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Several severe and sarcastic obser- the purpose of carrying on governvations were made on the assurances ment, which could not be the case, if given by the minister, relative to the America assumed to herself an indepromised success of the measures re pendent fovereignty in any one incommended by 'him in the course of itance, unless one could suppose two the last sellion.' He was frequently re fupreme posers existing at one time, minded of his predictions, and notes in the same civil society, an absurdity taken at the sine were referred to in too grofs to be endured. one or two instances. He was parti The speech was supported throughcularly called on to recollect his con- out, as containing the most felf evifidently asserting in debate on the two dent truths. It was strenuously in liftreftraining bills, “ That 10000 men, ed on by almost every member who with the Heet tben voted, would re Ipoke on that lide, that the ultimate duce America without medding a fin. views of America aimed at indepen. gle drop of blood; that all the southern dance, and that the dependance held provinces were well affected to govern. out by the Congress, as well as all the ment; that in those which had taken fubordinate afieoblies, amounted to a decided part, great numbers were no more virtually, than a nominal ready to join the King's troops, when obedience to the person of the Prince they were rendered sufficiently Itrong on the throne, and a total indepento protect them from the usurpation dence on the British legislature. That and oppression of the factious and se. the actions and language of the coditious ; and in short, the force voted lonies exactly corresponded, for they would be fully adequate to the service were no less affiduous in framing ditfor which it was intended." Those ferent models of governinent, than quotations were pressed with a mix- in raising and embodying armies, colrure of pleafuntry and severity in some lecting .warlike stores, and fitting out instances, and in others, ditplayed in a naval force. That the consequenthe most ridiculous points of view.- ces had clearly shewn their intentions There was a good deal laid on the il were very different from ours; for legality of introducing foreign troops while we were day after day meditatinto the garrisons of Gibraltar and ing different plans, to avoid proceedPort Mahon, without the previous ing to extremities, they under the consent of Parliament, but as that was mafque of loyalty to the King, and debated on the report, and afterwards obedience to the mother country, on a motion framed on purpole, we were making the most vigorous and Niall refer laying any thing on it, till effectual preparations, not only to reit shall appear in its proper place. Sist our claims, but to make an of. On the part of adininiftration it was fenfive war on our dominions.
That answered, that the supremacy of the the hardships so loudly echoed from British Parliament over every colony the other lide of the House, when and dependency of the British empire, closely examined, would be found to was a clear indisputable proposition have very little weight. The port of flowing as an inevitable consequence Boston was shut up, because the infrom the nature of civil government. habitants refused io make good the That as taxation was one particular damage done to the East India commode of exercising that supremacy, pany. The charter of Mafficbusets it was of courle included in the gene. Bay was altered, its because powers ral supreme power. That the objec. were manifestly abused, and employed tions made to the exercise of this right to the most factious purposes. Neither were obviated by permitting America of the restraining bills were palled till to tax herself. That the strong argu- the colonies had agreed in congress to a ment used and fo much relied on, of non-importation agreement. In ort, the impropriety of raising a revenue not one of the measures to much comby taxes laid by the Britih legislature, plained of, were adopted but hy way of no longer existed, and though it did, retaliation, for some provocation given it ought to give way to the universal by the people of America, or directly axiom, as well in this, as all other go- arising from necessity. In every one of vernments, that there must be a lu- those instances, the point of taxation preme power lodged somewhcre for wasclearly out of the question : the first
was directed to obtain reparation, the most powerful and formidable enemies haft to prevent them from enjoying were much infifted on, in which our thufe advantages they denyed to the uncommon exertions kepi pace with mother country, by prohibiting all their ítrength, and were proportioned intercourse whatever with it.
to the magnitude of the object, and As to the point of expediency in the force and weight of the opposition selation to the measures proposed in we met with. That it was the duty the speech, it admitted of no argu- as it was the intention of those who ineni, for it was now impossible with conducted the affairs of government, propriety to recede. It became no to send a force to America fully adeisnger a contention for a l'evenue ; quate to its complete reduction ; for to if that were merely the matter in if protract the miseries and horrors of a fue, it might be prudent to fuspend civil war now, that it became inevita. the claim, ill a more cool and favour bie, would not be lenity but cruelty able falon, when the colonies might in the extreme; and to accompany, be convinced by sober reflection, of those armaments with offers of mercy'. its justice and propriety :' but that and pardon, as was intended, woul: was not now the quettion, but whether leave America the choice of fubmitGreat Britain ihould hould ting to the just claims of the mother not forever relinquish every species of country, or of being answerable for don jnion over America ; and if no. all the consequences be they wliat they thiog less than a total repeal of all the might, if the refused to return to that acts lince 1763 would do, the navi- Rate of obedience, and to make a gation act would soon fall on the solemn recognition of those rights of tame grounds, and from that instant supremacy and dominion, which had the colonies would to every subitan never been till very lately questioned. sjal or uleiul purpose be as indepen. It was added, by the minifter, that it dent of this country, as any one ro was intended to exer: our itmest vereign power in Europe.
strength botli by sea and land, to prain As to the temper and disposition of every nerve, to raise an arıny of 70000 foreign powers, it was said that Greatmen, and a proportionate Acei ; in Britain never stood in a better or more fhort, every man we were able to raise, onenbai railed Gituation with them,
or able to pay. than at the present period. It was nevertheless imposible to be responsible for their conduct, or to forefee HOUSE of LORDS, by what motives of policy they might be actualed. In either event this coun
The debates in the House of Lords, try had only to confider, whether she thoughi fpirited, did not take in the ought to permit the dismemberment extent, nor afford the variety as those of her dominions upon a bare poßfi
carried on in the Commons. As soon bility, that some of the powers of as the king departed, after deliver. Europe might take an opportunity of ing bis speech, a noble lord [Lord attacki:g us, while we were engaged Townshend) moved the addreti, in in the act of compelling our rebellious answer to his Majesty's most grasubjects to return to a conftitutional cious speech from the throne. His aud Izgal subiniflion and obedience. lordihip was seconded by lord vil.
And on the impracticability of coerc count Dudley. The proposed ad. ing Amerita, it was contended that dress was couched in the rerms ulula the trength, numerous resources, al on such occasions, which is little and above all, the lig! lpirit of the more than a repetition of the speech, Britih nation were fully equal to the paragraph by paragrajli, accompa: task. It was to be sure an undertak. nied with declarations of relpect and ing of difficulty, but the increfts, approbation. The two points chicily honour, and constitutional rights of inlisted on in the motion were, that if the nation were not on that account we did not resolve to relinquiíh our to be lacrificed and surrendered. The dominion over the colonies, and forediffeulties were to be overcome, not go all the advantages derived from yielded to. The many successful wars our commerce with them, coercive carried on by this country, againit the measures were neceflary, and that our
great resources, and the known dispofi-. this day strengthened by the duke of uon of the other powers of Europe,ren- Grafton, fill a cabinet minister, the dered their succeis not only probable, bishop of Peterborough, and lord but certain.
Thanet. The arguments resorted to An amendment, literally the same on both sides were preity nearly the with that moved in the other Houie, fame as in the other House, but was proposed by a noble Marquis that the indormation fo necessary to (Marquis of Rockingham) and se. precede the adopting of the measures condeci by lord Coventry, which pro- chalked out in the speech, and the duced a debate that continued till pait probable means of executing them, eleven o'clock, when the question be were much more insisted on by the oping put, there appeared contents for position, and that administration openthe amendment, 29, non-contents, 80: ly corfbed they had been deceived in the originai motion then returned of the accounts they received of the itate, course, contents 76, non-contents 33, condition, and disposition of the peuproxies included. Opposition was ple of America.
To the EDITOR of tbe LONDON MAGAZINE.
tugal, hoch given the following arec the church, were cictated by the foundest dores of the prime minifter of that kingdom, policy; and it muft be allowed, it required which ceriainly cannot be unacceptable to
fume exertion of power to go through with yoor readers, nor uninteresting to the public. them.-They cannot fail promoting the
H. increase of population; and it is to be hoped The Marquis de Pombal, though confider that future reigns, unfettered from the ed as a great man in many paris of Europe, chains of the pricits, will restore vigour to is not lo esteemed by his own countrymen, the laws. wbu are not so blind but they can easily dis As to his family, his ancestors were cover when the interest of the state is facri what we call Homcms Branco (white men) ficed to the advantage of individuals, or in short, his father was a provincial gentleluffers by a ruinous policy. "The Portuguese man in low circumstances in the north of are more burdened at this present time, than Portugal-he served during his younger any former period; for besides the establish. years in the army, beginning, as was the ed revenues of past reigns, the king now cuftom of those days, with a muset-he arreceives from a late tax the whole riches rived to the rank of lieutenant, but was af. of his subjects once in ten years ;. Our com
terwards dismissed the service as a bad offi. merce languilhes, and is almoft ruined by cer.-He then came to Lisbon tu follicit some the monopolizing companies of the Brazil place in the civil department; and as he trade; the laws are trampled upon, and even had received a liberal education, he found private property is not secure against his vena means to get employment in one of the publity; the army is like a body without a soul; lic officerche afterwards had the address to io short, he has exhibited luch instances of recommend himself to the people who were rigour and cruelty, that be is the dre:d of then in power, and was appointed suc eflivethe whole nation. Every domefic confidericely as envoy to the courts of London, Paris, is destroyed by the cmillaries he is known the Hague, and Vienna At this laft, he to employ. Perhaps, when his avarice is was married to a German of distinction; by satiated, and he is arrived at the summit of which means he strengthened his interest at power, he may, like Augustus, do good to home ; for the then queen of Portugal was mankind; but believe me, at present there of the Houe of Austria, and he managed to is no order, no rank in society, but what get so much into the good graces of her detells him; and surely if he was a great majesty, that at his return he had the art to man, he would at least have some party to supplant the secretary, through whose proespouse his caule.-I mean not, however, to tection I have understood he had been depreciate what there is valuable in his cha raised."
A FRAGMENT from Sterne, after the Manner of RABELAIS.
he, interrupting them both and resu, Sbewing two Things ; first, what ? ming his discourse, is this, that if all
Rabelaic Fellow Longinus Rabelai- the scattered rules of the Kerukopædia Cus is, and secondly, kozu cavalierly could be but once carefully coilecied be begins bis Boek.
into one code, as thick as Panurge's
head, and the whole clearly digettedY dear and thrice reverend (pooh, lays Panurze, who felt him
brethren, as well archbishops dėlf aggrieved) and bound up, contiand bishops, as the rift of the inferior pued Longinus, by way of a regular clergy! would it not be a glorious institute, and then put into the hands thing, if any man of genius and ca of every licensed preacher in Great pacity amongst us for such a work, Britain and Ireland, just before he bewas fully bent within himself, to fit gan to compose, I maintain it-I down immediately and compose a deny it Matly, quoth Panurge - What? thorough-ititched system of the Ke. answered Longinus Rabelaicus with rukopædia, fairly setting forth, to all the temper in the world. the best of his wit and memory, and collecting for that purpose all that is
CH A P. II. needful to be known, and understood In which the Reader will begin to form of that art!-Of what art cried a fudgment, of what an Hiflorical, Panurge? Good God, answered Lon Dramatical, Anecdotical, Allegorical, ginus (making an exclamation, but and Comical Kind of a Work be bas, taking care at the same time to mo.
got bold of. derate his voice) why, of the art of making all kinds of your theological, OMENAS who had to preach
next Sunday (before God knows drummical what d'ye call 'ems---! whom) knowing nothing at all of the will be shot, quoth Epistemon, if all matter-was all this while at it as this story of thine of a roasted horse, hard as he could drive in the very is simply no more than s
next room :--for having fouled two Sausages ? quoth Panurge. Thou hast clean theets of his own, and being fallen twelve feet and about five quite stuck fast in the entrance upon inches below the mark, answered his third general division, and finding Epistemon, for I hold them to be Ser. himself unable to get either for mons—which said word (as I take wards or backwards with any grace the matter) being but a word of low “ Curse it," says he, (thereby exdegree, for a book of high rhetoric communicating every mother's son
Longinus Räbelaicus was fore. who should think differently) " why minded to usher and lead into his may not a man lawfully call in for dissertation, with as much pomp and help in this, as well as any other huparade as he could afford; and for man emergency ?"-$o without any my own part, either I know no more more argunentation, except starting of Latin than my horse, or the Ke- up and nimming down from the top rukopædia is nothing but the art of thelf but one, the second volume of making 'emAnd why not, quoth CLARK—though without any feloni. Gymnaft, of preaching them when we ous intention in so doing, he had behave done ?-Believe me, dear fouls, gun to clap 'me in (making a joint this is half in half and if some first) five whole pages, nine round paraskilful body would but put us in a way graphis, and a dozen and a half of to do this to some tune-Thou wouldīt good thoughts all of a row; and benot bave them chanted surely, quoth cause there was a confounded high galTriboulet, laughing ?-No, nor cant lery-was transcribing it away like a ed neither, quorh Gymnast crying ;-
little devil. Now, quoth Homenas but what I mean, my friends, fays to himself, “ though I hold all this to Longinus Rabelaicus (who is certainly be fair and square, yet, if I am found one of the greatest criticks in the out, there will be the deuce and all to weftern world, and as Rabelaic a fel pay: Why are the bells ringing low as ever exifted) what I inean, says backwards, you lad? what is all that Jan. 1776.
crowd about, boneft man? Homenas spoke; for you must know, that, was got upon Doctor Clark's back, notwithstanding Panurge had opened firand zubat of that, my lad? Why his mouth as wide as he could for an pleaje yuu, be bas broke his neck, and his blood, in order to give a round fraciuret his skull, and befouled himself answer to Longinus Rabelaicus's ininto the bargain, by a fall from tbe pul terrogation, which concluded the pit iwo Nories high. Alas! poor Ho- last chapter yet Homenas's rhemenas ! Homenas has done his busi. toric had poured in so like a torrent, ness !---Homenas will never preach Nap.daM through the wainscot amongst more while breath is in his body. em, and happening at that uncritical No, faith, I shall never again be able crisis, when Panurge had just put to tickle it off as I have done. I his ugly face into the above faid may fit up whole winter nights ha- posture of defence that he stope king my blood with hectic watch- thort-he did indeed, and though ings, and write as solid as a FATHER his head was full of matter, and of the church-or, I may sit down he had screwed up every nerve and whole summer days evaporating my muscle belonging to it, till all cried fpirits into the finest thoughts, and crack again, in order to give due write as florid as a MOTHER of it.- projectile force to what be was going In a word, I may compose myself off to let fly, full in Longinus. Rabemy legs, and preach till I burst-and laicus's teeth who sat over against when I have done, it will be worse him-yet for all that, he had the than if not done at all. - Pray, Mr. continence to contain himself, for he Such a-one, wba beld fortb last Sunday ? Atopt Thort, I say, without uttering Doctor Clark, I rrow : Says one. Pray one word, except z .... ds. Many what Doctor Clark says a second ? Why reasons may be alligned for this, but Homenas's Doétor Clark, quoth a third. the most true, the most strong, the O rare Homenas! cries a fourth; moft hydrostatical, and the moit phiyour servant Mr. Homenas, quoth a losophical reason, why Panurge did fifth. -'Twill be all over with me, not go on, was—that the foremen. by hear'n-I may as well put the tioned torrent did so drown his voice, hook from whence I took it."Here that he had none left to go on with. Homenas burst into a flood of tears, -God help him, poor fellow! so he which falling down helter skelter, Atopt short (as I have told you before) ding dong, without any kind of in- and all the time Homenas was speak. termilion for fix minutes and almost ing he said not another word, good twenty five seconds, had a marvellous or bad, but stood .gaping, and Itaeffect upon his discourse ; for the ring, like what you please so that aforesaid tears, do you mind, did so the break, marked thus—which Ho. temper the wind that was rising upon menas's grief had made in the middle the aforesaid diicourse, but falling for of his discourse, which he could no the most part perpendicularly, and more help than he could Ay--produhitting the spirits at right angles, ced no other change in the room which were mounting, horizontally where Longinus Rabelaicus, Epifteall over the surface of his harangue, mon, Gymnast, Triboulet, and nine they not only played the devil and all or ten more honeft blades had got kewith the subliinity--but moreover rukopædizing together, but that it the faid tears, by their nitrous qua- gave time to Gymnast to give Panurge lity, did so refrigerate, precipitate,and a good squashing chuck under his hurry down to the bottom of his soul, double chin; which Panurge taking all the unsavory particles which lay in good part, and just as it was meant fermenting (as you saw) in the middle by "Gymnast, he forth with fhut his of his conception, that he went on in mouth-and gently fitting down upon the cooleft and chalteft ftile (for a folia a stool though somewhat excentrically loquy I think) that ever mortal man and out of neighbours row, but listen. uttered.
ing, as all the rest did, with might " This is really and truly a very and main, they plainly and distinctly hard cale, continued Homenas to heard every fyllable of what you will himself”-Panurge, by the bye, and find recorded in the very next chapter. all the company in the next room Alas! poor Yorick ! thou wilt hearing all along every Syllable he write no more chapters.