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occasion. In one of them to Secretary Nicholas, who, he knew, was averse to that measure, he seems to have clearly foreseen all the evils that were likely to attend it; for he tells him, that, “ unless ? his majesty was resolved to deliver up both himself and his people to the covenant and presbytery, he would not go to Scotland; and that the covenant was inconsistent with the peace he had concluded with the Irish, and which his majesty had confirmed.” But from what we find in a private letter of Lord Byron's, who was then with the king at Breda, to his excellency, it appears that he secretly abetted, and promoted, that design. For Lord Byron told him, “ that, in order to what he found was his lordship's opinion, concerning his majefty's conjunction with the Scots, he had contributed his best endeavours to the effecting of it; and that his majesty would begin his journey in a few days, and had commanded him (Byron) to attend him thither.” And the king himself, in a letter to the marquis, January 16th, 1649, says, you will perceive by my public letter, that I have resolved of a treaty with my subjects of Scotland, whereunto I was principally induced by that relation which Harry Seymour made to me, from you, of the state of things in Ireland.” a

Accordingly, his majesty, having agreed with the Scotch commissioners, left Breda, and arrived in Scot. land, on the 23d of June 1650, O. S. but before they fuffered him to land,' they obliged him to sign both the covenants, national and solemn. . And, in about two

months 2 Carte's Orm. vol. iii. fol. 607. 3 Cart. Orig. Papers, vol. i. p: 333.

4 Ib. vol. ii.

p..423 5 Sir Edward Walker's Historic. Discours.

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• And Seymour himself, in a letter to the Marquis of Ormond of the 15th of March following, tells him, “ that his arrival from Ireland was so feasonable as to interrupt the breach with the Scots, which was in a very forward way, proceeding from the misinformations of the marquis's successes; but that his excellency's truer informations by him, not only changed that defign, but gave a dispatch in two days to Mr. Windram, the Scots commissioner, which he had in vain folicited fix weeks before, without the least advance." Cart. Collect. of Orig. Pap. vol. i. р. 3б;


months after, he was prevailed upon to publish a declaration, “that he would have no enemies but the enemies of the covenant ; and that he did detest, and abhor all popery, superstition and idolatry, together with prelacy; resolving not to tolerate, much less to allow those,

any part of his dominions, and to endeavour the extirpation thereof to the utmost of his power.” And with regard to the peace lately concluded with the confederates, and confirmed by himself, he expressly pronounced it null and void ; adding, “ that he was convinced in his conscience of the sinfulness and unlawful. ness of it, and of his allowing them (the confederates) the liberty of the popish religion ; for which he did, from his heart, desire to be deeply humbled before the Lord; and for having fought unto such unlawful help, for the restoring of him to his throne.”

What opinion one of his majesty's own secretaries had of this declaration, appears from his letter to the Marquis of Ormond, January 25th, 1650, “ when I consider," says he,“ this infamous declaration, which the Scots compelled the king to publish, and are still resolved to have his majesty make good (though not only all the king's party, but even strangers that have any sense of honour, or conscience, declaim against it), I cannot so much as hope, that they intend any good or safety to his majesty, whom they have so wickedly and notoriously abused.” Most certain it is, that after this declaration was known in England,

many people there, who were before averse to the parliament's measures, freely and voluntarily enlisted in their armies to fight against the Scots."



6 Cart. Orig. Pap. vol. i. p. 400.

7 Id. ib. p. 417

b« Nothing could be more convenient for the congregation of prelates, (soon after afsembled at James-town) and their purpose of enflaming the people, than this virulent declaration. They imputed it entirely to the representations of the Marquis of Ormond.” Lel. Hift. of Irel. vol. iii.

P: 376.

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The king secretly regrets this measure. His majesty did not become guilty, all at once, of this open violation of the public faith.“ Before he left Breda he yielded thus far to the Scotch commissioners, that if a free parliament in the kingdom of Scotland should so think fitting, he would then find some way, how with honour and justice, he might make void the Irish peace. In the mean time his majesty would by no means permit that any such thing should be inserted in the body of the articles of agreement; and it was concluded, that that business should remain in a distinct paper in the Earl of Caffell's hands, in regard of the dishonour it might bring on the Marquis of Ormond, and his majesty's friends in Ireland. No sooner was this done, but his majesty laboured immediately to inform Ormond of what had passed ; and Mr. Richard Weston was dispatched, on the 16th of May, from Breda, and one hundred and fifty pounds given him to defray his charges. But when his majesty came into Scotland, he found him there, alleging, “ that he was not permitted by the Scots to proceed in his journey; at which his majesty was exceedingly troubled, but saw plainly, it was a contrivance between him (Weston), Lord Wilmot and the Scots.

“ After his majesty had put to sea, the Scotch commiffioners fhewed him new and higher propositions from the kingdom of Scotland; which were, that unless his majesty would immediately take the covenant, and, in terminis, break the peace with the Irish, he was not to be received into Scotland; at which he was fo much disgusted, that he resolved to lay aside all thoughts of going thither, upon such terms. But, overcome with the entreaties of his servants, he yielded in terminis, to the breach of the peace with the Irish,


· Cart. Colle&t. Orig. Pap. vol. i. p. 391.

1 Ib.

conditionally, that it should not be published, until his majesty had acquainted the Marquis of Ormond and his friends in Ireland with it."

At the same time that the Scots detained Weston in Scotland, and by that means prevented Ormond's earlier and particular knowledge of this transaction, “ they dispatched several of their ministers to the Laggan and Clanboys in the north of Ireland;" who, doubtless, proclaimed aloud the news of the king's having consented to take the covenant, and to declare the late peace void ; being afsured, that nothing could more alienate the affections of the Irish from his majesty, or set them at greater variance among themselves, than such intelligence. In May, 1650, the Marquis of Ormond had + < heard by reports, which he thought probable, that the king had agreed with the Scots.” And he afterwards expressed his apprehension, " that great advantage was left to such as were industrious to draw the Irish from their allegiance, by infusing into them a belief, that his majesty, having taken, or approved, the covenant, they were deprived of the benefit of the peace, and left to the extirpation, which the covenant proposes, of their religion and persons.”

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Proceedings of the bishops at James-town. THE confederates being now alarmed by repeated accounts of the king's having taken the covenant, not without a well grounded fufpicion, that Ormond had approved of, and advised, that measure ; feveral of their bishops assembled at James-town, in order to con


3 Cart. Orm, vol. ii. fol. III. 4 Cart. Orig. Pap.

s Ib. vol. ii. fol. 442.

a The Marquis of Ormond in a letter from Ennis, 25th of June, 1650, says, “ that the report of his majesty's being then agreed with his subjects of Scotland, was given out among the rebels." Cart. Orig. Pap. vol. ii. p. 433.

sult what was fit to be done on so important an emergency; where taking into consideration, the fad condition to which their nation and religion must neceffarily be reduced by such an event; and mindful of a resolution they had formerly, with good reason, entered into, that in case of a breach or disavowal of the peace, on the part of his majesty or lord lieutenant, they would return to their original confederacy, as the likeliest means to hinder their people from closing with the parliament, “ they now fell to deliberate on the most effectual way of putting that resolution in practice; and, at length, determined to recall and withdraw, on the peril of ecclesiastical censure, all those of their communion, from the Marquis of Ormond's command." I Wherefore, on the 12th of August, 1650, they drew up and signed an excommunication against all such catholics as should enlist under, feed, help, or adhere to his excellency; or assist him with men, money, or any other supplies whatsoever."

To this excommunication (which, though thus haltily drawn up, was not published till the 15th of the following month) a limitation was annexed, “ that the next general assembly, which was soon to meet at Loughrea, should dispose of it as they thought proper.” But that assembly not having met at the appointed time ; and fresh and undoubted intelligence arriving daily, that his majesty had taken the covenant, and made void the peace, (the only security that was left them for their religion, liberty, lives and fortunes) these bishops, on the 15th of September, 1650, published their excommunication in the usual form. At the same time, they unanimously resolved, pursuant to their association-oath, still faithfully to serve the king against the regicides, and to use all the means in their



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a « On account of the king's disavowal of Glamorgan's peace, and his being prevailed on by the Scots to make void that which had been concluded with the Marquis of Ormond in 1646, by his own reiterated commands.

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