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the law, who have not followed Christ, know the , trines, holiness, and discipline of Christ's militant law, and must be right.” This was the brief church : “To the law and to the testimony: if way by which they shut the light out of their they speak not according to this word, it is besouls. They reasoned as if it were impossible for cause there is no light in them” (Isai. viii. 20). their church guides to err, and as if they could not “But,” says the objector to the sufficiency of possibly be wrong in following them.

holy scripture, " there are therein many hard and From this circumstance I will take occasion doubtful passages which seem to be contrary one to consider wbat is the guide of religious con- to another, and from which some have taken troversy.

occasion to form different and dangerous opiWe see the world is full of hostile systems and nions.” To tbis objection St. Augustine shall opposing creeds, and amid the mazes of endless furnish a reply. He says?“ Dark places are to controversy the sincere heart sighs for an infallible be expounded by more plain places; for that is guide 10 iruth. It is evident we must not look the surest way of declaring the scriptures, to exto the church aggregate on earth, nor to any pound one scripture by another”(De Chris. Doc. b. branch of it as infallible; for it may be truly said iii., c. 28). Again, he says: “In tisings openly that every branch of the church has erred either contained in the scriptures arc found all things in its living,” or “ manoer of ceremonies,” or“ in that concern faith, good living, and charity” (De matters at thith” (Art. xix.). We cannot depend Chris. Doc. b. ii., c. 9). “And, if any thing caninvariably upon the teaching of any individual not be tried by the certain and clear places of the member of the church of Christ since the time of scriptures, let man's presumption,” says he, “ stay the apostles, nor upon the decrees of provincial and itself, not leaning to either part; for this I am general councils, unless they adhere faithfully to sure of, that, if it were requisite to be known upon some infallible standard. "General councils may pain of damnation, there should not lack most not be gathered together without the command plain and clear authorities of the same in the scripment and will of princes. And, when they be tures. But, in seeking of the scriptures, let us gathered together (torasmuch as they be an as- seek no further than is left in writing by God our sembly of men, whereof all be not governed with Saviour, lest in desiring too much we lose all” the Spirit and word of God), they may err, and (Second Book of Merits and Forgiveness of Sins). sometimes have erred, even in things pertaining St. Chrysostom also says : “ It is not possible that unto God. Wherefore things ordained by them be, which with fervent study and earnest desire as necessary to salvation lave neither strength nor applieth him to the scriptures of God, sbould ever authority, unless it may be declared that they be be neglected of God; but, although we lack a taken out of holy scripture" (Art. xxi.). Thus it master to teach us, yet the Lord himself, entering is our church leads us to the fountain of truth- our hearts from above, shall give light into our holy scripture. Here is truth plainly and un- mind:, and pour bis bright beams into our reason mistakeably declared to the honest and pains- and understanding, and open the things that be taking seeker. Here he may find pure, eternal, bis, and teach us those things whereof we be iginfallible truth; for the bible is the inspiration of norant” (Hom. xxxv. upon Gen. xiii.). the Almighty.' “Every word of God is pure : The old fathers of the church are most express he is a shield unto them that put their trust in in declaring that the holy scriptures only are io be him. Add thou not unto his words, lest be re- believed. Irenæus says: "To lean to the scripprove thre, and thou be found a liar" (Prov. xxx. tures of God (which is the certain and undoubted 5, 6): “If any man speak, let him speak as the truth) is to buili a man's house upon a sure and oracles of God” (1 Pet. iv. 11). The word of God strong rock. But to leave that and lean to any in its completeness is the word of blessing : it other doctrines (whatsoever they be) is to build a preaches to the sinner pardon and peace by Christ ruinous house upon the shattering gravel, whereof Jesus: it is the word of practical guidance : it is the overthrow is easy” (b. ii., c. 27). stored with every variety of character, and com- Tertullian

says: "Ti is not lawful for us to mands respecting thoughts, and words, and deeds: favour any doctrine at our pleasure, nor yet to it is the word of warning: it sounds its terrible choose what any man hath brought in of his own alarms in the ears of the sinful and unconverted, mind. We have the apostles of our Lord for our inviting them to repentance and relorination; and authorz ; which did not elect any thing that they it stariles and arouses the best energies of the true would bring in of their own heads, but taught Christian with an if : “If we sin wilfully after faithfully to all nations that doctrine that they that we have received the knowledge of the truth, had received of Christ. Therefore, although an there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins ; but a angel from heaven should preach any other thing, certain fearful looking for of judgments and fiery let us hold bim accursed" (Prescription of Hiindignation, wbich shall devour ihe adversaries relics, c. 6). Origen says: “ We must needs call (Heb. x. 26, 27): it is the word of judgment: it the holy scriptures to witness ; for our judgments appeals to the sense of responsibility, which is in and expositions without these witnesses are worthy every man: “Thou showest loving-kindness unto no credit” (Hom. i. on Jer.). Athanasius says thousands, and recompensest the iniquity of the “The holy scriptures, being inspired of God, are fathers into the bosom of their children after them; sufficient io all'instruction of the truth" (Orarion the great, the mighty God, the Lord of hosts is against the Gentiles); And Ambrose says: “We bis name, great in counsel, and mighty in work” do justly condemn all new things which Christ (Jer. xxxii. 18, 19); and it is the word of reward : las not taught; for Christ is the way to the faithit is aldressed to the anticipations of hope: ful. If, therefore, we ourselves preach any thing "Every man shall receive his own reward, ac- that Christ has not taught, judge that abominacording to bis own labour" (1 Cor. iii. 8). It ble” (Of Virgins, b. iii. c. 1.). “Let us dili contains clear declarations concerning all the doc- gently search for the well of life in the books of the New and Old Testament, and not run to the church to the end of the world (Matt. xxviii. 20). stinking puddles of men's traditions, devised by Therefore the papist concludes that the papal men's imaginations, for our justification and sal- church is infallible. But this promise of Christ is vation. For in holy scripture is fully contained conditional, as the context shows: if you preach what we ought to do, and what to eschew, what what I have taught, if you baptize truly, if you to believe, what to love, and what to look for at "observe all things whatsoever I have comGod's hands at length” (Homily on the reading manded you," then, lo, I am with you alway." of Holy Scripture).

The papist further pleads Christ's promise of being I shall now show from the holy scriptures that in the midst of two or three gathered together in church councils and church guides have not always his name (Matt. xviii. 20), to establish his dogma. hit the truth. From the time that Aaron fashioned Now, the name of Christ frequently denotes the and worshipped the golden calf (Exod. xxxii.), authority of Christ (Matt. vii. 33; Mark xvi. throughout almost the whole period of the Jewish 17; Luke x. 17; Acts 3, 6, xvi., iv. 7, 10, 12; with history, the church was darkened and degraded these compare Eph. i. 21; Phil. ii. 9). And, truly, by idolatry, and the servants, the prophets of the Christ is with those who act by his authority, and Most High God, were despised and persecuted (o according to his revealed will; but, if any meet Kings xxii.; Jer. xx.).

together to do their own will, they meet out of During our Lord's sojourn on earth there were Christ's name, and act contrary to his authority. many debates amongst the authorized teachers of When Christ bade his bearers observe and do whatthe Jewish church as to the truth of his Messia- ever the Scribes and Pharisees bade them (Matt. ship, but they invariably rejected him, and deemed xxiii..2, 3), he meant they should do all that those who accepted him as deluded through igno- was required by Moses and the law ; for he rance of the law (John vii. 49). Some declared that bad before warned his disciples to “beware of Jesus was not the Christ, because he was a Gali- the leaven of the Scribes and Pharisees” (Matt. lean (John vii. 41). Some of the Pharisees said, xvi. 6, 12). Neither these passages, nor any “This man is not of God, because he keepeth that can be quoted, prove that the Roman church not the sabbath-day” (John ix. 16). The Jews cannot err. Jerusalem was called “a city of agreed "that, if any man did confess that he was truth” (Zech. viii. 3), but it fell from the truth ; Christ, he sbould be put out of the synagogue" and the church of Ephesus was called “the (John ix. 22, see also xii. 42). The Scribes blas- pillar and ground of the truth” (1 Tim. ii. 15); phemed Christ (Mark iii. 22). The chief priests yet the thrilling message of merciful exhortation and Pharisees gathered a council, and “took sent to the angel of the Ephesian church was, counsel together for to put him to death” (Jobn“ Remember from whence thou art fallen, and xi. 47-63). They put him to death: and after repent, and do the first works; or else I will his death they pronounced him a deceiver (Matt. come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy xxvii. 63). When Christ was risen from the candlestick out of his place, except thou repent” dead, the church guides commanded his disciples (Rev. ii. 5). The candlestick was removed; or, “not to speak at all nor teach in the name of in other words, this church passed away. We Jesus” (Acts iv. 18). Afterwards the same com- have the faith once for all delivered to the mand was repeated (Acts v. 40). Now, if these saints; and we have the infallible Spirit of truth councils of the whole Jewish church were in fal- promised as the lasting heritage of the church, to lible, certainly Jesus was not the Messiah. This teach the hearts of the faithful. With the holy is actually the argument which the Jew adopts scriptures in our bands we have no need of the to bolster his infidelity. He says the guides of traditions of men to guide us. We take tradition his church were appointed by God "to reach the as a witness or testimony of the belief and pracchildren of Israel all the statutes which the Lord tices of men in certain ‘ages; but, whenever it hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses” departs from the letter and spirit of revealed (Lev. x. 11). They were the messengers of truth, it is impossible (without denying the unthe Lord of hosts" (Mal. ii. 7). “By their word alterable truth of God) to consider it as a rule shall every controversy and every stroke be tried” binding on our own consciences. (Deut. xxi. 5). And, therefore, he mistakingly The Jews had traditionary musings about a thinks that to act contrary to their conciliar deter- temporal kingdom under the Messiah, about a minations is to rrject the authority of God, for he literal Elias as the forerunner of Christ, and about forgets that God's messengers have simply to the perpetual obligation of the ceremonial law of impart God's message. The sanhedrim rejected Moses." Tradition was at once their bane and Christ; therefore he rejects him, forgetting that their downfall. And tradition in the papacy is divine rule by which all their decisions were to be the great barrier to union in western Christendom. regulated. According to the sentence of the For holy scripture does not speak of God specilaw which they shall teach thee, and according fically setting up the pope of Rome “ for judg. to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou ment and for controversy." It does not say that shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence God has fixed his presence at Rome as he did at which they shall show, to the right hand nor to Jerusalem. It speaks of no Urim and Thumthe left” (Deut. xvii, 11).

mim at St. Peter's, whose voice is to be heard The argument of the Sew for the infallibility of by the whole world. No. There is but one voice his church is parallel to the argument of the that we are to hear, and that is the voice of papist for his. Nay, I would say that the former Jehovah in his holy and eternal word. This is can urge more in his behalf from holy scripture the only infallibility I can find; and before it the than the latter can ; but the former fails in estab- Roman Babel, and every other Babel, falls. lishing his point, much more must the latter. It is right that the church should have her

Christ promises his perpetual presence to his synods, her convocations, her councils ; but in

every sentence she utters she ought, by her im change going on in fundamental ideas, and a plicit deference to God's word, to be able to say, gradual reconstruction of the social condition : * It seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us in short, as all must see, there is a spiritual refor(Acts xv. 28). I hesitate not to adopt the words mation. And it is restricted to no one province. of St. Augustine as my own view of this matter; It is widely extended. We have a list of places, be says, The councils, which are kept through at least fifty in number, for the most part of goodly every region and province, without all clokings, size, scattered over Asiatic Turkey, in all of which ought to give place to the general councils, which the truth is believed to bave actually made conare made of all Christendom; yea, and the former verts; and in all of which, it would seem, evangeneral councils ought ofttimes to be reformed by gelical churches might soon be gathered. Ten the latter councils, if any thing in them do chance churches have been formed already, and in part to err from the truth". (Of Baptism against supplied with native pastors. Donatus, b. ii. c. 3 ; see Hooker, b. i. c. 10 s. 14). How remarkable the development of religious "The most likely method,” says bishop Burnet, interest among the Armenians along the southern " both to find out the truth and to bring such as are border of Turkey–in Aintab, Killis, Oorfa, and in error over to it, is to consult of these matters, Diarbekr. Dr. Azariah Smith, whose late deand that openly and fairly. For, if every good cease we have so much reason to lament, was man, that prays earnestly to God for the assist- able to find but few inquirers along this line only ance and direction of his Spirit, has reason to seven years ago ; but now the number of proteslook for it, much more may a body of pastors, tants in Aintab alone is greater than in the mebrought together to seek out the truth, in any tropolis of the empire. Aintab was then scarcely point under debate, look for it, if they bring with known by name; but, only five years from its them sincere and unprejudiced minds, and do first occupation, it is one of the most interesting pray earnestly to God. In that case they may and remarkable missionary stations in the world. expect to be directed and assisted of him. But Oorfa, in Upper Messopotamia, beautitully this depends upon the purity of their hearts, and situated on a range of hills, well watcred, and the earnestness of their endeavours and prayers" looking down upon a green valley and plain, (Art. 20).

perhaps the birth-place of Abraham, known as Edessa in the early ages of the Christian chureh, and celebrated for its school of theology- this

place contains seven thousand Armenians and four RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN TURKEY.-ARME- thousand Syrians, and is already an outpost of the NIAN REFORMATION*.

mission, and promises soon to become one of the

greater lights. The progress of religious liberty in Turkey, Diarbekr is another centre. A church has during the twelve years past, is matter of grateful been formed bere, in advance of the missionary ; admiration. First came the national charter of and the speedy occupation of the place as a station rights in 1840; which, among its numerous other will be a prelude to a similar occupation of Marconsequences, has destroyed the political import din, in Messopotamia, and perhaps of Jezireh on ance and persecuting power of the Armenian aris- the Tigris, half-way to Mosul, with a view to the tocracy. "Next came the sultan's pledge, in 1843, occupation of western Koordistan. that men should no more be persecuted in the

Passing north to the upper waters of the empire for their religious opinions. Then, after Euphrates, we come to Arabkir, another central three years, came the before unthought-of appli- place, where the Armenians number nine thous cation of this pledge to the relief of the Armenian sand, and are unusually prepared for the gospel protestants, when persecuted by their own hier

preacher. “We beseech you, ," write two of the archy. In the next year followed the recognition native brethren in that place,“ to deliver us from of the protestants as a separate and independent our orphanage. With our heads bowed down, community. And, finally, in 1850, came the and our hearts joyful in Christ, we beg of you, charter, signed by the grand sultan himself, brethren, if it be possible, send us speedily a placing the protestants on the same national basis preacher.” with the other Christian communities of the empire. Sivas, another central point, a hundred miles How constant and wonderful was this progression westward, is still without a resident missionary;

events! What more could we ask, what more but a church was formed the past year among its could expect, in the way of toleration and nine or ten thousand Armenian inhabitants; and protection? The empire, if not for us, is not Mr. Powers declares, after a sojourn of several against us.

That great enemy of all righteous- months, that “few in the city have not heard ness, the pope, has no other power in Turkey than more or less of the gospel, directly or indirectly; be has in these United States. Our missionary and there are few whose confidence in their own brethren

among the Armenians may preach, write, system of religion has not been sbaken.”. print, gather schools, form churches, ordain pas

Time does not permit us to multiply these illustors, and send forth native preachers and coltrations. But we must instance Kaisarieh, in Asia porters wherever they please. The power of Minor, where the mortal remains of our missionary patriarchs and bishops is exceedingly curtailed brother Gridley have long rested in hope. Here are and limited by the new charter. The country is ten thousand Armenians; and, in the four or five open, and the the people generally are accessible, contiguous villages, five thousand more.

Within There is, indeed, almost everywhere an awakened

a day's journey there are twenty thousand. God's attention, a disposition to hear, read, inquire, grace has begun to operate here. Excepting a renounce errors, and embrace gospel truth; a visit from Mr. Johnston, a bawker from Con

* From report of the American Board of Missions. stantinople has been the only labourer at Kaisarieh 246, STRAND, LONDON.

for two years past; and when, after so long a

The Cabinet. time, this native brother desired to go and visit his family, the protestant brethren would not TEMPTATION.-It is to be noted how dangerous a suffer him to depart until a preacher should be thing it is to be continually assaulted with temptation; sent. “Send us a preacher” they write to the and that the end of it (for the most part) is the conmission—"send us a preacher with a family. We quest and overthrow of as many as be assaulted. As do not want a single man. We want a man to

we may see by the examples of our forefathers. Tempcome with his facily, and settle down among us:

tation not resisted at the beginning prevailed against for then we shall bave some hope of his staying " the innocent fathers Adam and Eve in paradise ; There are only specimens of the calls for preach. in idolatry ; against Nimrod in pride; against David

against Cain in murder; against Aaron and the people ers and preaching, for the word and ordinances of in adultery'; against Judas in avarice ; against Aaron the gospel. Time fails for more ; and we proceed and Mary his sister in envy; against Esau in gluttony; now to state, very briefly, what imminent danger against Pharaoh in pride; against Herod in hythere is in delay.

pocrisy; against the Pharisees in blindness and obThere is danger of a limited and partial refor- stinacy of mind; against the Jews in the slander of mation; that it will reach and pass its grand crisis Christ's death; against the Gentiles in ignorance of before we bave fairly kindled the necessary cen- God's word ; against the most part of Christians tral lights, and so diffused a knowledge of the now-a-days in cowardness and fear; and against all gospel through the Armenian community. There the world in looking more how to profit itself than to is now everywhere a curiosity to know what serve and fear God. The prophet said before, he was protestantism is, and to hear what the missionaries almost gone to see the wicked so prosper ; but he have to say, but this curiosity, regarded as a saith now, that the people fall utterly unto them, and national feeling, will die out. "Men are now in learn both wicked opinions and wicked life of the

wicked.-Bishop Hooper. the process of forming their opinions, whether

SPIRITUAL UNDERSTANDING OP WORLDLY right or wrong. The reformation, regarded as a Things. Moreover, the godly do perceive that all grand social movement, we must not expect to con- the vanity of worldly things, which be the trcasures tinue long. As an opportunity for preaching the of the wicked, and the permanent state and condition gospel it is a time of inestimable value. The same of heavenly things, which be the treasures of the amount of preaching, the same number of labour. godly, be only scen of such as enter into the holy sancers, the same expenditure, will accomplish far tuary and secret treasures of God's most holy word, more now than it

vill alter the special interest without the which worldly things seem to be riches, has subsided. Said a distinguished Armenian and heavenly things poverty--wicked men to be very lately to one of our brethren, “ Now is the blessed, and godly men cursed; falsehood to be truth, time for you to work for the Armenian peeple. and truth falsehood; death to be life, and life death Such an opportunity as you now enjoy may soon

-Bishop Hooper. pass away, and never more return. You should greatly enlarge your operations. Where you have one missionary you should have ten, and

Poetry, where you have one book you should put ten in circulation."

THE NIGHT SCENTED STOCK. There is danger from wars and revolutions.

By MRS. PENDEREL LLEWELYN. The political skies in the east are not without clouds. Powerful nations are struggling, in

(For the Church of England Magazine). diplomatic warfare, for the ascendancy in Turkey.

Sweet scented one, we love to see It is possible that Russia may prevail. It is Thy modest flowrets bloom, moreover possible, though happily not probable, Laden with balmy, odorous breath, that England may become less disposed, or less Amid the twilight gloom : able, to afford its protection.

While all There is danger of combinations ; that Ro- Around the night dews fall, min, Greek, Armenian hierarchies, and antichrist

Thy wreath, in all his protean forms, will combine and league Shunning the sunlight glare, alone together to oppose our evangelical inroad upon

Expands in fragrancy, their dark domains; and that infidelity, and the

When day is gone. large class of Mohammedans who are opposed to To gaze on thee will bring to thought, progress, will become their willing allies.

With meek religion's power, There is danger of new organizations to resist The peaceful joys that fill the breast the work, as in the sixteenth century, of some

In life's pale evening hour : oriental Loyola originating a body of oriental

With God, jesuits; assisted, as lie doubtless would be, by the

If we have trod, experience and craft of the Romish jesuits, scat

How blest tered as they are over the east, in deadly hatred

Shall grace and mercy come,

Thro' him, the way who taught to all scripture light and religious liberty.

Of life beyond the tomb ! And our protestant Armenian churches will be

Llangynwyd Vicarage. in danger of not rising to the level of selfsustaining missionary churches. There is no way,

London: Published for the Proprietors, by JOHN indeed, to escape this fatal paralysis but by means HUGHES, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be of a vigorous enterprise and rapid progress, to force out their dormant energies, and make them procured, by order, of all Booksellers in l'own and Country. realize that God bas made them exist as churches

PRINTED BY ROGERSON AND TUXFORD, to bring their people into his blessed kiogdom.

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DEATHS OF EMINENT CHRISTIANS. and had in his sickness so prepared for that em

ployment, that, as he had long thirsted for it, so No. XX.

he resolved his weakness should not hinder his JOHN DONNE, D.D.*.

journey: he came, therefore, to London, some few

days before his appointed day of preaching. At (Died 1631, aged 58.)

his coming thither, many of his friends (who with

sorrow saw that his sickness had left him but so DR. Donne was dean of St. Paul's. Not long much flesh as did only cover his bones) doubted before his death le caused to be drawn a figure of his strength to perform that task, and did therethe body of Christ extended upon an anchor, in a fore dissuade him from undertaking it, assuring similar manner to the representations of Christ on him, however, it was like to shorten his life ; but the cross: the only variation was in affixing him he denied their requests, saying, “ he would not to the cross of an anchor, the emblem of hope. He doubt that God, who in so many weaknesses had had caused this design to be executed in mi assisted him with unexpected strength, would now niature, and also engraven upon very small He- withdraw it in his last employment, professing an litropian stones, which were set in gold; and of holy ambition to perform that sacred work.” And, these be sent many to his dearest friends, to be when to the amazement of some beholders he apused as seals or rings, and kept as memorials peared in the pulpit, many of them thought he of him and his affection to them. Dr. Donde presented himself, not to preach mortification by afterwards used this symbol for his crest, instead a living voice, but mortality by a decayed body of a sheaf of snakes, which was that of his fa- and a dying face; and doubtless many did ask the mily.

question in Ezekiel, Do these bones live, or can Before the end of the month of January, 1630, that soul organize that tongue, to speak so long he was appointed to preach upon his old constant time as the sand in that glass will move towards day, the first Friday in Lent: he had notice of it, its centre, and measure out an hour of this dying • From “ Last Hours of Christian Men; or an Account of

man's unspent life? Doubtless it cannot ; and the Deaths of some eminent Members of the Church of Eng yet, after some faint pauses in his zealous prayer, land;” by the rev. H. Clissold, M.A. London : Society for his strong desires enabled his weak body to di:Promoting Christian Knowledge.

charge his memory of his preconceived mediNo. 940.

VOL, XXXII.

U

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