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FOR APRIL, 1776.
For the LONDON MAGAZIN E.
ON VENALITY AND CORRUPTION.
(Illustrated with a Plate.)
Tongues in the Senate, bribed be. JOHNSON'S CATILINE. * R. Burgh, in his ex nous business, will, without doubt,
cellent Political Dir treat this picture of affairs as chimeM to quisitions, observes, rical; they cannot perceive that the
that the love of power, times are so bad as they are representand the love of money, ed; on the contrary, they never de. have produced bribery, fire an amendment; this sea of trou
corruption, and many bles is, in their opinion, far preferother wicked arts. The increase of able to that halcyon state, for ibe retaxes, the decline of trade, and turn of which every honeft man finBritain's present distresling situ. cerely wilhes. Habituated to low ation is chiefly to be imputed chicanery, they have an interest in to, that diabolical corruption, which creating disorder, and reap a plentiful bids fair for the ruin of our harvest from the general confusion. lately Aourishing empire, and the To such people the tumult of the state aggrandisement of the proud Spaniard, is a scene of festivity, and like thieves the ambitious Frenchman, and the attending on a shipwreck, they ga. 'avaritious Dutchman. The present ther spoils from the public distress; even contest between ministry and America, those who also are more peaceably inaffords them fine sport, and rather clined, are not proof against the tempthan parliamentary corruption should tation of living in luxury and eale, decline, they would each furnish some towards the attainment of which no purses to support it. Ministerial ár. article is so essentially necessary as par. tifice for corrupting Parliaments is liamentary interest. This is the phi. employed two ways-in over-ruling losopher's stone so useful in the proelections, and biaffing the votes offeffion of political alchymy; and it members, and by the fe liberty is al. must be confesed, that the transmu. ready ruined, and misery predomi- tation of metals was never practised nant over us.
with so much success as at our modern A late writer too justly observes elections. So powerful is this wonder“ though happily situated on a spot, working charm, that its poffellion enby nature invincible to the attacks of titles a man to the enjoyment of those a foreign enemy, we ourselves con little finecures which' bave ever been jointly ftrive to fap our internal found useful auxiliaries to the mini. strength; and in consequence bring fterial cause; and, though a freehol. the nation to a defenceless miserable der may have no more brains than a ftate. This is in effect committing country plowman, he shall yet rapidly suicide on the body politic, it is pul- rise to preferment, fuperfeding those Jing down an edifice which must, in its who found their pretensions on the fall, crush us to atoms.
trifling basis of merit or seniority. In The mercenary band, those who fine, it is evident, that corruption, have been the chief agents in the rui- abounding with alluring appendages,
particularly adapted to our avaricious is not therefore to be wondered, that tempers, is grown too krong for its
a minister has great influence in paropponents; it has firmly fixed its reli- liament. If one considers into how dence on a rock, and may bid defiance many purses, .of 100 guineas each, to the whirlwind of patriotisın." the prodigious sum of three millions
Gain is now the grand idol of legis- may be divided,' at first glance one lators, and as parliament is the natu would conclude, that a minister could ral check upon kings and ministers, give such a purse to every man upon parliaments must be managed to con- the island. nive at their measures and support all Secret service is a huge cloke thrown their plans. Formerly they were
were over an immense scene of corruption ; -wheedled or bullied, now the surer and under this cloke we must not means is bribing or buying them. pepp. Our court-men tell us, there
The chief materials hy which a mie must be large sums expended in this nister keeps up an ascendency in par. way, and those sums cannot be acliament, the judicious Burgh'observes, counted for ; because the services done
1. The prodigious Tum of pub. for them must never be known. But lic money, of which he has the dis- we find, that the commons, A.D. 1708, polul. 3. The innumerable places in addressed queen Anne, for accounts of the customs, excise, falt-duty, &c. in pensions paid for secret service to memthe navy, army, and church, the bers of parliament, or to any persons greatest part of which are at the dispo- in trust for them; and that “the lal of the minister.
queen ordered said account to be laid Latter rimes have thrown into the before the house." * ministerial scale, a weight unknown Contrats are a great fund of mi. to former ages; I mean the national nisterial influence. It is well known, debt. The anxiety of the public that our ministry do vot accept the creditors, the proprietors of the funds, most reasonable offer ; but the offer about public credit, is a powerful which is made by those, who have the caule of their shewing a reluctance greatest parliamentary interest; and against all proposals for salutary alte- that in war time, every man, who furrations, or restorations. But their nithes for the government, is enriched ; reasonings on this subject are not in France the contrary ; which shews, founder ilian it would be for the in- that we manage our public money habitant of a crazy building to oppose much worse than the French ministry all repairs, and to insilt, that the best do theirs. In the late war it is notoriway for preventing his manfion from ous, that several of our purveyors and 'coming in ruins upon his head, is to commissaries got estates sufficient to let ii fall.
set them up for earls and dukes. But The revenue of the civil lif, which as Burnet t says, "the regard, that is is nominally 800,0gol. per annum, bụt, shewn to members of parliament among by means of a demand from time to us, causes that few abuses can be in. time of half a million to pay off its quired into, or discoyered.". pretended deficiencies or debts, is As to lotteries, if " a minister has really near a million (in the last reign it in his power to give the subscription it often exceeded a million) must throw of four or five hundred lottery tickets a prodigious power into the hands of every year to fingle members, he has those who have the disposal of it. an annual means of bribing the house
A million per annum would main without danger of detection 1." It was tain 200 dukes, at googl. a year each, ailedged in the House of Commons or 250 earls at 49001. a year each, or by Mr. Seymour, that in the fottery
1000 gentlemen ať 10001, a year each. of 1769, 20,000 tickets had been dira It would support arts, manufactures, posed of to members of parliament, "and commerce to the inconceivable which sold for near 2l, premium each 9. advantage of the public, &c.
This was a scramble of 40,000). But the civil list revenue is not among the members at one dash. We reckoned above one third part of need not wonder, that lotteries are a what'a minister has in liis disposal. It favourite species of ways and means.
Mr. Deb. Com iv. 119. † Hift. of his own Times, iii. 279. I Deb. Com. ix. 282.
f Ibid. 2920
Mr. Seymour, A. D. 1771, moved, the exchequer the sums so gained by that the names of the subscribers to the them. * He obterved, that 200 ana then present lottery should be laid be.' nual tickets put 400l. a year into the fore the House.
pocket of a member, which is better In a committee on the lottery-bill, than 800l. a year by a place; because Mr. Cornwal moved for leave to bring it did not expose him to the expence in a bill to prevent any member's have of being re-elected, nor to expence, ing more than 20 tickets, in his own or duty, attending the place (for some name ; and that those, who had sub- places are not linecures.] scribed for more, should refund into
To the EDITOR of the LONDON MAGAZINE. SIR, IT T has been often said there is nothing consisted of more than 40,000 foot,
ner under the fun. I thought the with cavalry in proportion, against una manvuvres of our present administra- disciplined Barbarians, who knew bettion contradicted that ancient adage; ter than to put the fate of their counbut in its justification I will select try upon a decisive battle against such from Cæfar's own account, in his a force of veterans, Commentaries, some of his successes, The Britons adhered to their for&c. in his ist and 2d expeditions mer mode of defence, and constituted against Britain : there you will find Caffibelan commander of their united on what plan adminiftration formed forces. Calibelan thewed himself their paft and present wise measures, worthy of the great trust reposed in though they have not the candour to him; he determined never to meet acknowledge that they copied them the Romans in the field, but to disfrom so great a man as Cæfar. tress them in their foraging parties,
SIMPLEX. and to protract the war.
Cæsar returned to Gaul with a few Cæsar undertook his first expedi. hostages, and promise of a small trition at the end of Summer : his force bute (perhaps never paid) as is sup: confifted of above 8000 men, transport- posed from the county of Kent: Taed in 80 vessels, besides 18 ships with citus therefore says,
• Divus Julius cavalry, which were dispersed in a Britanniam pofteris oflendit tantum, non storm and never landed in Britain. tradidit."
The natives not only opposed him From every circumstance which is with some success on his first landing here related from his own Commenthe troops, but afterwards absolutely taries, there never was so contiderable out-general'd bim; for they deter- a force under so great a general, emmined never to meet his army in ployed for two succeslive campaigns, the field, but obliged him to re- to lo little purpose. turn to Gaul for want of provi
Cæsar's own countrymen were very fions, which he had not taken the severe on these ill concerted expedia common precautions of supplying tions, which will be seen by the folhimself with..
lowing line being so often repeated. This they accordingly effected ; « Territa quaefitis oflendit terga Cæsar scarce ftirring from the first Britannis." place of his landing, so went back to Suetonius seemed so puzzled to find Gaul, without any other fruit of a out motives for Cæsar's being at such very expensive expedition, but of an amazing expence to carry on his a few hoftages, which they had idle, unjust and cruel attempt, that offered him before his invasion, he ascribes it to his having been a virtbough he would not listen to any pro- tuoso and collector of precious stones; posals.
and thereby to increale bis collection After being thus baffled, he pre. by pearls which he expected to find on pared the ensuing winter for a more the British coast. formidable attack ; and his army now
• Deb. Com. ix, 299.
For the LONDON M A G A ZI N E.
Advice and Directions to those who attempt the Recovery of PERSONS DROWNED.
By Dr. CULLEN. HE firft step to be taken for ferent measures, as circumstances shall the heat of the body, which is abso If, in the neighbourhood of the lutely necessary to the activity of the place, there be any brewery, distillery, moving fibres. For this purpose, the dyery, or fabrick, which gives an body, as soon as possible, is to be opportunity of immediately obtainAtripped of its wet cloaths, to be well ing a quantity of warm water, and a dried, and to be wrapped up in dry, convenient vessel, there is nothing and, if possible, warm coverings; more proper than immersing the body and it is to be withed, in all cases, as in a warm bath. Even where a sufsoon as the report of a person's being ficient quantity of warm water cannot drowned is heard, that blankets should be had at once, the bath may be still be immediately carried to the water practised, if the accident has happenfide; so that as soon as the body is ed in or very near a town or village, got out of the water, the change of when a great many fires may be at covering, just now mentioned, may once employed in heating small quanbe instantly made; or if the body has tities of water, for in this way the nebeen naked when drowned, that it cessary quantity may be foon obtained. may be immediately dried and de- To encourage this practice, it is to be fended against the cold of the air. observed, that one part of boiling Befides covering the body with blan: water is more than sufficient to give kets, it will be further of advantage, the necessary heat to two parts of spring if it can be done without loss of time, or sea water, as it is not proper to apto cover the drowned body with a ply the bath at firit very warm, nor warm fhirt or waistcoat immediately even of the ordinary heat of the hutaken from a living person.
man body, but somewhat under it ; When at the time of a person's be- and, by the addition of warm water, ing drowned, it happens that the sun to bring it gradually to a heat very shines out very hot, I think there can Jittle above it. be no better means of recovering the If the drowned body be of no great heat, , than by exposing the naked bulk, it may be conveniently warmed -body in every part to the heat of the by a person's lying down in bed with fun, while, at the same time, all other it, and taking it near to their naked means, necessary or useful for the re- hody, changing the position of it covery of life, are also employed. frequently, and, at the same time,
When the heat of the sun cannot chafing, and rubbing with warm be employed, the body should be im- cloths, the parts which are not immediately transported to the nearest mediately applied to their warm body. house that can be got convenient for If none of these measures can be the purpose. The fittelt will be one conveniently practised, the body is that has a tolerable large chamber, in to be laid upon a bed before a mowhich a fire is ready, or can be made ; derate fire, and frequently turned, to and, if possible, the house should af. expole the different parts of it; and ford another charnber, in which allo thus, by the beat of the fire gradua fire can be provided.
ally applied, and by rubbing the body When the drowned body is brought well with coarse towels, or other into such a house, and care is at the cloths well warmed, pains are to be fame time taken that no more people taken for restoring its heat. This be admitted than are absolutely ne will be promoted by warm clothis apcessary to the service of the drowned plied and frequently renewed under perfon, every endeavour must be in the ms and arm-pits, and by hot mediately employed for recovering the bricks, or bottles of warm water, laid heat of the body, and that by dif- to the feet. 5
In the practice of rubbing, it has powerful in stimulating the intestines. been proposed to moisten the cloths From all these considerations, the applied with camphorated spirits, or smoke of burning tobacco-has been other such stimulating subftances ; most commonly applied, and has, upbut I think this must prove an impe- on many occasions, proved very efdiment to the rubbing; and I would fectual. This will be most properly not recommend any practice of this thrown in by a particular apparatus, kind, except, perhaps, the applica- which, for other purposes as well as tion of the vinous fpirit of sal ammo. this, should be in the hands of every niac to the wrists and ankles only. surgeon, and, at least, should, at the
For recovering the heat of the body, public expence, be at band, in every it has been proposed, to cover it all part of the country where drownings over with warm grains, afhes, sand, are likely to happen. With regard or falt; and where these, fufficiently to the use of it, I have to observe, warm, are ready at hand, they may that till the tobacco is kindled in a be employed ; but it is very seldom considerable quantity, a great deal of they can be obtained, and the appli- cold air is blown through the box and cation might often interfere with tube ; and as that, as hinted above, is other measures that may be necessary. not so proper, care should be taken to All therefore that I can propose with have the tobacco very well kindled, respect to the use of these, is to ob- and to blow it very gently, till the serve, that bags of warm and dry falt heated smoke only passes through. If, may be amongst the most convenient upon certain occasions, the apparatus applications to the feet and lands of referred to Mould not be at hand, drowned persons; and the quantity the measure however may be execunecessary for this purpose, may be got ted by a common tobacco-pipe, in pretty quickly, by heating the falt in the following manner : a common a frying pan, over a common fire. glyfter pipe, that has a bag mounted
While these measures are taking upon it, is to be introduced into the for recovering the heat, means are, fundament, and the mouth of the at the same time, to be employed for bag is to be applied round the small restoring the action of the moving fi- end of a tobacco pipe. In the bowl bres. It is well known that the in. of this, tobacco is to be kindled; and, testines are the parts of the body, either by a playing card made into a which, both froin their internal Qtu. tube, and applied round the month ation and peculiar conftitution, retain of the bowl; or by applying upon this the longest their irritability; and the bowl of another pipe that is emtherefore, tbat, in drowned persons, pty, and blowing through it, the stimulants applied may have more ef. smoke may be thus forced into the in. fect upon the intestines than upon 'teltines, and in a little time, in a conany other parts. The action, there. fiderable quantity. fore, of the intestines is to be fup If none of thele means for throwing ported or renewed as soon as possible, in the smoke can be employed, it may as the restoring and supporting the be useful to inject warm water to the action of such a considerable portion quantity of three or four Englila of moving fibres, as those of the in. pints. This may be done by a comtestines, must contribute 'greatly to mon glyfter-bag and pipe, but better restore the activity of the whole system. by a large Syringe ; and it may be
For exciting the action of the in- useful to diffolve in the water some testines, the most proper means is, the common salt, in the proportion of application of their ordinary stimu. half an ounce to an Englit pint; and Jus of dilatation ; and this is molt ef. also to add to it some wine or brandy. fectually applied, by forcing a quan While these measures for recovering tity of air into them by the funda the heat of the body and the activity ment. Even the throwing in cold air of the moving fibres are employed, has been found useful; but it will and especially after they have been certainly be better if heared air can employed for some time, pains are to be employed; and further, if that be taken to complete and finish the air can be impregnated with something business, by reitoring the action of which, by its acrimony, also may be the lungs and heart."