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Several severe and farcastic obser- the purpose of carrying on governrations were made on the assurances ment, which could not be the case, if given by the minister, relative to the America affumed to herself an indepromised success of the measures re. pendent fovereignty in any one incommended by him in the course of itance, unless one could suppose two the last feilion.' He was frequently re- fuprenie posers existing at one time, minded of his predictions, and notes in the same civil society, an absurdity taken at the time were referred to in too grofs to be endured. one or two instances. He was parti- The speech was supported througlicularly called on to recollect his con- out, as containing the most felf evifidently afferting in debate on the two dent truths. It was strenuously in lift. reftraining bills,

“ That 10000 men, ed on by almost every member who with the Heet then voted, would re. (poke on that fue, that the ultimate duce America without medding a fin. views of America aimed at indepengle drop of blood; that all the southern dance, and that the dependance held provinces were well affected to govern- out by the Congress, is well as all the ment; that in those which had taken subordinate ale oblies, amounted to a decided part, great numbers were no more virtually, than a nominal ready to join the King's troops, when obedience to the person of the Prince they were rendered fufficiently strong on the throne, and a total indepento protect them from the usurpation dence on the British legislature. That and oppression of the factious and le- the actions and language of the coditious ; and in short, the force voted lonies exactly correlponded, for they would be fully adequate to the service were no less affiduous in framing ditfor which it was intended." Those ferent models of governinent, than quotations were prefied with a mix- in raising and embodying armies, colzure of pleafuntry and severity in some lecting .warlike itores, and fitting out instances, and in others, ditplayed in a naval force. That the consequenthe most ridiculous points of view.- ces had clearly Mewn their intentions There was a good deal said on the il- were very different from ours; for legality of introducing foreign troops while we were day after day meditatinto the garrisons of Gibraltar and ing different plans, to avoid proceedPort Malon, without the previous ing to extremities, they under the consent of Parliainent, but as that was malque of loyalty to the King, and debated on the report, and afterwards obedience to the mother country, on a notion framed on purpole, we were making the most vig rous and fjall refer saying any thing on it, till effectual preparations, not only to reit ihall appear in its proper place. fiit our claims, but to make an of.

On the part of adininiftration it was fenfive war on our dominions. That answered, that the supremacy of the the hardhips so loudly echoed from British Parliament over every colony the other side of the House, when and dependency of the British empire, closely examined, would be found to was a clear indisputable propofition have very little weight. The port of nowing as an inevitable consequence Boston was shut up, because the infrom the nature of civil government. habitants refused to make good the That as 'taxation was one particular damage done to the East India commode of exercising that supremacy, pany. The charter of Massachusets it was of courle included in the gene. Bay was altered, its bei aufe powers ral supreme power. That the objec- were manifestly abused, and employed tions made to the exercise of this right to the most factious purposes. Neither were obviated by permitting America of the restraining bills were palled till to tax herself. That the strong argu- the colonies had agreed in congress to a ment used and so much relied on, of non-importation agreement. In Oort, the impropriety of raising a revenue not one of the measures to much comby taxes laid ivy the Britih legislature, plained of, were adopted but by way of no longer exifted, and though it did, retaliation, for some provocation given it ought to give way to the universal by the people of America, or directly axiom, as well in this, as all other go- arising from necessity. In every one of vernments, that there must be a lu. those instances, the point of taxation preme power lodged somewhere for masclearly out of the question : the first

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1776.

PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. w.xs directed to obtain reparation, the most powerful and formidable enemies Taft to prevent them from enjoying were much infifted on, in which our thofe advantages they denyed to tbe uncommon exertions kepi pace with mother country, by prohibiting all their ftrength, and were proportioned intercourse whatever with it.

to the magnitude of the object, and As to the point of expediency in the force and weight of the opposition selation to the measures proposed in we met with. That it was the duty the peech, it admitted of no arzu. as it was the intention of those who meni, for it was now impossible with conducted the affairs of government, propriety to recede. It became no to send a force to America fully adeIonger a contention for a revenue ; quate to its complete reduction ; for to if that were merely the matter in if- protract the miseries and horrors of a fue, it might be prudent to fuspend civil war now, that it became inevita. the claim, till a more cool and favour- bie, would not le lenity but cruelty able foafon, when the colonies might in the extreme; and io accompany be convinced by rober reflection, of those armaments with offers of mercy'. its justice and propriety :' but that and pardon, as was intended, woulu : was not now the quertion, but whether leave America the choice of fubmie. Great Britain ihould should ting to the juft claims of the mother not forever relinquish every species of country, or of being answerable for doninion over America ; and if no. all the consequences be they what they thiog less than a total repeal of all the mighe, if the refused to return to that acts lince 1763 would do, the pavi- state of obedience, and to make a gation act would soon fall on the solemn recognition of those righes of tame grounds, and from that instant supremacy and dominion, which had the coionies would to every subitan- never been till very lately quettioned. tal or uleiul purpofe be as indepen. It was added, by the minister, that it dent of this countiy, as any one so- was intended

our itmeji sereign power in Europe.

strength botli by sea and land, to prain As to the temper and disposition of every nerve, to raile an arıny of 70000 foreign powers, 'it was said that Great men, and a proportionate Acei ; in Britain never stood in a better or more Thort, every man we were able to raise, enerbairailed fituation with them, or able to pay. than at the present period. It was nevertheless impossible to be responsible for their conduct, or to forefee HOUSE of LORDS. by what motives of policy they might bé actuased. In either event this coun. The debates in the House of Lorde, try had only to confider, whether she though spirited, did not take in the onght to permit the dismemberment extent, nor afford the variety as those of her dominions upon a bare poffin

carried on in the Commons. As soon bility, that soine of the powers of is the king departed, after deliverEurope might take an opportunity of ing bis speech, a noble lord [Lord attacking us, while we were engaged Townsend) moved the addrel, in in the act of compelling our rebellious answe to his Majetty's most graSubjects to return to a conftitutional cious speech from the throne. His and Izgal subinillion and obedience. lordfhip was seconded by lord vir.

And on the impracticalility of coerc- count Dudley. The propofed ad. ing Amerita, it was contended that dress was couched in the rerms vlua the trength, numerous resources, al on such occasions, wilich is little and above all, the lig! lpirit of the more than a repetition of the speech, Britich nation were fully equal to the paragraph by paragraphi, accompa; task. It was to be sure an undertak. nied wiib declarations of relpect and ing of difficulty, but the in'erefts, approbation. The two points chicay honour, and constitutional rignis of inlisted on in the motion were, that if the nation were not on that account we did not resolve to relinquiíh our to be lacrificed and surrendered. The dominion over the colonies, and fore. difficulties were to be overcome, not go all the advantages derived from yielded to. The many successful wars our commerce with them, coercive Carried on by this country, againit the measures were necessary, and that our

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great resources, and the known disposi-. this day strengthened by the duke of tion of the other powers of Europe,ren- Grafton, fill a cabinet minister, the dered their succeis not only probable, bishop of Peterborough, and lord but certain.

Thanet. Tlie arguments resorted to An amendment, literally the same on both sides were preity nearly the with that moved in the other Houit, fame as in the other House, but was proposed by a noble Marquis that the in!ormation fo necessary to (Marquis of Rockingham) and le procede the adopting of the measures conded by lord Coventry, which pro- chalked out in the speech, and the duced a 'debate that continued till pait probable means of executing them, eleven o'clock, when the question be- were inuch more insisted on by the oping put, there appeared contents for position, and that administration openthe amendment: 29, non-contents, 80: ly cortified they had been deceivid in the original motion then returned of the accounts they received of the Atate, course, contents 76, non-contents 33, condition, and disposition of the peoproxies included. Opposition was ple of America.

A

To be EDITOR of the LONDON MAGAZINE. SIR, Gentleman, well acquainted with Por. racter.—The measures he has pursued with

the church, were cictated by the soundeft dores of the prime minifter of that kingdom, policy; and it must be allowed, it required which ceriainly cannot be unacceptable to sume exertion of power to go through with yoor readers, nor uninteresting to the public. them. They cannot fail promoung the

H. increase of population; and it is to be hoped Tha Marquis de Pombul, though confider- that future reigns, unfettered from the ed as a great man in many paris of Europe, chains of the pricits, will, restore vigour to is not lo esteemed by his own courtrymen,

the laws. wbu are not so blind but they can easily dis- As to his family, his ancestors were cover when the inier est of the state is facri what we call Homcms Branco (white men) ficed to the advantage of individuals, or in short, his father was a provincial gentleluffers by a ruinous pulicy. The Portuguese man in low circumstances in the north of are more burdened at this present time, than Portugal - he served during his younger any former period ; for belides the establish. years in the army, beginning, as was the ed revenues of past reigns, the king now cultom of those days, with a musket-he arreceives from a late tax the whole riches rived to the rank of lieutenant, but was af. of his subjects once in ten years ;. Our com- terwa:ds dismissed the service as a bad offi. merce languishes, and is almost ruined by cer.-He then came to Lisbon to follicit some the monopolizing companies of the Brazil place in the civil department; and as he trade; the laws are trampled upon, and even had received a liberal education, he found private property is not secure against his vena- means to get employment in one of the pub. lity; the army is like a body without a soul; lic offices-he afterwards had the address to jo short, he has exhibited luch instances of recommend himself to the people who were

rigour and cruelly, that he is the dread of then in power, and was appointed suc efsive• the whole nation. Every domestic confidence ly as envoy to the courts of London, Paris,

is destroyed by the cmillaries he is known the Hague, and Vienna. At this laft, he to employ. Perhaps, when his avarice is was married to a German of distinction; by fatiated, and he is arrived at the summit of which means he strengthened his interest at power, he may, like Auguftus, do good to home; for the then queen of Portugal was mankind; but believe me, at present there of the Houle of Austria, and he managed to is no order, no rank in society, but what get so much into the good graces of her detests him; and surely if he was a great majesty, that at his return he had the art to man, he would at least have some party to supplant the secretary, through whose procspouse his caule.-I mean not, however, to tection I have understood he had been depreciate what there is valuable in his cha- raised."

1776.

17

,

got bold of.

A FRAGMENT from STERNE, after the Manner of RABELAIS.
CH A P. I.

he, interrupting them both and resuSbewing two Things; first, what 2 ming his discourse, is this, that if all

Rabelaic Fellow Longinus Rabeiai- the scattered rules of the Kerukopædia cus is, and secondly, bozu cavalierly could be but once carefully coilccied be begins bis Bosk.

into one code, as thick as Panurge's

head, and the whole clearly digetted Y dear and thrice reverend (pooh, lays Panurze, who felt himand bishops, as the rest of the inferior pued Longinus, by way of a regular clergy! would it not be a glorious institute, and then put into the hands thing, if any man of genius and ca- of every licensed pre cher in Great pacity amongit us for such a work, Britain and Ireland, just before he ben was fully bent within himself, to fit gan to compore, I maintain it-I down immediately and compose a deny it Hatiy, quoth Panurge-What? thorough-ititched system of the Ke. answered Longinus Rabelaicus with rukopædia, fairly setting fortli, to all the temper in the world. the bett of his wit and memory, and collecting for that purpose all that is

CH A P. II. needful to be known, and understood In which the Reader will begin to form of that art!--Of what art cried a fudgment, of what an Hiflorical, Panurge ? Good God, answered Lon- Dramatical, Anecdotical, Alegorical, ginus (making an exclamation, but and Comical Kind of a Work be bas, taking care at the same time to mo. derate his voice) why, of the art of making all kinds of your theological,

TOMENAS who had to preach H

next Sunday (before God knows drummical what d'ye call 'ems---! whom) knowing nothing at all of the will be shot, quoth Epistemon, if all matter-was all this while at it as this story of thine of a roasted horse, hard as he could drive in the very is fimply no more than S.

next room :-for having fouled two Sausages ? quoth Panurge. Thou balt clean theets of his own, and being fallen twelve feet and about five quite stuck fast in the entrance upon inches below the mark, answered his third general division, and finding Epistemon, for I hold them to be Ser. himself unable to get either formons — which said word (as I take wards or backwards with any grace the matter) being bui a word of low - Curse it,” says he, (thereby exdegree, for a book of high rhetoric communicating every mother's son

Longinus Rabelaicus was fore. who thould think differently) “ why minded to usher and lead into his may not a man lawfully call in for dissertation, with as much pomp and help in this, as well as any other huparade as he could afford; and for man emergency ?"-So without any my own part, either I know no more more argumentation, except starting of Latin than my horse, or the Ke- up and nimming down from the top rukopædia is nothing but the art of thelf but one, the second volume of making 'em And why not, quoth CLARK-though without any feloni. Gymnaft, of preaching them when we ous intention in so doing, he had behave done ?-Believe me, dear fouls, gun to clap 'me in (making a joint this is half in half and if some first)five whole pages, nine round paraskilful body would but put us in a way grap!ıs, and a dozen and a half of to do this to some tune- Thou wouldit good thoughts all of a row; and be. not have them chanted surely, quoth cause there was a confounded high galTriboulet, laughing ?-No, nor cant. lery-was transcribing it away like a ed neither, quoin Gymnast crying ;- little devil. ---Now, quoth Homenas but what I mean, my friends, lays to himself, “ though I hold all this to Longinus Rabelaicus (who is certainly be fair and square, yet, if I am found one of the greatest criticks in the out, there will be the deuce and all to western world, and as Rabelaic a fel. pay. Why are the bells ringing low as ever exifted) what I inean, says backwards, jou lad ? what is all that Jan. 1776.

D

crowd

crowd about, boneft man? Homenas fpoke; for you must know, that was goe upon Doctor Clark's back, notwithstanding Panurge had opened fisand zehat of that, my lad? Why his inouth as wide as he could for an pleaje yứu, be bas broke his neck, and his blood, in order to give a round fratiured his skull, and befouled himself answer to Longinus Rabelaicus's in. into the bargain, by a fall from the pul. terrogation, which concluded the pit iwo Nories big h. Alas! poor Ho. last chapter - yet Homenas's rhemenas ! Homenas has done his busi. toric had poured in so like a torrent, ness !--- Homenas will never preach Nap dash through the wainscot amongst more while breath is in his body.- them, and happening at that uncritical No, faith, I shall never again be able crisis, when Panurge had just put to tickle it off as I have done. I his ugly face into the above faid may fit up whole winter nights ha- posture of defence that he stopt king my blood with hectic watch- thort-he did indeed, and though ings, and write as solid as a FATHER his head was full of matter, and of the church-or, I may sit down he had screwed up every nerve and whole summer days evaporating my muscle belonging to it, till all cried fpirits into the finest thoughts, and crack again, in order to give a due write as forid as a MOTHER of it.- projectile' force to what be was going In a word, I may compose myself off to let fly, full in Longinus. Řabemy legs, and preach till I burit-and laicus's teeth who fat over against when i have done, it will be worse him-yet for all that, he had the than if not done at all.- -Pray, Mr. continence to contain himself, for he Such a-one, wba beld fortb last Sunday ? stopt tort, I say, without uttering Doctor Clark, I rrow : says one. Pray one word, except z ....ds. - Many what Doctor Clark says a second ? Why reasons may be alligned for this, but Homenas's Doctor Clark, quoth a third. the most true, the most strong, the Orare Homenas! cries a fourth; moft hydrostatical, and the most phi. your servant Mr. Homenas, quoth a losophical reason, why Panurge did fifth. -'Twill be all over with me, not go on, was-that the foremenby heav'n-I may as well put the tioned torrent did so drown his voice, book from whence I took it."--Here that he had none left to go on with. Homenas burst into a flood of tears, -God help him, poor fellow! so he which falling down helter skelter, stopt short (as I have told you before) ding dong, without any kind of in- and all the time Homenas was speak. termilion for fix minutes and almost ing he said not another word, good twenty five feconds, had a marvellous or bad, but stood .gaping, and Itaeffect upon his discourse ; for the ring, like what you pleate so that aforesaid tears, do you mind, did so the break, marked thuswhich Ho. temper the wind that was rising upon menas's grief had made in the middle the aforesaid diicourse, but falling for of his discourse, which he could no the most part perpendicularly, and more help than he could fly---produhitting the fpirits at right angles, ced no other change in the room which were mounting, horizontally where Longinus Rabelaicus, Episteall over the surface of his harangue, mon, Gymnast, Triboulet, and nine they not only played the devil and all or ten more honeft blades had got kewith the sublinity--but moreover rukopædizing together, but that it the said tears, by their nitrous qua- gave time to Gymnaft to give Panurge lity, did fo refrigerate, precipitate, and a good squathing chuck under his hurry down to the bottom of his soul, double chin ; which Panurge taking all toe unsavory particles which lay in good part, and just as it was meant fermenting (as you saw) in the middle by Gymnast, he forth with shut his of his conception, that he went on in mouth-and gently fitting down upon the cooleft and chalteft ftile (for a soli- a stool thougli somewhat excentrically loquy I think) that ever mortal man and out of neighbours row, but liftenuttered.

ing, as all the rest did, with miglit “ This is really and truly a very and main, they plainly and distinctly hard case, continued Homenas to heard every syllable of what you will himself”—P:nurge, by the bye, and find recorded in the very next chapter, all the company in the next room Alas! poor Yorick ! thou wilt hearing all along every fyllable he write no more chapters.

For

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