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year before, by the presbytery of Bangor; . with this difference, that the former, as we have seen, had some provocation given them, which the latter could not pretend.

For on the conclusion of the peace in 1648, the king having sent a commission to Hugh Viscount Montgomery of Ards, to command all the forces within that province, his lordship thought it necessary to fignify to his majesty's subjects of Ulster his investiture with that commission, and accordingly published a declaration, July 4th, 1649, for that purpose.

A presbytery was thereupon convened at Bangor, July 7th, in which a declaration was drawn up, containing several virulent reflections on his lordship. He is therein charged, among other things,' “ with lifting up his hand against them ; with betraying the covenant ; with owning King Charles the second ; with cloathing himself with a commission from him; with receiving commands from the Marquis of Ormond, and joining with malignants, who blafphemed the covenant. For this cause,” said they, “ as embassadors of Christ, we beseech the people,“ in his stead,” not to join hands to such a course, not to join in executing fuch a com


See Presbyterian Loyalty, p. 256.

a The 10,oco Scots, that were sent about the year 1642 into Ulster by the English parliament, “ were poffefféd of Carrickfergus

as their head quarters, brought over their ministers along with them, who being of the presbyterian persuasion (says my author) did associate for the exercise of discipline; and such ministers of the same persuasion as then resided in the kingdom joined with them, and founded a presbytery, which was that very presbytery who framed the declaration at Bangor in 1649. The Lord Viscount of Ards and the Lord Viscount of Claneboy, Thewed an early zeal for the interest of the presbytery ; for on the 19th of July, 1642, (which was but nine days after their first meeting) my Lord of Ards sent Capt. Magill to the presbytery then met at Carrickfergus, with a message to them, promising that he would join with them in discipline, and my Lord Claneboy writ them a letter, delivered the very fame day, and giving the same assurance for himself, as my Lord of Ärds had done by his message.” Presbyter. Loyalty, p. 253:

mission, by serving either as officers or soldiers, or they shall wring the dregs of the cup, which the malignants have been drinking these many years past. We do also, in the name of Jesus Christ, warn the people of our charge from all compliance with their ungodly course, either by speaking favourably of them, acknowledging the authority of the present command under the Marquis of Ormond and the Lord of Ards by imposing cess for the maintenance of their unlaw ful

power; or by obeying their orders, or paying cess to their army, or supplying them with that which is the finews of war, money and victuals." b

I have said that the presbytery at Bangor could not pretend fuch provocation for this outrage on the royal authority, as the congregation at James-town really had; for, by the king's having taken the covenant, the latter were threatened openly with the utter extirpation of their religion, but the presbytery were promised, and assured of the preservation, and extension of theirs. Lord Montgomery,' who was himself a zealous presbyterian, folemnly engaged in his declaration,' “ in the presence of God, that he would use his uttermost endeavours, while he was entrusted with power, to countenance and assist the exercise of their religion, as it was then practised; and likewise, that


2 Ib. p. 409.

5 In February 1649, “ the general assembly of the church of Scotland had set them an example, by publishing à remonftrance wherein, “ they declared, and folemnly protested, among other things, against the Lord of Ards and others having entered into a peace and association with the Marquis of Ormond, that they might the more easily carry on the old designs of the popish, prelatical and malignant party.” See Borl. Hist. of the Rebel.

c« In April following, 1650, this fame Lord of Ards, Lord Moor, and Colonel Trevor, came from the Irish quarters to Oliver Cromwell at Clonmell, soon after he had taken that town, to render themselves to him, being persons of great note and eminence in the kingdom, and the first of quality of the protestant party, that came from the Irish army unto them.” Borl. Hist. of the Irish Rebel. Append. fol. 22.

fol. 289.

he would solicit his majesty, and, (as he had good grounds to hope) with success, for a confirmation under his hand.” And, two days before that declaration issued,' Lord Inchiquino wrote to the same presbytery, “ that he being a well-wisher to the presbyterian government, and honoured with a public trust by his majesty, knew that his majesty was resolved, for their satisfaction, to establish the presbyterian government in them parts; and, he believed, in other parts also of the kingdom. And no man knows,” adds his lordship, “ whether the whole number of protestants may not agree to embrace it.”

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The total defection of the protestant forces. SHORTLY after the presbytery's declaration was published, there was such a general defection in the northern army, that the Marquis of Ormond told the king, in December 1649,' “ that his majesty might account that province, if not wholly lost, yet in a low and desperate condition; and that he expected to be strongly invaded from thence next summer.” In that letter it was, that he desired his majesty's permission to withdraw himself out of the kingdom,' “ because it was unable of itself, and without powerful aids from abroad, to resist the growing power of the rebels.” Yet, when his lordship did withdraw himself, some months after, he greatly encreased these rebels power, by permitting, or rather transmitting, the forces then under his immediate command to join and assist them. For, when he


3 Presbyterian Loyalty, p. 409. · Carte's Orm. vol. ii, p. 422.

3 Id. ib.

Borlase says, " that amongst the presbyterians he went for a patron.” Irish Rebel. fol. 243. He says also, " that the Lord of Ards (a little before this) had been chosen by the presbyterian ministers, their commander in chief, thereby poilefling himself of Carrickfergus and Belfast.” Ib. fol. 273.

was preparing to leave the kingdom, and had designed Lord Clanrickard for his deputy,“ he permitted,” says the Earl of Orrery,

“ all those worthy protestants, who, till then, had ferved under him, to come off to the rest of the protestants, though then headed by Ireton himself, esteeming them fafer with that real regicide, fo accompanied, than with those pretended antiregicides, fo principled.” How these (as he is pleased to call the confederates) pretended antiregicides were principled, with respect to his majesty's service, sufficiently appears from what has been already related.* Nor, indeed, was Ormond himself unconscious, that both their attachment to his majesty, and opposition to these rebels, were real and permanent. "For when upon a 4 former occasion, he solicited leave from the English parliament, to transport five thousand foot, and five hundred horsemen, together with himself, out of the kingdom into France, in order to obtain their consent, he observed, " that it would be a sure means of ridding their partizans in Ireland of many unsure friends among the king's party, as well as many certain enemies among the Irish and the coy facilitate the reduction of the kingdom to their obedience. Thus were many of those protestant forces, under his excellency, whom he calls the king's party, acknowledged by himself to be friends to the English rebels, though unsure, and the confederate Irish catholics to be their certain enemies.

By this great accession of forces, permitted to these real regicides, the ruin of Ireland was quickly completed. Such permiffion, however, was perfectly confonant to his excellency's former agreement in 1647, when he delivered up all his power and authority to the


3 Answer to Walsh.

4 In the year 1647 s Cart. Orm. vol. i. fol. 603.

*" It may be (says P. Walth) that the Earl of Orrery himself is a witness beyond all exception, that the Irish catholics were the last in the three kingdoms that laid down their arms, and gave over fighting for the royal cause.” Reply to a Person of Quality, p. 50.

same party. And in fact, had any comment been wanting to explain the motives of that agreement, this permission would be a very full, and clear one ; for, as the fame Lord Orrery obferves, and seems to appeal to Ormond himself, then lord lieutenant of Ireland, for the truth of the whole passage, “ certainly, he esteemed those lefs ill, to whom he sent his friends, than those from whom he sent them ;” and consequently, was more solicitous for the interests and success of the former, than for those of the latter; which, surely, was besides, an unpardonable imposition on his truly noble friend, the Marquis of Clanrickard; with whom in appearance, he left the government of the kingdom, but in reality, by that permission, deprived him of the means of defending and preserving it.

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Treaty with the Duke of Lorrain. DISTRESSED as the confederate catholics now were, and deserted By all the protestant forces of the kingdom, their fidelity and zeal for his majesty's service remained unaltered. While the general assembly was still sitting at Loughréa, very favourable offers of accommodation were sent them by the regicides, which they not only rejected, but they also prevailed on the deputy' to issue a proclamation, declaring all thofe of their communion, guilty of high treason, and punishable with death, who should aid or aflift them, and such as were already with them, and did not quit their service in fourteen days, were, by the same proclamation, made liable to the fame punishment. The bishops likewise, present in that assembly, denounced excommunication against all catholics, who either served under the regicides, or entered into any treaty of pacification with them.


• Orrery, ubi fupra.

Cart. Orm. vol. i. fol. 144. Borl. Irish Rebel. fol. 340. 2 Carte, ib.

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