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who threw their eyes upon the real state of their country and exerted their efforts to advance its prosperity, the whole of the old and new party acquired (and perhaps not undeservedly) the common appellation of patriots.* This was the party, which

Amongst these shone conspicuously Dean Swift, whose Drapier's Letters have at all times been considered amongst the most effectual engines used in procuring the reversal of Wood's patent. The subject is there treated with much force and perspicuity, and the pernicious consequences to Ireland are pointed out with peculiar judgment and effect. In the same spirit did the dean write his State of Ireland, The Presbyterians Piea of Merit, and afterwards, Reasons for repealing the Sacramental Test, written in the Style of a Roman Catbolic, and several other works. In his State of Ireland, he says, “ Ireland is “the only kingdom I ever heard or read of, either in ancient or modern story, “ which was denied the liberty of exporting their native commodities and ma“nufactures wherever they pleased, except to countries at war with their own " prince or state : yet this privilege by the superiority of mere power, is re“ fused us in the momentous parts of commerce : besides an act of navigation, “ to which we never consented, pinned down upon us and rigorously executed, “ and a thousand other unexampled circumstances as grievous as they are in“ vidious to mention.” Then enumerating several, he adds, “in all which we “ bave likewise the honour to be distinguished from the whole race of man. “ kind.” So sensible was Swift of the wretched state of policy in the government of Ireland, that he wrote an essay which he intituled, Maxims controlled in Ireland. He sets out by observing, that there are certain maxims of state founded upon long observation and experience, drawn from the constant practice of the wisest nations, and from the very principles of government, Hor ever controlled by any writer upon politics. He then undertakes to prove (he unfortunately succeeded too well in proving) the falsity of the following maxims as to Ireland.

1st. That the dearness of things necessary for life in a fruitful country is 2 certain sign of wealth and great commerce : for when such necessaries are dear, it must absolutely follow, that money is cheap and plentiful.

2d. That low interest is a certain sign of great plenty of money in a nation.

3d. That the great increase of buildings in the metropolis argues a flourishing state.

4th. That people are the riches of a nation. The practical inversion of these axioms in Ireland, is the most damning proof of the infelicity and bad goveri)ment of that country. In support of his observations on the fourth of these maxims, he tells a too lamentable truth : that above one half of the souls in that kingdom then supported themselves by begging and thieving, whereof two thirds would be able to get their bread in any other country upon earth : he therefore said, “ he rejoiced at a mortality as a blessing to individuals and “ the public.” In order to form an unbiassed judgment of the state of Ire. land at the period under consideration; it is fitting to see what the great manager of the English interest in Ireland says on the other side of the

question, Prímate Boulter upon his arrival in Dublin in November 1724, informs his grace of Canterbury, " that I have little to complain of, but that too many of

our own original esteem us Englishmen as intruders.” Within a fortnight, he informs the Duke of Newcastle, that, “ We are in a very bad state, and " the people so poisoned with apprehensions of Wood's half-pence, that I do “ not see there can be any hopes of justice against any person for seditious “ writings, if he does but mix something about Wood in them.” “ All sorts “ here are determinately set against Wood's half-pence, and look upon their “ estates as half sunk in their value, whenever they shall pass upon the nation. “ Our pamphlets and the discourses of some people of weight run very much "s upon the independency of this kingdom: and in our present state, that is a

very popular notion."........" Though all people are equally set against Wood “ here, yet many of the present madnesses are supposed to come from Papists VOL. I.

if

Primate Boulter always affected to term the discontented, and not unfrequently the king's enemies : and of whose successful opposition, to the measures of those whom his grace termed the king's servants, and consequently his friends, he had complained. In no instance were the exertions of the patriots more brilliantly successful than in opposing Mr. Wood's patent for coining half-pence, which they considered as one of those infamous jobs, of which such loud and repeated complaints have been since heard in Ireland.

As there had not been for many years a coinage of copper in Ireland, the low medium of half-pence and farthings had become very scarce ; and the deficiency was found to be attended with great inconveniency. Applications were made to England for a new coinage ; but in vain. What was refused to the loud and impressive voice of the Irish nation, was granted to the intrigu. ing and unfair influence of a speculating individual, one William Wood; who obtained a patent for coining copper half-pence and farthings for the use of Ireland, to the amount of 108,000l. and which he made of such base alloy, that the whole mass was not worth 8000l. Of this base coin he poured an immense infusion jnto Ireland. Brass multiplied beyond example : was not only used in change, but attempted to be forced in payments. The Irish nation took the alarm, and made it a national cause : and it may be said to have been the first, in which all parties in Ireland had ever come to issue with the British Cabinet. The Irish parliament, in an address to the throne, told the king, they were called upon by their country to represent the ill consequences to the kingdom likely to result from Wood's patent: that the diminution of the revenue and the ruin of trade was the prospect, which it presented to view. An application from the privy council of Ireland to the king spoke the same language: and addresses from most of the city corporations throughout the kingdom to the like effect were handed up to the throne.

“ mixing with and setting on others, with whom they formerly had no manner of correspondence.” Upon a report of an appointment having been promised of the See of Dublin on the illness of Archbisliop King, who had been transJated from Derry to that See in the year 1702, Primate Boulter tells the Duke of Newcastle, “ If I be not allowed to form proper dependencies here, to break “the present Dublin faction on the Bench, it will be impossible for me to serve « his majesty further than in my single capacity. I do not speak this, as if " I did not think there are some on the English Bench, that would do very “ well in Dublin, and would heartily join with me in promoting his majesty's “ measures : or that I do not esteem it wise gradually to get as many English “ on the Bench here, as can decently be sent hither : but that I think being on " the English Bench alone is not a sufficient qualification for coming to the best “promotions here, and that an imprudent person may be easily tempted by " Irisb flattery to set himself at the head of the Archbishop of Dublin's party “ in opposition to me: and besides as there is a majority of Bishops here that “ are patives, they are not to be disobliged at once." (4th of March 1724.)

At the quarter session, the country gentlemen and magistrates unanimously declared against it. And the grand jury of the county of Dublin presented all persons, who attempted to impose upon the people of Ireland the base coin, as enemies to government, and to the safety, peace and welfare of his majesty's subjects. It was not to be expected, that an individual speculator, who could raise an interest with the British Cabinet more powerful than the united voice* of the whole people of Ireland, should forego all his golden prospects of enormous gains from the opposition of thos, whom he had in the first instance baffled and defeated. He still commanded such influence with his patrons, as to bring forth a report from the privy council of England in his favour, which cast very severe (not to say indecent) reflections upon the parliament of Ireland, for having opposed his patent. After the nation had been kept in turbulent agitation for a year by the real or imaginary effects of this job, tranquillity was at last restored by his majesty's revocation of the patent, which put an.end to the currency of this base money, and opened to Ireland a dawn of confidence, that their sovereign's ear would not be for ever shut against the united voice of his Irish people.f

Little else happened during the remainder of the reign of George the first, that in any manner affected Ireland: he died on the 11th of June 1727. His enemies have never charged him with any personal vices: having come to the throne at an advanced period of life, his deportment and manner were rather reserved and formal: he was attentive to business : and had the good fortune to have the merits of his reign attributed personally to himself, whilst its defects were thrown upon the corruption and false principles of his ministers.

* For the address of the commons to the king, in the first instance, vide 3 Journ. 325, and for their address to his majesty on his gracious answer to the first address, page 368.

+ The Primate Boulter found the real spirit of the nation so pointedly against enforcing Wood's patent, that he was compelled even reluctantly to recommend its revocation. “ As the session of parliament,” said he to bis grace the Duke of Newcastle on the 3d of July 1725, “ is now drawing near, I hope my lord “ lieutenant will be empowered in his speech to speak clearly as to the business “ of the half-pence, and thoroughly rid this nation of their fear on that head: “ I shall hope if that is done we shall have a pretty easy session.” And “ if the dread of Wood's half-pence is effectually removed, I hardly doubt of “ a good issue of the session.” The primate, though he could have no doubt of the impropriety and mischief of Wood's patent, yet in the true style of courtly protection to its own creatures, he always contended that Wood “ could not be supposed willing to resign it without a proper compensation, " (as if the obtaining such a patent had becn a work of meritorious or laborious

service) and that the seditious and clamorous behaviour of too many here, “must rather tend to provoke his majesty and his ministry to support the “ patent, than to take any extraordinary steps to sink it: and that therefore " the most proper way seemed to be, the proposing some reasonable amends " to Mr. Wood, in order to his resigning the patent." ( Letter to the Duke of Newcastle, 19tb of January 1724.) However, upon the 25th of September 1725, he tells lord Townsend, “I must likewise acknowledge the obligation we “ all lie under here for your procuring so great an instance of his majesty's

goodness, as the revoking of Wood's patent.”

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

Printed and Published, by W. F. MʻLaughlin,

and Bartholomew Graves, Philadelphia.

APPENDIX.

NO. I.

THE BULL OF ADRIAN IV. BY WHICH HE GRANTED IRELAND

TO HENRY II.

(Historical Review, &c. p. 22.)

ADRIAN the bishop, the servant of the servants of God, to his most dear son in Christ, the noble king of England, sendeth greeting and apostolic benediction. Your magnificence hath been very careful and studious how you might enlarge the church of God here in earth, and increase the number of saints and elect in heaven, in that as a good Catholic king, you have and do by all means labour and travel to enlarge and increase God's church, by teaching the ignorant people the true and Christian religion, and in abolishing and rooting up the weeds of sin and wickedness. And wherein you have, and do crave, for your better furtherance, the help of the apostolic see (wherein more speedily and discreetly you proceed) the better success, we hope, God will send ; for all they, which of a fervent zeal and love in religion, do begin and enterprise any such thing, shall no doubt in the end, have a good and prosperous success. And as for Ireland, and all other islands, where Christ is known and the Christian religion received, it is out of all doubt, and your excellency well knoweth, they do all appertain and belong to the right of St. Peter, and of the church of Rome ; and we are so much the more ready, desirous, and willing, to sow the acceptable seed of God's word, because we know the same in the latter day will be most severely required at your hands. You have (our well beloved son in Christ) advertised and signifyed unto us, that you will enter into the land and realm of Ireland, to the end to bring them to obedience unto law, and under your subjection, and to root out from among them their foul sins and wickedness; as

VOL. I.

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