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lor of Trinity College, he took that seminary into his particular care and patronage, instituting anew all the literary exercises, together with the long neglected degrees in arts, and the several professorships ; and presented the college with Primate Usher's noble library, which he had purchased with his own money. He was easy of access, and affable to all ; often entertaining at his table, even fequestered perfons, and remitting to them one half of those large sums with which they were taxed for their loyalty. Far · from being maddened with the enthusiasm of the times, he restored religion to some sort of decency ; gave back fome churches, which were occupied by the Anabaptists, to the foriner incumbents; and even had a newborn child of his own publicly baptized in the cathedral of Dublin, a ceremony not seen there of a long time before."

Had he been endowed with fortitude equal to his justice and benevolence, his government would have been signalized by an act, that would have made some atonement for his father's usurpation, and parricide. He once ? promised to declare for the king ; the city of Dublin had undertaken to stand by him, and the Lord of Ards engaged to draw twenty thousand men together in the North, in support of that design ; but, upon the receipt of letters from England, the very next day after he had made the promise, his spirits failed him. The king's friends in Dublin justly complained on that occafion, - that no commissions had been sent them, nor any persons appointed to command them in such an attempt. If these precautions had been used, they could have easily, at that juncture, seized upon the castle.'

Of his integrity and disinterestedness, he gave many signal proofs, during his administration; but none fo signal, or indeed so unprecedented, as that which appeared at the conclufion of it. “For upon his “ recall from Ireland, although he had held the government

of

Sir Ed. Hyde's Lett, to the Marquis of Orin. Cart. Coll. vol.

.

3 Id. ib. 4 Warn. Irish Rebel.

ii. p. 242

of that kingdom four years, he was not master of money enough, after all, to carry him back to England; and was, therefore, under the necessity to crave some from thence for that purpose.”'

What pity it was, that such a man as this, thould be placed at the head of a nation, without any other power but merely that of executing designs planned for its destruction in another kingdom! To enforce ordinances, by which those who dared to profess the religion of their consciences, or had not manifested their constant good affections to the usurpation; and also the constant good affections of those ancestors from whom any estates descended to them, and had not already proved the same, and obtained judgment thereof, were adjudged rebels convict, attainted of high treason, and to have forfeited all their honours, estates and preferments. With what regret must such a chief governor have beheld those numerous rapines, and murders, that

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o In those days, the name of Irishman and rebel was thought to fignify the same thing. For whenever the Cromwellians met any of the poor country people abroad, or discovered them lurking from their fury in dens and caverns, they killed them on the spot, if some unusual or whimsical circumstance did not happen to save them. Thus Ludlow tells us, “that being on his march, an advanced party found two of the rebels ; one of whom, says he, was killed by the guard before I came up; the other was saved, and being brought before me, I asked him, if he had a mind to be hanged ? And he only answered, if you please.

So infenfibly stupid, adds he, were many of these poor creatures." Mem. vol. in At another time he tells us, he found some poor people retired within a hollow rock

; which,” he says, “was so thick that he thought it impossible to dig it down upon them, and therefore resolved to reduce them by smoak. After some of his men had spent most part of the day in endeavouring to smother those within by fire placed at the mouth of the cave, they withdrew the fire ; and the next morning fuppofing the Irish to be made incapable of resistance by the smoak, some of them crawled into the rock; but one of the Irish, with a pistol, shot the first of his men, by which he found the smoak had not taken the designed effect; because though a great smoak went

were daily committed by his foldiers on that miserable people, not only with impunity, but even by his own constrained order, or connivance. But injustice and cruelty had then the sanction of law; and, in so dismal a conjuncture, it is not, perhaps, less meritorious to employ power to prevent the increase of evil (as he often did his) than it is, in better and more equitable times, to exert its authority and influence for the promotion of actual good.

CHAP

into the cavity of the rock, yet it came out again at other crevices ; upon which he ordered those places to be closely stopped, and another smoak to be made ; and the fire was continued till about midnight ; and then taken away, that the place might be cool enough for his men to enter the next morning; at which time they went in armed with back, breaft, and head-piece, found the man, who had fired the pistol dead; and put about fifteen to the sword; but brought four or five out alive, with priests robes, a crucifix, chalice, and other furniture of that kind (but no arms.) Those, within," says he, “ preserved themselves by laying their heads close to a water, that ran through the rock. We found two rooms in the place, one of which was large enough to turn a pike.” Such were the enemies whose lives these gallant regicides were incessantly hunting after. A score of despoiled people, lurking in caverns from the fury of their pursuers, and furnished but with one piftol to guard the entrance of their hiding place! From the character of these barbarians, we may well believe (though Ludlow does not mention it) that those four or five wretches, whom they brought alive out of the rock, foon after met with the fate of their companions.

c It is affirmed, that the Dutchess of Ormond, after the restoration, begged the king on her knees, that Henry Cromwell might enjoy the estate given to him in Ireland by his father during his protectorship ; which was granted, because Oliver had given her poffeffion of three thousand pounds a year for her jointure, out of her own estate. Unkind Deserter, p. 139.

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V.

Contrivances of Sir Charles Coote and Lord Broghill.

“THE

HE' king's interest had been so totally extinguished in Ireland, for many years past, that there was no perfon of any consideration there, who pretended to revive it. At the death of Cromwell, and at the deposition of his son Richard, Henry Cromwell was invested with the full authority in Ireland; the two presidents of Munster and Connaught, were Lord Broghill and Sir Charles Coote, both equally depending on the lord lieutenant; and they the more depended upon him, and courted his protection, by their not loving one another, though still agreeing in a long aversion to the king, by multiplications of guilt. Amidst the many succeeding changes in the government, the two presidents remained in their several provinces, with full power ; either because they had not deserved to be suspected, or because they could not be easily removed.” Some suspicion, however, there was of Lord Broghill, which he took uncommon pains to remove; for, but a few months before the king was restored, he wrote to Secretary Thurloe,' “ that he had heard, he and his friends were misrepresented in England, as persons, that intended to set up for themselves, and to make Ireland a back door to let Charles Stewart into England ; and thereby, at one blow, to cut up by the roots the precious rights they had been so long contending for. But he professed, that he knew nothing further from the thoughts of all his acquaintance and friends ; for that interest, as well as duty, would keep them from so ruinous a wickedness.” a

In

· Clarend. Life, vol. ii. p. 107.

2 War. Hift. Ir. Reb.

Broghill's biographer, panegyrist and chaplain, tells us, that at a council of the usurpers in the time of Richard Crom

well,

In the confusion that now arose, from different revolutions in the state, Sir Charles Coote took an oppørtunity to send an express to the king, with a tender of his obedience, and with great cautions, as to the time of appearing ; only desiring,' “ to have such commissions in his hands, as might be applied to his majesty's service in a proper conjuncture; which were sent to him, and never made use of by him. He expressed great jealousy of Broghill, and unwillingness that he should know of his engagement. Coote found assistance to seize upon the castle of Dublin, and the persons of those that were in authority, who were imprisoned by him; and the government was settled in such a manner, as was thought most agreeable to the presbyterian humour; until, upon the king's restoration, General Monck was declared lord lieutenant of Ireland ; soon after which, the king was proclaimed at Dublin, and in every other part of the kingdom.”

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CH A P.

3 Clarend. ubi supra.

well, “ he offered a test to purge the army, which was, that all should be turned out of it who would not swear to defend the government as it was then established under the protector and parliament.” Morrice's Mem. prefixed to Orrery's State Letters,

P. 56.

But even after the king was proclaimed, “ the pulpits, filled with Scots covenanters, rang with nothing but warm exhortations to stand by the covenant, even unto blood, virulent invectives against the bishops and vehement harangues against episcopacy and liturgies. These were the only subjects of their preachings for four months together.” Cart. Orm. vol. ii. f. 208.

«°It was by the underhand encouragement of some great men (who did not care to declare themselves openly) that the sectaries

fo bold at this time, as to petition against bishops, and so refractory as to insult the laws, which obliged them to conformity.” Id. ib. f. 210.

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