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1776. Cause and Remedy of the Dearness of Provisions. 259 I cannot, with my utmost industry, the necessaries of life; and they will procure food to put into their inou hs. excuse me, mould I attempt to prove When I first began the world, I found it proceeded principally, from ibemno difficulty in keeping house, but selves. lived with a tolerable degree of coin- It is well known, that the prices of fort. I never wanted employment, all provisions have been rising for these and I then bought butcher's meat for last thirty years, and are now got to two pence halfpenny a pound, for double the value they were then at; which I must now give fix pence. and it is alfo well known, that our What, Sir, can have been the occa- great men, and other persons of fion of so prodigious a rise ? It is said landed estates, have been raising the by those, who are beit likely to be in- rents of their estates for thirty years formed about such matters, that past, and have now brought them to there are not so many people in the double the rents they were before : kingdom now as there were thirty and this appears to be ihe natural cause years ago; and it is certain, that of the prelent exorbitant price of promany millions of acres of walle lands visions; for if gentlemen havé doy. have been, in that compass of time, bled the rents of their farms, the ploughed up and cultivated, and farmers must, to pay fuch rents, confequently there must be a vast double the price of their products. quantity more of the neceffaries of This being the cause of this national life, now raised, than there was then; grievance, we may guess the reason bow then, Sir, can the present exor- why the wisdom of parliament could bitant price of such necessaries be ac- not find it out. The laws, which counted for ? To have much more wanted for the relief of all provisions raised, fewer mouths to eat the lower classes of the people, are them, and yet to have such provisions such as will affect the present incomes, at double the price they were, seems of the higher; and yet, if gentlemen wonderful. Can you, Sir, unravel were, in general, to reduce again the this myftery? There must be some rents of their estates, they would, at strange conduct, fome foul proceed- the fame time, reduce the prices of ings somewhere, that can make the every thing they eat, drank or wore; plenty of provisions the cause of rais and though they would thereby have sing their price.

less nominal estates, they would have This is a national concern, and greater real ones ; as they would gain well worthy of the consideration of more by the reduced prices of every our representatives. The parliament thing they bought, that they lost by are certainly a wise body of men, be. the falling of their rents. But the cause we have been often told fo from misfortune is, we have more pride the throne; but I could wish they than reason, more vanity than virtue, would shew their wisdom in reducing and are become a nation of mere few the exorbitant price of provisions, and appearance: all is outside ; and that the labouring poor might be to make others think us happy, we able to live; and which, I ap- make ourselves really wretched. Beprehend, would be more for the fides, Sir, the wisdom of parliament service of the nation, than the war might, by other methods, give the again it our fellow subjects in Ame- industrious poor some relief; for can. rica. But, perhaps, our worthy not the duties on soap, leather and members of parliament are susficient candies, which bear too hard upon the ly employed in finding out ways and lower clasies, be exchanged for other means to raise money for the lupport taxes on the luxuries of life ; so that of chis unnatural war, and cannot the public revenue might rather be inspare time to thew their wisdom about creased than leslened thereby? The preventing the industrious poor from wisdom of parliament Mould consider being starved : and as that may be these matters; for it is no proof of the case, they will not be offended at wisdom to leave the poor entirely to a poor weaver's presuming to offer his the care and dispensation of Provibumble sentiments concerning the dence. puise of the excessive dearņels of all






the EDITOR of the LONDON MAGAZINE. SIR, ELIEVING the following recent Pretender, if he spoke to me, as such

a caution wouid bear the appearance some " The King," and by others of pasfing myself for being of politi"! The Pretender," will be as amusing cal consequence ; added to these conto your readers and the public, as it siderations, I had great curiosity to was to myself, I have extracted it see him and hear him speak. But to froin the entertaining volumes of Leto return; he entered, and bowing very ters from Italy, by a Lady, lately politely to the company, advanced to publithed.

the individual sofa on which I was

H. placed with the Duchess of Bracciano, We passed part of the evening at and seated himself by me, having the Duchess of Bracciano's: as we previously made me a particular bow, were there early, before much com- which i'returned with a low curtsey ; pany was arrived, the was so obliging he endeavoured to enter into a conas to enter into a particular conversa- versation with me, which he effected tion with me. We were seated on a by addressing himself equally to the sofa, when one of the gentlemen in Duchess, another lady, and myself; waiting entered and announced il Re. at last he addressed me in particular, As there were many rooms to pass be- and asked me how many days fince fore this personage could appear, the my arrival at Rome, how long I seized that opportunity to desire me should stay, and several such questions. upon no account to speak to, or take This conversation passed in French. the least notice of him, as it was not' What distressed me was how to style only what the infifted upon in her him. I had but a moment for reflechouse, but that it was the pope's de- tion; it ftruck me that Mon Prince fire that no ftranger, particularly (though the common appellation (as English, Tould hold any conversation in France) to every ftranger, whose with him. I assured her my princi- rank as a prince is the most dubious) ples were diametrically opposite to would not come well from me, as it those of the Stuart family and their might admit of a double sense in an party, adding more of the like fort ; uncandid mind. Highness was equal: but I concluded with saying, that if ly improper, so I hit upon what I be spoke to me, I could not, as a thought a middle course, and called gentlewoman, refrain from answering him Mon Seigneur. I wished to shorten him, confidering him only in the the conversation, for all on a sudden light of a gentleman, and Mould he said, “ speak English, madam." treat brim as I would do any other Before I could reply, the Duchess of foreigner or native, with that general Monte Libretti came up, and pulled civility requisite on such occasions ; me by the neeve; I went with her she still inlisted upon my not answer to a card table at which she was going ing should he speak to me, with which to play ; I declined playing, not be I refused to comply: I think I was ing perfect in the games; besides, you right, my reasons were there; I knew know I hate cards. At my departure, before, that no gentlemen of the I took leave of the Duchess of BracBritith empire make themselves known ciano (agreeable to the custom) and to bim, but on the contrary avoid it, the Chevalier, who played at her table, except such as declare themselves dil: officiously civil, role up, and wished affected to the present royal family; me a good night. He is naturally at least, ro it is understood at Rome. above the middle fize, but Atoops exI had also heard that he politely avoid- cefsively; he appears bloated and red ed embarrassing them by throwing in the face, his countenance heavy himself in their way : but as I am not and neepy, which is attributed to his a man, it Atrock me as very ridiculous having given into excess of drinking; for me, a woman, not to reply to the byt when a young man, he must have


1 1776. A Description of, and Conversation with the Pretender. 261 been esteemed handsome. His com- upon which, taking the pack in his plexion is of the fair tint, and the hands, he desired to know if I had contour of his face a long oval; he is ever seen such odd cards; I replied, by no means thin, has a noble pre- that they were very odd indeed ; he fence, and a graceful manner : his then displaying them said, here is dress was scarlet, laced with a broad every thing in the world to be found gold lace; he wears the blue ribband in these cards, the sun, the moon, the outside of his coat, from which de- Itars; and here, says he, shewing me pends a cameo (antique) as large as a card, is the pope ; here is the devil, the palm of my hand; and wears the and added, there is but one of the same garter and motto as those of the trio wanting, and you know who noble order of St. George in England; that should be. I was so amazed, so upon the whole, he has a melancho- astonished, though he spoke this last lic, mortified appearance. Two gen. in a laughing, gond-humoured mantlemen conftantly attend him; they ner, that I did not know which way are of Irish extraction, and Roman to look ; and as to a reply, I made Catholics you may be sure. This none, but avoided cultivating converevening, after quitting the Cardinal's, fation as much as pollible, left he we were at the princess Palestrine's should give our conversation a policonversazione, where he was also. He tical turn. What palled afterwards addressed me as politely as the evening was relative to some of the English before. The princess desired me to manners and amusements; such as, fit by her ; the played with him; he whether whift was in fashion at Lonasked me, if I understood the game of don, the assemblies numerous, &c. Tarocchi (what they were about to I was heartily glad when my visit was play at;) I answered in the negative, finished.



To the EDITOR of tbe LONDON MAGAZINE. SIR, DOUBT not but the disciples of indeed for the first few pages, began ing in the thought of my being toiled a proselyte to his principles ; but when by my antagonist “0;" • but if no I came to section the 29th, page 58, abler champion appears, I shall be un- I could not help believing ihat the der no dreadful apprehensions, though author had introduced an argument like Goliah, he vaunts and seems to which contradicted the whole of that look upon me with contempt. Having system which he intended it mould told the public “ that it is evident support. I Mall leave the public to that if I had read the Principles of determine whether it does or Human Knowledge, the Dialogues, &c. “ But whatever power I may have that I do not understand them,” I can. over my own thoughts, I find tse nut perceive that he has given any ideas actually perceived by sense, have proof of his understanding them bet. not a like dependance en my will. ter, nor has he thrown any new When in broad day-light I open iny lights upon them, or elucidated the eyes, it is not in my power to choose principles. Like the master whom he whether I shall fee or no, or to detercopies, he dogmatically asserts, “ that mine what particular objects fall preis muft of consequence be so, that it is sent themselves to my view ; and so nonsense to say other wise," and after likewise as to the hearing and other. all he proves nothing.

senses, the ideas imprinted on them Upon this ger:tleman's saying, “that are not creatures of my will.” Can I did not understand the Dialogues," there be a plainer proof that outward I began to imagine there muit cer- objects striking their images on the retainly be some extraordinary mystery tina of the eyes, are the cause of ideas? concealed that I had not been able to Page 72. section 47, he says, “ Hence it discover : upon which divefted of preju- follows that there is an infinite number dice, I began with the Principles of parts, in each particle of matter, which I perused with patience, and which are not perceived by sense.

The • Sce London Magazine for January.

The reason therefore that any particu- the following reply, which bears some {ar body seems to be of a finice magni. analogy to your correspondent O's tude, and exbibits only a finite number advice to me, viz. “ that it was very of parts to lente, is, not becanle it con- hard, which inade almost all people tains no more, since in itself it con. delpair of compafling it; there being tains an infinite number of parts, but very few people on whom heaven bebecause the sense is not acute enough stowed the necessary qualifications to to discern them.” Then in section 127, acquire this precious knowledge : page 148, he has these words :" There that these qualifications consisted in is no such thing as the ten thousandth being a true philosopher, in being perpart of an inch; but there is of a mile, fectly skilled in nature, and in having or diameter of the earth, which may a patience, proof against all disapbe signified by that inch." If every pointments." Without doubt this particle of matter contains in itself gentleman conceives himself to be one an infinite number of parts, it Mould of those favourites of heaven, who are seem that an inch, which contains endued with capacities superior to the millions of particles, contains like. `relt of mankind. As to my part, I wise ten thousand parts. As to the Dia- own I cannot deny the evidence of my logues, between Hylas and Philonious, senles, which convince me that matter I look upon some parts of them, as is distinct from idea, and that it exists the most finished pieces of absurdity independent of all minds-whatsoever; and nonsense. Take the following so that I find no reason to retract my specimen from Dialogue st. page 192. former assertions for all that Berkeley

Phil. When a pin pricks your has laid down. Berkeley asks, “ in finger, does it not rend and divide the ' what manner do things exist indepenfibres of your felh ?

dent of being perceived ?” Which is Hylas. It doth,

the same thing as to say, “ upon - Pbil. And when a coal burns your what principles can we ascertain that finger, doth it any more?”

the Deity himself did exist from all Any person in his senses would have eternity?" He could not have given a replied, " that the pin and the coal greater proof of his confummate vanioperated very differently; the pin rends ty, than to say, " that philofophers and divides the fibres, but the fiery have raised a learned dust concerning coal scorches and consumes the part it the existence of matter, and after touches.” However lie makes Hylas fay having involved themselves in inextri« It doth not.

cable difficulties, complain they can. Nothing appears more ridiculous not see.” Or to this import. He conalso than the hackneyed method of ceives himself to be the luniinary that treating arguments by way of dia- discovers the mysterious arcana of nalogue ; as certainly the author never ture, and removes the veil from all makes any objection until he has con- true philosophy. But my opinion is, fidered whether he can make a plaufis that he has raised such a dust, as none ble answer. He also takes care that of his disciples will ever be able to see the objections shall be weak and trivial, through. He talks much of writers and that they indirectly favour the amuling themselves with words, but proposition he endeavours to maintain.. he bus exceeded all that went before Your correspondent füys, “ l:e would him in that particular; and is equally, not recommend me to perplex my- if not more, unintelligible. self with speculations of ihis kind, As to my antagonist, he has not which require particular patience of in any respect, anlwered my former thought and diligence of attention." letter. He tells me " that when I This reminds me of a letter in the reflect that what pleases one talie, dira Turkio Spy, which is a keen bur- gusts another; and what serves for lesque upon those enthusiastic dieamers food to some animals, is lothed and who search for what is called, "the abhorred by others.; I will no longer philosophers stone.” Mahomet having be able to retain my opinioy, that the enquired of the dervise, whether it flavour of a cherry is absolutely inhe. was easy to attain the accomplishment rent in the cherry.” of that great work, and what was ne. Now I assure him that I have made ceffary for that great end ? he received the reflection be speaks of, many



Descant' on Sensibility. times before I ever heard of Berkeley, what is the reason that the body but that reflection never made me en cannot fubfilt without a succession of tertain the least doubt of the food fuch kind of ideas ? having in itself the fame qualities, and We migyt live an hundred years I always attributed the different ideas without having the idea of a coach of taste to arise from the viciated pa presented to us: roast beef and a late. Supposing that the cherry talted coach are both tangible objects; what totally different to every animal, it is the reason that touching a piece of would not prove that the cherry had roast beef does not answer the fame not the quality of juice inherent in it: purpose as eating it, lince touching self. I cannot believe that any ani. and perceiving it conveys to us the mal Mall chew an orange, and not idea of beef as much as touching and perceive that it contains a liquid. perceiving a coach conveys to us the

When O answers me diftinétly, let idea of a coach? him likewise inforın me, whether

I am with respect, eating is an idea, or whether we chew

Mr. Editor, your's, inert matter? If it be an idea only,

C. G.

Descant on SENSIBILITY. TENSIBILITY, thou source of hu- into the vales of paradise on the one evits, had I not been pollested of thee, against the opposte shore of time, how calmly might my days have prove an insuperable obstacle to the passed! yet would I rot part with entrance of pain. Hoary fage, 'be thee for worlds. We will abide toge. sparing of thy tears, thy son is bapther, both pleased and pained with py! what wouldest thou more? la each other. Thou malt ever have a yon narrow cell, no curft ambition, place in my heart, be the sovereign of with fame insatiate, Niall damp the my affections, and the friend of my generous purpose of the soul; no mean virtue. Where thou pointeft the avarice or selfish paflion embase the way I'll chearfully follow. Lead me to heart or four the temper ; no material the abodes of misery, to the scenes of loss suitained shall hurt a child; no indistress, nay to the field of battle, jury received hall grieve a relative, or that cold bed of honour. My tears fall deep loving spoule's couch in bring bathe the hero's, wound; my advice woe; no diflimulation tinge his own revive the defponding widowe, while tongue, or guilty passion wound his my arms secure and protect the timid breaft. Is this his real state? Then tell orphan; I may find the house of me, if not from the mercy-seat, whence mourning to be the porch of wisdom, inued the high decree ? As a man, sufand the throbs of agony may prove tain the shock; as a Christian, adore ! the most convincing monitors.' Weeds But ah ! why weeps the tender moTall yield me intruction, and the ther? Are her hopes blasted, and her discernment of misfortune hall caution very defires laid 'in the tomb ? How me against the paths which inevitably blooming and how gay! how faded terminate in it.

and how dull! Does the fond father, 'whose years She sighing says-painful recollechave tinselled his lock's with silver, tion! was this the once admired Lamourn the loss of a promising son, Í vinia, who, foon as he attracted the will tenderly adminifter comfort, hy eye, subdued the heart? Insatiate informing him that the youth whom archer, could'neither youth nor beauhe deplores is far happier than his ty save ! Approach Lavinia's bier ye lamentations, in one fense, seem to dissipated young, who spend hours at wilh him. Early snatched from care, 'the toilec in adorning your person, or perhaps from dependance, his defires painting your faces, and view where are satisfied, and his rest undisturbed. 'beauty lirs; blend the colour of In the bosom of peace each murmur mortality with your rouge, and enis forgot. The fable and deep waters crust its precepts on your heart. La. of death, while they, serenely low vinia, lately the pride and delight of


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