fleet at sea, with power to recommend your lieutenant-general for our approbation, leaving all other officers to your own election and denomi. nation, and accordingly to receive their commissions from you ; willing and commanding them, and every of them, you to obey, as their general, and you to receive immediate orders from ourself only. And lest through distance of place we may be misinformed, we will and command you to reply unto us, if any of our orders should thwart or hinder any of your designs for our service. And there being necessary great sums of money to the carrying on so chargeable an employment, which we have not to furnish you withal; we do by these impower you to contract with any of our loving subjects of England, Ireland, and dominion of Wales, for wardships, customs, woods, or any our rights and prerogatives; we by these obliging ourselves, our heirs and successors, to confirm and make good the same accordingly. And for persons of generosity, for whom titles of honour are most desirable, we have intrusted you with several patents under our great scal of England, from a marquis to a baronet, which we give you full power and authority to date and dispose of, without knowing our further pleasure, so great is our trust and confidence in you, as that whatsoever you do contract for or promise, we will make good the same accordingly, from the date of this our commission forwards ; which for the better satisfaction, we give you leave to give them, or any of them, copies thereof, attested under your hand and seal of arms. And for your own encouragement, and in token of our gratitude, we give and allow you henceforward such fees, titles, preheminences, and privileges, as do and may belong unto your place and command above mentioned, with a promise of our dear daughter Elizabeth to your son Plantagenet in marriage, with three hundred thousand pounds in dower or portion, most part whereof we acknowledge spent and disbursed by your father and you in our service; and the title of Duke of Somerset to you and your heirs male for ever; and from henceforward to give the Garter to your arms, and at your pleasure to put on the George and blue ribbon. And for your greater honour, and in testimony of our reality, we have with our own hand affixed our greåt seal of England unto these our commission and letters, making them patents. Witness ourself at Oxford, the 1st day of April, in the 20th year of our reign, and the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred and forty-four.


[PAGE 128.]


WHEREAS we have had sufficient and ample testimony of your approved wisdom and fidelity, so great is the confidence we repose in you, as that whatsoever you shall perform, as warranted under our sign manual, pocket signet, or private mark, or even by word of mouth, without farther ceremony, we do in the word of a King and a Christian, promise to make good, to all intents and purposes, as effectually, as if your authority from us had been under the great seal of England, with this advantage, that we shall esteem ourselves the more obliged to you for your gallantry, in not standing upon such nice terms to do us service, which we shall, God willing, reward. And although you exceed what law can warrant, or any powers of ours reach unto, as not knowing what you have need of; yet it being for our service, we oblige ourself, not only to give you our pardon, but to maintain the same with all our might and power; and though either by accident, or by any other occasion, you shall deem it necessary to deposite any of our warrants, and so want them at your return, we faithfully promise to make them good at your return, and to supply any thing, wherein they shall be found defective, it not being convénient for us at this time to dispute upon them; for of what we have here set down you may rest confident, if theie be faith and truth in men. Proceed therefore cheerfully. speedily, and boldly; and for your so doing, this shall be your sufficient warrant.

Given at our court at Oxford under our sign manual and private signet, this 12th of January, 1644.

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